Aplectrum hyemale - (Muhl. ex Willd.) Torr.
Puttyroot
Other English Common Names: Adam-and-Eve
Other Common Names: Adam and Eve
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Torr. (TSN 43489)
French Common Names: aplectrelle d'hiver
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.131051
Element Code: PMORC03010
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Orchid Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Orchidales Orchidaceae Aplectrum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Aplectrum hyemale
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Apr1984
Global Status Last Changed: 05Apr1984
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (25Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Arizona (SNR), Arkansas (S3), Connecticut (SH), Delaware (S1), District of Columbia (SNR), Georgia (S3), Illinois (S3S4), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S3), Kansas (S2), Kentucky (S5), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (S1), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S1), Missouri (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S1), New York (S1), North Carolina (S4), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SH), Pennsylvania (S4), South Carolina (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Vermont (SH), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S5), Wisconsin (S2S3)
Canada Ontario (S2), Quebec (S1)

Other Statuses

Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low) (26Jan2015)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This plant ranges from western New England west through southern Quebec, southern Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin, and southeastern Minnestoa south to Arkansas, Tennessee, far northeastern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, and the mountains of North Carolina.

Area of Occupancy: 2,501 to >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by forest management practices and habitat loss and fragmentation (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This plant ranges from western New England west through southern Quebec, southern Ontario, Michigan, Wisconsin, and southeastern Minnestoa south to Arkansas, Tennessee, far northeastern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, and the mountains of North Carolina.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, VA, VT, WI, WV
Canada ON, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Conecuh (01035)*, Etowah (01055), Lawrence (01079)
CT Fairfield (09001)*, Hartford (09003)*, New Haven (09009)*
DE New Castle (10003)
IA Allamakee (19005)*, Cedar (19031)*, Clayton (19043), Clinton (19045)*, Delaware (19055)*, Dubuque (19061)*, Fayette (19065)*, Hardin (19083)*, Howard (19089)*, Jones (19105), Linn (19113), Winneshiek (19191)*
KS Johnson (20091), Leavenworth (20103)
MA Franklin (25011), Hampshire (25015)
MS Tishomingo (28141), Union (28145)
NJ Bergen (34003)*, Camden (34007)*, Gloucester (34015), Mercer (34021)*, Middlesex (34023)*, Salem (34033)*, Somerset (34035), Sussex (34037), Warren (34041)
NY Albany (36001)*, Bronx (36005)*, Clinton (36019)*, Cortland (36023)*, Dutchess (36027)*, Erie (36029)*, Essex (36031)*, Herkimer (36043)*, Jefferson (36045)*, Lewis (36049)*, Livingston (36051)*, Monroe (36055), New York (36061)*, Niagara (36063)*, Oneida (36065)*, Onondaga (36067)*, Orange (36071)*, Tompkins (36109)*, Ulster (36111)*, Washington (36115), Westchester (36119)*
OK Le Flore (40079)
PA Adams (42001), Allegheny (42003)*, Armstrong (42005)*, Beaver (42007), Bedford (42009), Berks (42011), Blair (42013)*, Butler (42019)*, Centre (42027)*, Chester (42029), Columbia (42037), Cumberland (42041), Delaware (42045), Fayette (42051), Franklin (42055), Greene (42059), Huntingdon (42061), Lancaster (42071), Lebanon (42075), Montgomery (42091), Perry (42099), Warren (42123)*, York (42133)
VT Addison (50001)*
WI Brown (55009)*, Chippewa (55017), Crawford (55023), Door (55029), Dunn (55033), Grant (55043), Green (55045), Juneau (55057), Lafayette (55065), Manitowoc (55071)*, Monroe (55081), Polk (55095), Portage (55097), Racine (55101), Richland (55103), Sauk (55111), Sawyer (55113), Shawano (55115), Vernon (55123), Walworth (55127), Washburn (55129), Waukesha (55133)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Middle Connecticut (01080201)+, Deerfield (01080203)+*, Lower Connecticut (01080205)+*, Farmington (01080207)+*, Quinnipiac (01100004)+*, Saugatuck (01100006)+*
02 Hudson-Hoosic (02020003)+*, Mohawk (02020004)+*, Middle Hudson (02020006)+*, Rondout (02020007)+, Hudson-Wappinger (02020008)+*, Lower Hudson (02030101)+*, Bronx (02030102)+*, Hackensack-Passaic (02030103)+*, Raritan (02030105)+, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lower Delaware (02040202)+, Schuylkill (02040203)+, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+*, Chenango (02050102)+*, Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107)+, Upper Juniata (02050302)+, Raystown (02050303)+, Lower Juniata (02050304)+, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+, Chester-Sassafras (02060002)+, Cacapon-Town (02070003)+, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+, Monocacy (02070009)+
03 Sepulga (03140303)+*, Middle Coosa (03150106)+, Sipsey Fork (03160110)+
04 Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101)+*, Door-Kewaunee (04030102)+, Wolf (04030202)+, Lower Fox (04030204)+*, Pike-Root (04040002)+, Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103)+*, Niagara (04120104)+*, Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001)+, Upper Genesee (04130002)+*, Salmon-Sandy (04140102)+*, Seneca (04140201)+*, Oneida (04140202)+*, Black (04150101)+*, Chaumont-Perch (04150102)+*, Mettawee River (04150401)+, Otter Creek (04150402)+*, Ausable River (04150404)+*, Lake Champlain (04150408)+*
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+*, Upper Monongahela (05020003)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Upper Ohio (05030101)+, Connoquenessing (05030105)+*
06 Wheeler Lake (06030002)+*, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+
07 Upper St. Croix (07030001)+, Namekagon (07030002)+, Lower St. Croix (07030005)+, Lower Chippewa (07050005)+, Red Cedar (07050007)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Upper Iowa (07060002)+*, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+*, Castle Rock (07070003)+, Baraboo (07070004)+, Lower Wisconsin (07070005)+, Kickapoo (07070006)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+*, Middle Cedar (07080205)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+*, Pecatonica (07090003)+, Sugar (07090004)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+
08 Little Tallahatchie (08030201)+
10 Independence-Sugar (10240011)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+
11 Poteau (11110105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
Help
General Description: Puttyroot orchid spends the fall through the early spring as a solitary basal leaf that can be seen sticking slightly up at an angle from ground-level. The leaf is oval with a pointed tip and base, dark green with white stripes along the veins, and pleated. The underside is a purplish color. During May or June a green (with a few colorless bracts) flowering stem 1-2 feet tall is produced and the leaves wither. At the top of the stem 7-15 widely spaced flowers arise on stalks about as long as the flowers. The tan and green flaring sepals and forward-facing petals have showy purple tips. The lip is white with purple spots and a wavy edge. As the flowers age they tend to hang down.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
Help
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Feb2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Weldy, Troy W.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
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  • Argus, G.W. et D.J. White. S.D. Les plantes vasculaires rares de l'Alberta. Syllogeus no 17 47

