Apios priceana - B.L. Robins.
Price's Potato-bean
Other English Common Names: Traveler's Delight
Other Common Names: traveler's delight
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Apios priceana B.L. Robins. (TSN 25391)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.138209
Element Code: PDFAB0D020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Pea Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Fabales Fabaceae Apios
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference
Help
Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Apios priceana
Taxonomic Comments: One of the two U.S. species in this small genus.
Conservation Status
Help

NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 12Jul2013
Global Status Last Changed: 12Jul2013
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Currently known from 50-100 extant element occurrences throughout its range. Apios priceana is apparently dependant on a moderate level of disturbance; however, excessive habitat modification is threatening the existence of the species. Many of these few remaining occurrences are threatened by successional canopy closure, cattle grazing/trampling, right-of-way maintenance and forestry activities.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Illinois (SX), Kentucky (S1), Mississippi (S1), Tennessee (S3)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LT: Listed threatened (05Jan1990)
Comments on USESA: Apios priceana was proposed threatened on May 12, 1989 and federally listed as a Threatened species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on January 5, 1990.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R4 - Southeast

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Mississippi (Clay, Oktibbeha and Lee counties); Alabama (Madison, Autsuga and Marshall counties); Kentucky (Lyon, Livingston and Trigg counties); Tennessee (Marion, Montgomery and Williamson counties). Historic in Illinois.

Area of Occupancy: 26-500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Apios priceana has been collected from Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, Tennessee and Illinois (Norquist 1990, USFWS 1989, Medley 1980). The single Illinois site has been destroyed (Medley 1980) and the species is no longer considered extant in the state (Karnes pers. comm.). Apios priceana is known from 50-100 extant element occurrences throughout its range (NatureServe central databases July 2013). However, the degree of overlap between some element occurrences in the central database is unknown.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some (13-40)

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Habitat loss and degradation from heavy or clear-cut logging, highway right-of-way maintenance, trampling and soil compaction by cattle are threats to this early successional species (Bender pers comm., Norquist 1990, USFWS 1989, Medley 1980). Development of lands for housing or other uses is a potential threat to occurrences of this species (Medley 1980). Brush-clearing (bush-hogging) during the growing season, line replacement and upgrading are additional threats to some sites (Bender pers. comm.). Some sites are threatened by non-native invasive species.

Threats at the Trigg County, Kentucky, sites include trampling by hikers, overcrowding by shrubs, canopy closure, mowing, highway maintenance and competition from introduced crown vetch (Coronilla varia) (Chester and Holt 1990). Succession is considered a major threat at some sites (Norquist 1990).

Short-term Trend: Decline of 10-50%
Short-term Trend Comments: Fourteen EOs are historic, 8 are extirpated, and 26 EOs are ranked C or D.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Relatively resistant.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Mississippi (Clay, Oktibbeha and Lee counties); Alabama (Madison, Autsuga and Marshall counties); Kentucky (Lyon, Livingston and Trigg counties); Tennessee (Marion, Montgomery and Williamson counties). Historic in Illinois.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, ILextirpated, KY, MS, TN

