Aplodinotus grunniens - Rafinesque, 1819
Freshwater Drum
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Aplodinotus grunniens Rafinesque, 1819 (TSN 169364)
French Common Names: malachigan
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.100338
Element Code: AFCQH01010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - Other Bony Fishes
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Perciformes Sciaenidae Aplodinotus
Genus Size: A - Monotypic genus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Aplodinotus grunniens
Taxonomic Comments: Monotypic genus; the only North American freshwater representative of a large family.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 25Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range in freshwater habitats in central and eastern North America; common; no major threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (09Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S4), Colorado (SNA), Georgia (S3S4), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S5), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S5), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (S4S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (SNR), Montana (S4), Nebraska (S5), New Mexico (SX), New York (S2), North Carolina (S1), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S4), Oklahoma (S5), Pennsylvania (S5), South Dakota (S5), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5), Vermont (S4), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S5), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada Manitoba (S5), Ontario (S5), Quebec (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to northern Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan, and south to the Gulf Coast; Gulf Coast drainages from the Mobile Bay system, Alabama and Georgia, through eastern Mexico to the Rio Usumacinta system, Guatemala (Page and Burr 2011).

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations (see map in Lee et al. 1980).

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 100,000. This fish is common in many areas of its large range.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-30%
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but likely relatively stable.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) Range includes the St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to northern Manitoba and southern Saskatchewan, and south to the Gulf Coast; Gulf Coast drainages from the Mobile Bay system, Alabama and Georgia, through eastern Mexico to the Rio Usumacinta system, Guatemala (Page and Burr 2011).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, COexotic, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NMextirpated, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, VA, VT, WI, WV, WYexotic
Canada MB, ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
GA Catoosa (13047), Gordon (13129)
NC Madison (37115)
NY Chautauqua (36013), Erie (36029), Monroe (36055)
VA Lee (51105)*, Russell (51167)*, Scott (51169), Wise (51195)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Missisquoi (02010007)
03 Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102)+, Oostanaula (03150103), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Lower Alabama (03150204), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Buttahatchee (03160103), Luxapallila (03160105), Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Sipsey (03160107), Noxubee (03160108), Mulberry (03160109), Sipsey Fork (03160110), Locust (03160111), Upper Black Warrior (03160112), Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Sucarnoochee (03160202), Lower Tambigbee (03160203), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Lower Leaf (03170005), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002), Middle Pearl-Silver (03180003), Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004), Bogue Chitto (03180005)
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Lake Superior (04020300), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Lake Michigan (04060200)*, Lone Lake-Ocqueoc (04070003), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), Upper Maumee (04100005), Auglaize (04100007), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011), Huron-Vermilion (04100012), Black-Rocky (04110001), Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Cattaraugus (04120102)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+, Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)*, Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101)+, Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Grass (04150304)*
05 Lower Monongahela (05020005), Upper Ohio (05030101), Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Mohican (05040002)*, Muskingum (05040004), Upper Kanawha (05050006), Elk (05050007), Lower Kanawha (05050008), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Lower Levisa (05070203), Big Sandy (05070204), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Lower Great Miami (05080002)*, Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Twelvepole (05090102), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Little Sandy (05090104), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), North Fork Kentucky (05100201), Middle Fork Kentucky (05100202), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Lower Kentucky (05100205), Upper Green (05110001), Barren (05110002), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Pond (05110006), Vermilion (05120109), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Embarras (05120112), Lower Wabash (05120113), Little Wabash (05120114), Skillet (05120115)*, Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Patoka (05120209), Rockcastle (05130102), Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Upper Cumberland-Cordell Hull (05130106), Caney (05130108), Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake (05130201), Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202), Lower Cumberland (05130205), Red (05130206), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Salt (05140102), Rolling Fork (05140103), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Saline (05140204), Tradewater (05140205), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Watauga (06010103), Holston (06010104), Upper French Broad (06010105)+, Lower French Broad (06010107), Watts Bar Lake (06010201), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Upper Clinch (06010205)+, Powell (06010206)+, Lower Clinch (06010207), Emory (06010208), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001)+, Hiwassee (06020002), Sequatchie (06020004), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Upper Elk (06030003), Lower Elk (06030004), Pickwick Lake (06030005), Bear (06030006), Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001), Upper Duck (06040002), Lower Duck (06040003), Kentucky Lake (06040005), Lower Tennessee (06040006)