  • Argus, G.W. et K.M. Pryer. 1990. Les plantes vasculaires du Canada. Musée canadien de la nature. Ottawa. 191 p.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White and C.J. Keddy (eds.). 1982-1987. Atlas of the Rare Vascular Plants of Ontario.. Botany Division, National Museum of National Sciences, Ottawa.

  • Argus, G.W., K.M. Pryer, D.J. White et C.J. Keddy 1982-1987. Atlas des plantes vasculaires rares de l'Ontario. 4 parties. Musée national des sciences naturelles, Ottawa.

  • Auclair, A.N. 1972. Comparative ecology of the orchids Aplectrum hyemale and Orchis spectabilis. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 99(1):1-10.

  • Auclair, A.N., 1972. Comparative ecology of the orchids Aplectrum hyemale and Orchis spectabilis. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 99 1-10.

  • Boivin, B. S.D. Flore de l'est du Canada Manuscrit déposé à l'Herbier Louis-Marie, Université Laval. 865 p.

  • Bouchard, A., D. Barabé, M. Dumais et S. Hay 1983. Les plantes vasculaires rares du Québec. Syllogeus no 48. Musées nationaux du Canada. Ottawa. 75 p.

  • Bouchard, A., D. Barabé, Y. Bergeron, M. Dumais et S. Hay. 1985. La phytogéographie des plantes vasculaires rares du Québec. Le Naturaliste canadien 112 : 283-300.