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Autauga (01001), Butler (01013), Dallas (01047), Jackson (01071), Lawrence (01079), Madison (01089), Marshall (01095), Monroe (01099), Wilcox (01131)
KY Calloway (21035)*, Livingston (21139), Lyon (21143), Marshall (21157)*, Trigg (21221), Warren (21227)*
MS Chickasaw (28017), Clay (28025)*, Kemper (28069), Lee (28081), Oktibbeha (28105)
TN Cheatham (47021)*, Davidson (47037)*, DeKalb (47041), Franklin (47051), Giles (47055), Hardin (47071), Hickman (47081), Marion (47115), Maury (47119), Montgomery (47125), Stewart (47161), Wayne (47181), Williamson (47187)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Upper Alabama (03150201)+, Middle Alabama (03150203)+, Lower Alabama (03150204)+, Town (03160102)+, Tibbee (03160104)+, Noxubee (03160108)+
05 Barren (05110002)+*, Caney (05130108)+, Lower Cumberland-Sycamore (05130202)+*, Harpeth (05130204)+, Lower Cumberland (05130205)+, Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203)+
06 Sequatchie (06020004)+*, Guntersville Lake (06030001)+, Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Lower Elk (06030004)+, Lower Tennessee-Beech (06040001)+, Lower Duck (06040003)+, Buffalo (06040004)+, Kentucky Lake (06040005)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A herbaceous twining perennial vine up to 5 m long, arising from a large underground tuber. Leaves are 1.8-3 dm long and are comprised of 5-9 (usually 7) leaflets. Flowers (June or July) are fleshy, greenish-pink with maroon tints. Fruit is an elongated legume, 1.2-2 dm long.
General Description: Plant a herbaceous, twining, perennial vine, to 5 m, scrambling over other vegetation, arising from a large, starchy underground tuber. Leaves alternate, 0.6-1 foot long, composed of 5-9 (mostly 7) ovate leaflets; the lowest pair of leaflets usually the largest. The flowers are swollen, greenish-pink with maroon tints and a beak-like tip. They are arranged in compact racemes, on stout hairy stalks. Fruit an elongated legume, 5-8 inches long, somewhat swollen, abruptly narrowing into a slender beak. The seeds are oblong, smooth, dark brown, and about 0.3 inch long.
Technical Description: Plant a herbaceous, twining, perennial vine, to 5 m, scrambling over other vegetation, arising from a large, starchy underground tuber. Stems slender, twining, round in cross-section, ridged; green or tan, smooth or with scattered, stiff hairs. Leaves alternate, 0.6-1 foot long, composed of 5-9 (mostly 7) ovate leaflets; the lowest pair of leaflets usually the largest. Leaflets entire-margined, with rounded bases and narrowed points, widest below the middle, the upper surface smooth at maturity, dark yellow-green, net-veined, the lower surface paler, fine-hairy; tiny (but evident) rusty-brown hairs on the short stem at the base of each leaflet. The flowers are swollen, greenish-pink with maroon tints and a beak-like tip. They are arranged in compact racemes, on stout hairy stalks, in the axils of pale green, ovate, hairy, pointed bracts. Fruit an elongated legume, 5-8 inches long, somewhat swollen, abruptly narrowing into a slender beak. The seeds are oblong, smooth, dark brown, and about 0.3 inch long.
Diagnostic Characteristics: This species most closely resembles Apios americana (= A. tuberosa), from which it is distinguished by the following characteristics: (a) larger leaves, usually with 7 rather than 5 leaflets; (b) the uppermost petal (standard) has an elongated tip, is larger, and is pink with green tints rather than maroon; (c) the fruits are longer, the shortest ones similar in length to the longest ones in A. americana. Wisteria is similar, but can have more leaflets (5-11) which are all about the same size and widest in the middle (in contrast to those of Apios); the leaf rachis of Wisteria is hairy, and its flowers are purple and bloom in the early spring.
Reproduction Comments: Flowers of A. priceana bloom from June through August, possibly as late as September (Kral 1983, Mahler 1970). Legumes mature in August to September (Kral 1983). Early reports by the discoverer of the species, Sadie Price, suggested that it does not frequently set fruit (Robinson 1898).
Ecology Comments: Unlike its close relative, Apios americana, which produces numerous tubers, A. priceana produces only one. This fact may serve to severely limit natural dispersal of the species. Since A. priceana has just the single tuber, it is unable to be dispersed effectively along rivers by spring freshets as is A. americana (Seabrook and Dionne 1976).

Apios priceana has a potential value to humans as a food source (USFWS 1989). The large single tubers from which the plant grows are edible and may have been used by Native American Indians and early settlers as food, as was Apios americana. The ability of the species to grow in highly alkaline (pH > 8.0) and acidic (pH < 5.0) (Duke 19) soils could provide genetic resources for the development of Apios hybrids in cultivated lands otherwise marginal for most other crops (USFWS 1989, Walter et al. 1986). Perhaps the most valuable aspect of A. priceana is as a source of germ plasm for breeding with other Apios species (Norquist 1990, Walter et al 1986).

According to a recent study of A. priceana (Walter et al. 1986), the tubers were found to be composed of 61.9% water, 5.0% fiber, 2.6% crude protein, 2.7% ash, 27.1% carbohydrate and 0.7% fat. For a compositional comparison of A. priceana tubers with those of A. americana and A. fortunei, see Walter et al. (1986). As a food crop, A. priceana tubers are naturally low in essential amino acids. Extraction of nonprotein nitrogen by alcohol resulted in tuber protein that could be useful in human nutrition (Walter et al. 1986).