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Chippewa (07020005), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Blue Earth (07020009), Le Sueur (07020011), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Trempealeau (07040005), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002)*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Turkey (07060004)*, Apple-Plum (07060005), Maquoketa (07060006)*, Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Copperas-Duck (07080101), Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)*, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103), Flint-Henderson (07080104), Skunk (07080107), Upper Cedar (07080201)*, Shell Rock (07080202)*, Winnebago (07080203)*, West Fork Cedar (07080204)*, Lower Cedar (07080206)*, Upper Iowa (07080207)*, Upper Rock (07090001), Lower Rock (07090005), Upper Des Moines (07100002)*, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)*, Middle Des Moines (07100004), Boone (07100005), North Raccoon (07100006), Lake Red Rock (07100008), Lower Des Moines (07100009), Bear-Wyaconda (07110001), North Fabius (07110002), South Fabius (07110003), The Sny (07110004), North Fork Salt (07110005), South Fork Salt (07110006), Salt (07110007), Cuivre (07110008), Peruque-Piasa (07110009), Chicago (07120003), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Illinois (07120005), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001), Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Spoon (07130005), Upper Sangamon (07130006), South Fork Sangamon (07130007), Lower Sangamon (07130008), Salt (07130009), La Moine (07130010)*, Lower Illinois (07130011), Macoupin (07130012)*, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101), Meramec (07140102), Bourbeuse (07140103), Big (07140104), Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105), Big Muddy (07140106), Whitewater (07140107), Cache (07140108)*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)*, Shoal (07140203), Lower Kaskaskia (07140204)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100), Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Obion (08010203), North Fork Forked Deer (08010204), Upper Hatchie (08010207), Lower Hatchie (08010208), Lower Mississippi-Helena (08020100), New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201), Upper St. Francis (08020202), Lower St. Francis (08020203), Little River Ditches (08020204), L'anguille (08020205), Cache (08020302), Lower White (08020303), Big (08020304), Lower Arkansas (08020401), Bayou Meto (08020402), Lower Mississippi-Greenville (08030100), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Tallahatchie (08030202), Coldwater (08030204), Yalobusha (08030205), Upper Yazoo (08030206), Big Sunflower (08030207), Lower Yazoo (08030208), Deer-Steele (08030209), Ouachita Headwaters (08040101), Upper Ouachita (08040102), Little Missouri (08040103), Lower Ouachita-Smackover (08040201), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Upper Saline (08040203), Lower Saline (08040204), Bayou Bartholomew (08040205), Bayou D'arbonne (08040206), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Red (08040301), Castor (08040302), Dugdemona (08040303), Little (08040304), Black (08040305), Bayou Cocodrie (08040306), Boeuf (08050001), Bayou Macon (08050002), Tensas (08050003), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100), Lower Big Black (08060202), Bayou Pierre (08060203), Coles Creek (08060204), Homochitto (08060205), Buffalo (08060206), Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge (08070100), Bayou Sara-Thompson (08070201), Amite (08070202), Tickfaw (08070203), Lake Maurepas (08070204), Tangipahoa (08070205), Lower Grand (08070300), Atchafalaya (08080101), Bayou Teche (08080102), Vermilion (08080103), Mermentau Headwaters (08080201), Mermentau (08080202), Upper Calcasieu (08080203), Whisky Chitto (08080204), West Fork Calcasieu (08080205), Lower Calcasieu (08080206), Lower Mississippi-New Orleans (08090100), Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201), Eastern Louisiana Coastal (08090203), East Central Louisiana Coastal (08090301), West Central Louisiana Coastal (08090302)
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Grand Marais-Red (09020306), Turtle (09020307), Snake (09020309), Lower Red (09020311)
10 Upper Missouri-Dearborn (10030102), Marias (10030203), Teton (10030205), Bullwhacker-Dog (10040101), Fort Peck Reservoir (10040104), Middle Musselshell (10040202), Lower Musselshell (10040205), Lower Milk (10050012), Prarie Elk-Wolf (10060001), Charlie-Little Muddy (10060005), Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar (10070007), Lower Yellowstone-Sunday (10100001), Lower Yellowstone (10100004), Upper Lake Oahe (10130102), Lower Lake Oahe (10130105), Fort Randall Reservoir (10140101), Upper Niobrara (10150003), Middle James (10160006), Lower James (10160011), Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009), Lower North Platte (10180014), Middle Platte-Buffalo (10200101), Wood (10200102), Middle Platte-Prairie (10200103), Lower Platte-Shell (10200201), Lower Platte (10200202), Lower Elkhorn (10220003), Blackbird-Soldier (10230001), Floyd (10230002), Little Sioux (10230003), Big Papillion-Mosquito (10230006), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), Tarkio-Wolf (10240005), South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007), Big Nemaha (10240008), Nodaway (10240010), Independence-Sugar (10240011), Platte (10240012), One Hundred and Two (10240013), Harlan County Reservoir (10250009), Lower Republican (10250017), Lower Smoky Hill (10260008), Upper Kansas (10270101), Middle Kansas (10270102), Delaware (10270103), Lower Kansas (10270104), Upper Big Blue (10270201), Lower Big Blue (10270205), Lower Little Blue (10270207), Upper Grand (10280101), Thompson (10280102), Lower Grand (10280103), Upper Chariton (10280201), Lower Chariton (10280202), Little Chariton (10280203), Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101), Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102), Little Osage (10290103), Marmaton (10290104), Harry S. Missouri (10290105), Sac (10290106), Pomme De Terre (10290107), South Grand (10290108)*, Lake of the Ozarks (10290109), Niangua (10290110), Lower Osage (10290111), Upper Gasconade (10290201), Big Piney (10290202)*, Lower Gasconade (10290203), Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101), Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102), Lamine (10300103), Blackwater (10300104), Lower Missouri (10300200)