  • Case, F.W., Jr. 1987. Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Revised Edition. Bulletin 48, Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. 251 pp.

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  • Dearness, J. 1905. The Orchidaceae of Middlesex County. The Ontario Natural Science Bulletin 1: 33-34.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. D. Van Nostrand, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fleurbec / G. Lamoureux, S. Lamoureux, A. Tousignant, L. Cournoyer et R.F. Gauthier / 1994. Plantes susceptibles d'être désignées menacées ou vulnérables. Noms français de 229 espèces. Rapport non publié, préparé pour le gouvernement du Québec, ministère

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002. Flora of North America, North of Mexico. Volume 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Cyperaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. 608 pp.

  • Forest, G. et N. Lavoie 1995. Plantes menacées ou vulnérables du Québec. L'aplectrelle d'hiver, espèce menacée au Québec. Document présenté à la Direction de la conservation et du patrimoine écologique. 7 p.

  • Gleason, Henry A. and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Hogan, K.P. 1982. The pollination biology and breeding system of Aplectrum hyemale (Orchidaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 61:1906-1910.

  • Holmgren, Noel. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. Illustrations of the Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.

  • Homoya, M.A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, Indiana. 276 pp.

  • Homoya, Michael A. 1993. Orchids of Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science. Bloomington, Indiana. 276 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kramer, C.L., and B.L. Wagenknecht. 1957. The habitat of Aplectrum hyemale in Kansas. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 60(4):376-378.

  • Labrecque, J., A. Bouchard, L. Brouillet et S. Hay. 1988. Plantes vasculaires rares et menacées des tourbières du sud-ouest du Québec. Rapport préliminaire présenté à la Fondation pour la sauvegarde des espèces menacées. 25 p. + annexes.

  • Louis-Marie, P. 1941. Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl.) Torr., une excentrique de la flore d'Oka, Québec, Canada. Annales de l'ACFAS 7 99.

  • Marie-Victorin, Fr. 1964. Flore laurentienne. 2e édition revue par E. Rouleau. Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal. 925 p.

  • New York Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Biotics database. New York Natural Heritage Program. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Albany, NY.

  • Newcomb, Lawrence. 1977. Newcomb's Wildflower Guide: An Ingenious New Key System for Quick, Positive Field Identification of the Wildflowers, Flowering Shrubs, and Vines of Northeastern and North-Central North America. Little, Brown and Company. Boston.

  • Reschke, Carol. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Latham, NY. 96 pp. plus xi.

  • Richburg JA. 2004. Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt. (Puttyroot) Conservation and Research Plan for New England. New England Wild Flower Society, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA. (http://www.newfs.org/docs/pdf/aplectrumhyemale.pdf).

  • Richburg, Julie A. 2004. Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt. (Puttyroot). Conservation and Research Plan for New England. New England Wild Flower Society, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA. Available online at: http://www.newfs.org/pdf/aplectrumhyemale.pdf.

  • Rousseau, C. 1974. Géographie floristique du Québec-Labrador : Distribution des principales espèces vasculaires. Presses de l'Université Laval, Québec. 798 p.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Stevens, W.C., and F.E. Dill. 1942. Aplectrum spicatum in a Kansas woodland. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 45:138-151.

  • Sutherland, D.A. 1987. Annotated Checklist of the Plants of Haldimand-Norfolk. In: M.E. Gartshore, D.A. Sutherland and J.D. McCracken. The Natural Areas Inventory of Haldimand-Norfolk, Volume 2. Annotated Lists. Norfolk Field Naturalists, Simcoe. 152 pp.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • Weldy, T. and D. Werier. 2010. New York flora atlas. [S.M. Landry, K.N. Campbell, and L.D. Mabe (original application development), Florida Center for Community Design and Research http://www.fccdr.usf.edu/. University of South Florida http://www.usf.edu/]. New York Flora Association http://wwws.nyflora.org/, Albany, New York

  • Whiting, R.E. and P.M. Catling. 1986. Orchids of Ontario: An Illustrated Guide. The CanaColl Foundation, Ottawa, Ontario. xii + 169 pp.

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