Open forest canopies tend to correlate with increased flowering in the species (Somers pers. comm.). Flowers of A. priceana bloom from June through August, possibly as late as September (Kral 1983, Mahler 1970). Legumes mature in August to September (Kral 1983). Early reports by the discoverer of the species, Sadie Price, suggested that it does not frequently set fruit (Robinson 1898). Potential pollinators include a butterfly (Eudamus tityrus), honey and bumble bees (Robinson 1898). Apparently the bees find the nectaries very difficult to access. Apios priceana can be readily germinated by scarification of the seed coat through chipping (Seabrook 1973) or acid (Walter et al. 1986).

Apios priceana is apparently quite easy to grow from seed, but requires scarification or other natural processes to break physical dormancy (Baskin pers. comm.; Bowden pers. comm.). Following scarification, 18 of 20 seeds planted 1 cm deep in soil grew in a recent test in Kentucky (Baskin pers. comm.). Scarification can be accomplished through a nick with a file, grinding wheel, hot water or sulfuric acid (Bowden pers. comm.). Plants can grow 5-6 feet during the first summer, but do not flower. Flowering is apparently initiated only in plants that have over-wintered (Baskin pers. comm.).

Tubers of A. priceana apparently require vernalization for growth (Bowden pers. comm.). Plants die back to the tuber in the mid-summer.

Additional research has been conducted on A. priceana for horticultural purposes. According to the Missouri Botanical Garden, A. priceana prefers acidic, water retentive soils, requires no soil additives, can withstand winter temperatures below 5 degrees Celsius, shows no intolerance to supplemental feedings, and possesses no apparent pests (Bowden pers. comm.). The species has been successfully propagated.

Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cliff, Forest - Mixed, Forest/Woodland, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Open, rocky, wooded slopes and floodplain edges. Sites are usually under mixed hardwoods or in associated forest clearings, often where bluffs or ravine slopes meet creek or river bottoms. Soils are well-drained and loamy, formed on alluvium or over calcareous boulders. Several populations extend onto road or powerline rights-of-way.

Price's potato-bean is an inhabitant of open, mixed-oak forests, forest edges and clearings on river bottoms and ravines, being unable to tolerate deep shade (USFWS 1989, Kral 1983). The species occurs on well-drained loams on old alluvium or over calcareous boulders (Kral 1983). Associates typically include Quercus muhlenbergii, Campanula americana, Lindera benzoin, Arundinaria gigantea, Tilia americana, Fraxinus americana, Acer saccharum, Ulmus rubra, Cercis canadensis, Toxicodendron radicans and Parthenocissus quinquefolius (Medly 1980).

Four extant populations of A. priceana are known from Kentucky. The type location near Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky, was characterized as a rocky woods (Robinson 1898); it has been destroyed. A population in Livingston County (estimated at 50-65 plants in 1984) has been severely degraded by cattle since their introduction into the area in 1986 (Norquist 1990). Additional collections in Kentucky have been made in Lyon and Trigg counties (Chester and Holt 1990, Browne and Athey 1976). The Lyon County site consisted of 25-30 individuals, extending onto a right-of-way (Norquist 1990).

The Hematite Lake site in northern Trigg County, Kentucky, was relocated by Woods (1985) and later by Chester and Holt (1990). The population had been considered extirpated (Medley 1980). This site is along a hiking trail at the base of a southeast-facing slope with numerous limestone outcrops (Chester and Holt 1990). The population consisted of 25 plants in 1989, but no plants were observed to set seed in that year. Associates included Arundinaria tecta, Symphoricarpos orbiculatus, Acer saccharum, Celtis laevigata, C. occidentalis, Carya ovata, Ulmus rubra, Quercus muehlenbergii, Ostrya virginiana, Amphicarpa bracteata, Hystrix patula, Solidago rugosa, Matelea gonocarpos, Agrimonia rostellata, Lobelia inflata and a species of Panicum (Chester and Holt 1990). The southern Trigg County, Kentucky, site (previously unseen since 1966) was rediscovered by Chester and Holt (1990). A population of 30-50 plants occurs at the base of a southeast-facing slope with numerous limestone outcrops, in a roadside ditch that is fairly open to light (Chester pers. comm., Chester and Holt 1990). In 1989, at least 15 mature legumes were produced by this population. Associates include Spigelia marilandica, Cimicifuga racemosa, Campanula americana, Geum canadensis, Anemone virginica, Lactuca canadensis, Melilotus officinalis, Rudbeckia triloba, Ptela trifoliata, Fraxinus americana, Morus rubra, Cercis canadensis, Carpinus caroliniana, Ostrya virginiana, Quercus muehlenbergii, Acer saccharum and Ulmus rubra (Chester and Holt 1990).