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001), James (11010002), Bull Shoals Lake (11010003), Middle White (11010004), North Fork White (11010006), Upper Black (11010007), Current (11010008), Lower Black (11010009), Spring (11010010), Eleven Point (11010011), Strawberry (11010012), Upper White-Village (11010013), Little Red (11010014), Middle Arkansas-Slate (11030013), Upper Walnut River (11030017), Lower Walnut River (11030018), Lower Cimarron (11050003), Kaw Lake (11060001), Black Bear-Red Rock (11060006), Upper Verdigris (11070101), Fall (11070102), Middle Verdigris (11070103), Elk (11070104), Lower Verdigris (11070105), Caney (11070106), Bird (11070107), Neosho headwaters (11070201), Upper Cottonwood (11070202), Lower Cottonwood (11070203), Upper Neosho (11070204), Middle Neosho (11070205), Lake O' the Cherokees (11070206), Spring (11070207), Lower Neosho (11070209), Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202), Little (11090203), Lower Canadian (11090204), Lower North Canadian (11100302), Deep Fork (11100303), Polecat-Snake (11110101), Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102), Illinois (11110103), Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104), Poteau (11110105), Frog-Mulberry (11110201), Dardanelle Reservoir (11110202), Lake Conway-Point Remove (11110203), Petit Jean (11110204), Cadron (11110205), Fourche La Fave (11110206), Lower Arkansas-Maumelle (11110207), Lower Salt Fork Red (11120202), Lower North Fork Red (11120303), Groesbeck-Sandy (11130101), Blue-China (11130102), Pease (11130105), Farmers-Mud (11130201), West Cache (11130203), Wichita (11130206), Southern Beaver (11130207), Northern Beaver (11130208), Lake Texoma (11130210), Middle Washita (11130303), Lower Washita (11130304), Bois D'arc-Island (11140101), Muddy Boggy (11140103), Clear Boggy (11140104), Kiamichi (11140105), Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107), Mountain Fork (11140108), Lower Little (11140109), Mckinney-Posten Bayous (11140201), Middle Red-Coushatta (11140202), Loggy Bayou (11140203), Red Chute (11140204), Bodcau Bayou (11140205), Bayou Pierre (11140206), Lower Red-Lake Iatt (11140207), Saline Bayou (11140208), Black Lake Bayou (11140209), Sulphur headwaters (11140301), Lower Sulphur (11140302), White Oak Bayou (11140303), Cross Bayou (11140304), Lake O'the Pines (11140305), Caddo Lake (11140306), Little Cypress (11140307)
12 Upper Sabine (12010001), Middle Sabine (12010002), Lake Fork (12010003), Toledo Bend Reservoir (12010004), Lower Sabine (12010005), Upper Neches (12020001), Middle Neches (12020002), Lower Neches (12020003), Upper Angelina (12020004), Lower Angelina (12020005), Upper West Fork Trinity (12030101), Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102), Elm Fork Trinity (12030103), Denton (12030104), Upper Trinity (12030105), East Fork Trinity (12030106), Cedar (12030107), Richland (12030108), Chambers (12030109), Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201), Lower Trinity-Kickapoo (12030202), West Fork San Jacinto (12040101), Spring (12040102), East Fork San Jacinto (12040103), Buffalo-San Jacinto (12040104), Sabine Lake (12040201), Middle Brazos-Millers (12060101), Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto (12060201), Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney (12060202), Lower Brazos-Little Brazos (12070101), Navasota (12070103), Lower Brazos (12070104), Upper Colorado (12080008), Middle Colorado-Elm (12090101), Concho (12090105), Middle Colorado (12090106), San Saba (12090109), Brady (12090110), Buchanan-Lyndon B (12090201), Llano (12090204), Austin-Travis Lakes (12090205), Pedernales (12090206), Lower Colorado-Cummins (12090301), Lower Colorado (12090302), San Bernard (12090401), Upper Guadalupe (12100201), San Marcos (12100203), Upper Frio (12110106), Lower Frio (12110108), Atascosa (12110110), Lower Nueces (12110111), Central Laguna Madre (12110207), South Laguna Madre (12110208)
13 Black Hills-Fresno (13040203), Big Bend (13040205), Reagan-Sanderson (13040208), Lower Devils (13040302), Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir (13070001), Lower Pecos (13070008), Elm-Sycamore (13080001), San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel (13080002), International Falcon Reservoir (13080003), Los Olmos (13090001)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
Help
Reproduction Comments: Spawns in spring or summer at water temperatures of 19-22 C; eggs hatch in 1-2 days; males generally sexually mature in 2-4 years, females in 4-6 years (Becker 1983).
Ecology Comments: Schooling species.
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Habitat Comments: This fish often occurs in large silty lakes and medium to large rivers, usually in open water over mud bottom, but it occurs in a wide variety of habitats (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). It spawns pelagically in open water, usually far from shore; eggs float at the surface (Becker 1983).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Young feed mainly on minute crustaceans; adults mostly are bottom feeders, eat insect larvae, crustaceans, fishes, and (mostly in rivers) clams and snails (Becker 1983, Scott and Crossman 1973, Lee et al. 1980).
Adult Phenology: Circadian
Immature Phenology: Circadian
Phenology Comments: Activity and feeding greatly reduced in winter; apparently will feed at all hours (Becker 1983).
Weight: 18000 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Oct2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 20Oct2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques des poissons du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 9 pages.