Tennessee has four extant sites of A. priceana. All occur in soils overlying limestone bedrock in the Highland Rim physiographic region or the Sequatchie Valley, which drains into Alabama (Somers pers. comm.). Associated vegetation varies considerably between sites, but all sites are close to streams or rivers. Western mixed mesophytic forest is present at two of the sites, while a third is present on a bluff. The largest population is in an area recovering from a recent clear-cut operation (Somers pers. comm.). Populations are known from Marion, Montgomery and Williamson counties (Norquist 1990).

Four extant sites occur in three counties in Mississippi: Clay, Oktibbeha and Lee (Norquist 1990). At Kilgore Hills (Clay County), 15-20 plants occur on the banks of a prairie stream. The population occurs on clay alluvial soil over the Demopolis Formation. Soil pH varies between 6.6 and 8.4. The Coonewah Creek (Lee County) and Ray's Woods (Oktibbeha County) sites occur in mixed deciduous forest on a calcareous north-facing slope above the broad expanse of the northeast Prairie Belt. The soil at both sites is a marly clay underlain by a thick bed of a white marine chalk deposit. At both sites the soil pH varies between 7.4 and 8.4 (Medley 1980). For site-specific information pertaining to associated species, see Medley (1980).

Three extant populations are known from Alabama in Madison, Autsuga and Marshall counties (Norquist 1990). Two of the populations are located along the floodplain of the Alabama River (Gunn pers. comm.).

A single population occurred along a swamp border in a federal ecological area in Illinois, but this population has been destroyed. The area has been searched repeatedly with no positive results (Karnes pers. comm.). Ebinger (1981) stated that the habitat of the species in the state was floodplain forests and thickets of the Lower Mississippi River.

Economic Attributes
Help
Economic Comments: Germplasm of agricultural value.
Management Summary
Help
Stewardship Overview: Management techniques to provide long-term survival for the species will need to center around the maintenance of natural openings in the forest canopy brought on by prescribed fire, forest thinning or logging. Monitoring should be done to track population size and stability, fruit production, seed set and recruitment. Changes in these factors with respect to other vegetation and canopy closure are also in need of monitoring.

Restoration Potential: Apios priceana is currently being cultivated at the Missouri Botanical Garden (Pickering 1989). Information gained from the cultivation of Price's groundnut at this and other sites (such as the University of Kentucky) will prove important in the long-term recovery of the species. Early results indicate that seeds from the plant are relatively easy to germinate upon scarification. First-year plants grow rapidly, often reaching 5-6 feet in height during the first year.
Preserve Selection & Design Considerations: Land protection must include land occupied by the primary population as well as adequate buffer to protect the site from outside influences (pesticide drift, etc.). Protection of only the immediate population may lend it susceptible to a number of potential threats.
Management Requirements: Precise management needs are poorly known at this time. Maintenance of natural openings, possibly via artificial cutting or prescribed fire, have been suggested by some authorities. Apios priceana is apparently able to withstand light, selective logging (Kral 1983), but whether this is a suitable management alternative is unknown. It has been suggested that light logging may enhance the species, while heavy clear-cut logging would destroy populations (Kral 1983, Medley 1980). The species may require specific seral stages or seasonal disturbances to arrest succession (Norquist 1990). Determination of precise habitat requirements through research is needed in order to suggest adequate management options.

Protection of the population from excessive grazing and trampling, as well as herbicide application is recommended. Presently, some populations are suffering from the adverse affects of grazing, while potential herbicide application threatens others.

Kral (1983) stated that A. priceana has been observed in secondary forests, suggesting that it is able to survive logging. He also observed that it reacted well to fire disturbance, as do many legumes with tuberous rootstalks. The rarity of the species suggests that it has a narrow ecological amplitude (Kral 1983), so management tolerance levels must be known prior to the undertaking of management options.

Bulldozing or root raking are believed to destroy the plant (Kral 1983). Thinning or cutting of the overstory may possibly damage A. priceana plants if done during the growing season. If undertaken, these methodologies should only be utilized when the plant is dormant.

Monitoring Requirements: Development of adequate monitoring techniques is a need at all sites (Somers pers. comm.). Monitoring should asses the actual number of plants in each extant population over time. Fruit production, seed set and recruitment also should be monitored (Bender pers. comm.). Monitoring should be considered on at least a five-year cycle. Many managers might wish to consider more extensive annual or biennial monitoring programs.

Habitat monitoring is also a major need. Apios priceana is intolerant of excessive canopy shading and competition. Canopy closure should be monitored to determine when canopy thinning or other management activities should be instituted.

Due to the relatively large size of this vine, counts of all individuals would be relatively easy to complete and should be undertaken on a periodical basis. Fruit production, seed set, and recruitment should be documented during the visit. For ease of monitoring, visits should coincide with that of fruit set. Locations of individuals should be mapped on a base map in order to determine life span, recruitment and death rates.

Canopy closure should be monitored on an annual basis using a wide-angle or similar photographic lens. Photographs of the canopy immediately above the population should help determine the extent to which closure is tolerated by the species, as well as the optimal time for appropriate management options.


Management Programs: The two Trigg County, Kentucky, sites occur within the Land Between The Lakes management area of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The area is designated as a multiple-use facility for recreation, education and conservation activities (Chester and Holt 1990). Contact: Beth Wellbaum, TVA Forester. Telephone No. (502) 924-5602; OR, Dr. Leo Collins, TVA Stewardship Program Botanist, Norris, TN. Telephone No. (615) 494-9800.

After acquisition of the Lyon County site in Kentucky, the State Nature Preserves Commission intends to open the canopy in several areas near the species' present location. Attempts to grow plants from seeds collected at the site, followed by introduction into new openings are also considered. All activities will have the approval of the USFWS prior to implementation. Contact: Joyce Bender, Stewardship Coordinator, Kentucky Heritage Program, KY Nature Preserves Commission, 407 Broadway, Frankfort, KY 40601. Telephone No. (502) 564-2886.

Barnett's Woods Preserve in Tennessee, owned by The Nature Conservancy, protects two element occurrences. At present, no specific management is being conducted for the species. Contact: Geoff Roach, Director of Protection Planning and Stewardship, Tennessee Field Office, The Nature Conservancy, P.O. Box 3017, Nashville, TN 37219. Telephone No. (615) 242-1787.

Monitoring Programs: The Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission is currently pursuing the purchase of 140 acres in Lyon County to protect the species (Bender pers. comm.). The stem count of the population will be conducted in the summer of 1990 if the site has not been purchased by the time of flowering. Contact: Joyce Bender, Stewardship Coordinator, Kentucky Heritage Program, KY Nature Preserves Commission, 407 Broadway, Frankfort, KY 40601. Telephone No. (502) 564-2886.

The Tennessee Field Office of The Nature Conservancy will hire an independent contractor for the collection of ecological and biological information pertaining to A. priceana at one of its preserves. Duties will include: (1) identification of the community associated with A. priceana, (2) mapping, inventory and monitoring of A. priceana populations, and (3) generation of two reports. Monitoring will include the assessment of growth rates, flowering period, flower number, inflorescence number, seed set, fruit/seed ratio, average rainfall, soil moisture, relative humidity and competition. Contact: Geoff Roach, Land Steward, The Nature Conservancy of Tennessee, P.O. Box 3017, 174 Second Avenue N., Nashville, TN 37219. Telephone No. (615) 242-1787.

The Mississippi Natural Heritage Program does not have an active monitoring program for the species, but does determine if the habitat and the species are still present (Gordon pers. comm.). They continue to maintain contact with the private landowners who possess populations. Contact: Ken Gordon, Coordinator/Botanist, Mississippi Natural Heritage Program, Museum of Natural Science, 111 N. Jefferson St., Jackson, MS 39201-2897. Telephone No. (601) 354-7303.

Management Research Programs: Geoff Roach, Tennessee Field Office of The Nature Conservancy, and Drs. Carol Baskin, Jerry Baskin and Ed Chester are considering doing some life-history research on Apios priceana. Contact: Geoff Roach, Director of Protection Planning and Stewardship, Tennessee Field Office, The Nature Conservancy, P.O. Box 3017, Nashville, TN 37219. Telephone No. (615) 242-1787.