  • Daiber, F. C. 1952. The food and feeding relationships of freshwater drum, Apodinotus grunniens (Rafinesque), in western Lake Erie. Ohio Journal of Science 52(1):35-46.

  • Edsall, T.A. 1967. Biology of the freshwater drum in western Lake Erie. Ohio Journal of Science 67(6):321-340.

  • Legendre, V. et J.F. Bergeron. 1977. Liste des poissons d' eau douce du Québec. MLCP, Service Aménage. Expl. Faune. Rap. dact. 6

  • Nelson, J. S. 1984. Fishes of the world. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. xv + 523 pp.

  • Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

  • Page, L. M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, N. E. Mandrak, R. L. Mayden, and J. S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Seventh edition. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 34, Bethesda, Maryland.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. 432 pp.

  • Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston. xix + 663 pp.

  • Phelps, A., C. B. Renaud, and F. Chapleau. 2000. First record of a freshwater drum, Aplodinotus grunniens, in the Rideau River, Ottawa, Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 114(1):121-125.

  • Priegel, G. R. 1967c. The freshwater drum-its life history, ecology, and management. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Publication 236. 15 pp.

  • Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.

  • Scott, W. B., and E. J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. 966 pp.

References for Watershed Distribution Map
  • Becker, G. C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 1,052 pp.

  • Boschung, H. T., and R. L. Mayden. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. 960 pp.

  • Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986a. Distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series No. 4, Frankfort, Kentucky. 398 pp.

  • Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. 243 pp.

  • Cross, F. B., and J. T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. Second Edition, revised. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History. xvii + 315 pp.

  • Douglas, N. H. 1974. Freshwater fishes of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. 443 pp.

  • Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, Tennessee. xiv + 681 pp.

  • Fago, D. 2000. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes in Wisconsin. Fish Distribution Database to year 2000. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.

  • Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Conservation Commission, Des Moines, Iowa. 323 pp.

  • Holton, G. D., and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes. 2nd edition. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Montana State Parks and wildlife Interpretive Association, Helena, Montana. 104 pp.

  • Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. xxiii + 1079 pp.

  • Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina. i-x + 854 pp.

  • Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

  • Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

  • Owen, J. B., D. S. Elsen and G. W. Russell. 1981. Distribution of fishes in North and South Dakota basins affected by the Garrison Diversion Unit. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 211 pp.

  • Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Columbia, Missouri. viii + 343 pp.

  • Robison, H. W. and T. M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. The University of Arkansas Press, Fayetteville, Arkansas. 536 pp.

  • Ross, S. T., and W. M. Brenneman. 1991. Distribution of freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Freshwater Fisheries Report No. 108. D-J Project Completion Report F-69. Mississippi Department of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries and Parks. Jackson, Mississippi. 548 pp.

  • Smith, C. L. 1983. Fishes of New York (maps and printout of a draft section on scarce fishes of New York). Unpublished draft.

  • Smith, C. L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, New York, xi + 522 pp.

  • Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

  • Stauffer, J. R., Jr., J. M. Boltz, and L. R. White. 1995. The fishes of West Virginia. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 146:1-389.

  • Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, Ohio. 782 pp.

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