Carol Baskin is currently growing 18 plants in a greenhouse, some of which will be planted at TVA's Land Between the Lakes visitor center. Seed germination has been studied, but insufficient amounts of seed are available for adequate studies regarding flowering requirements and germination phenology. It is hoped that seed produced from the plants at the Land Between the Lakes visitor center will help facilitate these future studies. Contact: Dr. Carol Baskin, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. Telephone No. (606) 257-3996.

The Tennessee Ecological Services Division has received Section 6 money from the USFWS to search for additional populations this summer (1990). Contact: Paul Somers, ESD, Tennessee Department of Conservation, 701 Broadway, Nashville, TN 37219-5237. Telephone No. (615) 742-6549.

The Missouri Botanical Garden is currently propagating the species, but no active research is being conducted or is planned for the species. At present, plants are growing on a wall in the Scented Garden as well as six plants in the nursery. Additional plants in the Woodland Garden have died, and research will need to be conducted to determine the reason for death. Plants in the nursery may be used to replace those that died in the Woodland Garden. Contact: Robert Bowden, Director of Horticulture, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166. Telephone No. (314) 577-5189.

Management Research Needs: Research on all aspects of seed production, germination and seedling survival in natural settings are high-priority for assurance of future species survival. Proper management cannot occur without this most basic of life-history information.

Research concerning appropriate management techniques is sorely needed. What is the response of Apios priceana to various management practices, including artificial canopy opening, prescribed burning, logging, etc.? What management practices will create conditions for successful seedling establishment? What practices will enhance the size and productivity of a given Apios population?

Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
Help
Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
Excellent Viability: An A-rated occurrence of Apios priceana is a population that contains 150 or more plants in a mature, relatively undisturbed forest. Ideally the occurrence should be well insulated from potential anthropogenic disturbance where the habitat is characterized by a partially shaded forest with no or minimal influence (< 10 %) by exotic and/or native invasive species.
Good Viability: A B-rated occurrence of Apios priceana is a population that contains 50 to 149 plants in a mature, relatively undisturbed forest. Ideally the occurrence should be well insulated from potential anthropogenic disturbance where the habitat is characterized by a partially shaded forest with no or minimal influence (< 10 %) by exotic and/or native invasive species. B-rated specifications also apply to larger occurrences having a greater affluence (to 30 %) of invasive species, logging, and/or development. Easily restored to A-rated conditions.
Fair Viability: A C-rated occurrence of Apios priceana is a population that contains 10 to 49 plants in a mature, relatively undisturbed forest. Ideally the occurrence should be well insulated from potential anthropogenic disturbance where the habitat is characterized by a partially shaded forest with no or minimal influence (< 10 %) by exotic and/or native invasive species. C-rated specifications also apply to larger occurrences having a moderate to high affluence (to 75 %) of invasive species, timber harvesting, and/or development. Restoration potential to A- and B-rated specifications is good.
Poor Viability: A D-rated occurrence of Apios priceana is a population that contains less than 10 plants in a mature, relatively undisturbed forest. D-rated specifications also apply to larger occurrences in highly modified habitat with minimal or no restoration potential.
Justification: Specifications are based on Element Occurrence Records, academic publications (namely USFWS), personal observations, and expert opinions. Currently limited research is being conducted on this species but no information outlining population dynamics and viability has been published. As new information becomes available, EO specs should be reassessed and updated.
Key for Ranking Species Element Occurrences Using the Generic Approach (2008).
Date: 04Jan2005
Author: Schotz, Alfred
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
Help
Authors/Contributors
Help
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 12Jul2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Ostlie, Wayne MRO; rev. Pyne/Maybury, 1996, rev. A. Frances and A. Treher 2013
Management Information Edition Date: 30Jun1990
Management Information Edition Author: WAYNE OSTLIE

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Bowles, M.L., et al. 1991. Rarely seen endangered plants, rediscoveries, and species new to Illinois. Erigenia 11:27-51.

  • Browne, E.T. and R. Athey. 1976. Herbarium and field studies of Kentucky plants. III. New or rare flowering plants in western Kentucky. J. Elisha Mitchell Soc. 92: 104-109.

  • Chester, E.W. and S.E. Holt. 1990. An update on Price's potato bean. Kentucky Native Plant Society Newsletter. 5(1): 7-8.

  • Duke, JA. 1983. Seedling variation in APIOS. Phytologia. 54:409-410.

  • Ebinger, J.E. (ed). 1981. Endangered and threatened vertebrate animals and vascular plants of Illinois. Natural Land Institute for the Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield. 189 pp.

  • Emanuel, C. M. 1998. Sadie Price's Potato-bean. Alabama's Threatened and Endangered Species. Available ONLINE: http://www.forestry.state.al.us/publication/TF_publications/endangered/potatobean.htm. Accessed July 2004.

  • Herkert, Jim. 1998. Proposed additions, deletions, and changes to the Illinois List of Threatened and Endangered Plants. 100th ESPB Meeting, May 15, 1998. 12pp.

  • Isely, D. 1990. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. Vol. 3, Part 2. Leguminosae (Fabaceae). Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 258 pp.

  • Isely, D. 1998. Native and naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States (exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii). Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University; MLBM Press, Provo, Utah. 1007 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kral, R. 1983a. A report on some rare, threatened or endangered forest related vascular plants of the south. USFS technical publication R8-TP2, Atlanta, GA. Vol. 1: 718 pp.

  • Kral, R. 1983c. A report on some rare, threatened, or endangered forest-related vascular plants of the South. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service Technical Publication R8-TP2, Athens, GA. 1305 pp.

  • Kral, R. 1983e. Fagaceae: Quercus oglethorpensis Duncan [Endangered species, bottomland trees of South Carolina and Georgia]. Tech. publ. R8-TP-USDA Forest Service, Southern Region. Mar 1983. (2, pt. 1) p. 297-300.

  • Mahler, W.F. 1970. Manual of the legumes of Tennessee. J. of the Tenn. Acad. of Sci. 45(3):65-96.

  • Medley, M.E. 1980. Status report on Apios priceana. Unpublished report for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service contract #14-16-0004-79-105.

  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. and J.W. Voigt. 1965. An annotated checklist of vascular plants of the Southern Illinois University Pine Hills field station and environs. Trans. Ill. State Acad. Sci. 58:268-301.

  • Norquist, C. 1990. Endangered and threatend wildlife and plants; threatened status for Apios priceana (Price's potato-bean). Federal Register 55(4): 429-432.

  • Pickering, J. 1989. A collection of rare species from Missouri and surrounding states, displayed of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Guide prepared for The Genetics of Rare Plant Conservation: A Conference on Integrated Strategies for Conservation and Management.

  • Pyne, M., M. Gay, and A. Shea. 1995. Guide to rare plants - Tennessee Division of Forestry District 4. Tennessee Dept. Agriculture, Division of Forestry, Nashville.

  • Robinson, B.L. 1898. A new species of APIOS from Kentucky. Bot. Gaz. 25:450-453.

  • Robinson, B.L. 1898. A new species of Apios from Kentucky. Bot. Gazette 25: 450-453.

  • Seabrook, J.A.E. 1973. A biosystematic study of the genus Apios Fabricius (Leguminosae) with special reference to Apios americana Medikus. M.S. Thesis, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton.

  • Seabrook, J.A.E. and L.A. Dionne. 1976. Studies on the genus Apios. I. Chromosome number and distribution of Apios americana and A. priceana. Can. J. Bot. 54: 2567-2572.

  • Seebrook, J.A.E. and L.A. Dionne. 1976. Studies in the genus APIOS I. Chromosome number and distribution of APIOS AMERICANA and APIOS PRICEANA. Canad. J. Bot. 54:2567-2572.

  • Somers, P. 1982. Tennessee element state ranking form. Unpublished Tennessee Natural Heritage Program report. 1 p.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 1989. Listing proposals. Endangered Species Tech. Bull. 24(6): 4-5, 11.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS. 1989. USFWS Redbook of Endangered and Threatened Species. Great Lakes Region.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Threatened status for Apios priceana (Price's potato-bean). Federal Register 55(4): 429-433.

  • WALTER, W.M., E.M. CROOM, JR., G.L. CATIGNANI, AND W.T. THRE SHER. COMPOSITIONAL STUDY OF APIOS PRICEANA TUBERS. J. AGR IC. & FOOD CHEMISTRY, VOL 34(1):39-41.

  • Walter, W. M., et al. 1981. Compositional study of Apios priceana Tubers. Journal of Agriculture & Food Chemistry 34(1):39-41.

  • White, J. 1981. Illinois state element ranking form. Illinois Natural Heritage Inventory unpublished report. 1 p.

  • Winterringer, G.S. 1951. New and infrequently collected Illinois plants. Amer. Midl. Nat. 45:504-506.

Use Guidelines & Citation

Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2018.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2018 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2018. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.