Apalone spinifera spinifera - (LeSueur, 1827)
Eastern Spiny Softshell
Other English Common Names: Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle, eastern spiny softshell
Synonym(s): Apalone spinifera hartwegi (Conant and Goin, 1941) ;Trionyx spiniferus spiniferus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Apalone spinifera hartwegi (Conant and Goin, 1948) (TSN 208689) ;Apalone spinifera spinifera (Lesueur, 1827) (TSN 208693)
French Common Names: tortue-molle Ó Úpines de l'Est
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.905786
Element Code: ARAAG01036
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Turtles
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Chelonia Cryptodeira Trionychidae Apalone
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: McGaugh, S. E., C. M. Eckerman, and F. J. Janzen. 2008. Molecular phylogeography of Apalone spinifera (Reptilia, Trionychidae). Zoologica Scripta 37:289-304.
Concept Reference Code: A08MCG01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Apalone spinifera spinifera
Taxonomic Comments: McGaugh et al. (2008) found no genetic basis for recognizing subspecies hartwegi and synonymized it with A. s. spinifera.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5T5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 02Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 31Oct1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: T5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Oct1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2 (02Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNR), Arkansas (S5), Colorado (S4), Indiana (S4), Kentucky (S5), Missouri (S5), Nevada (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), North Carolina (S1), Pennsylvania (S4), Virginia (S2), West Virginia (S4)
Canada Ontario (S2)

Other Statuses

Implied Status under the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC):E

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, CO, IN, KY, MO, NC, NJexotic, NVexotic, PA, VA, WV
Canada ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NC Buncombe (37021), Henderson (37089)*, Madison (37115)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
06 Upper French Broad (06010105)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Anonymous. 1994. Eastern Spiny Softshell factsheet. Carolinian Canada. 2 pp.

  • Anonymous. 1995. Wanted: Eastern Spiny Softshell Sightings. Scales and Tales, Newsletter of the Centre for Endangered Reptiles, Quebec 9(1):1.

  • Auburn University Natural History Museum and Learning Center. Auburn Univeristy Museum Reptile and Amphibian Collection, Auburn, Alabama. http://www.auburn.edu/academic/science_math/cosam/collections/reptiles_amphibians/index.htm

  • Bishop, C.A. and A.D. Gendron. 1998. Reptiles and amphibians: shy and sensitive vertebrates of the Great Lakes Basin and St. Lawrence River. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 53: 225-244.

  • Bolton, R.M., S.A. Marshall, R.J. Brooks. 2008. Opportunistic exploitation of turtle eggs by Tripanurga importuna (Walker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 86: 151-160. http://publicdocs.mnr.gov.on.ca/View.asp?Document_ID=20104&Attachment_ID=42554

  • Bonin, J. 1993. Recherche de la Tortue-molle a epines dans les regions de: iles Finlay - Hennessys Bay - Malloy Bay, Bellows Bay et Chalk Bay sur la riviere des Outaouais. Rapport aux WWFC, Min. Env. QB, et Min. Loisir, Chasse et Peche QB. 17 pp.

  • COSEWIC 2002. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the spiny softshell turtle Apalone spinifera in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vii + 17 pp.

  • Campbell, C.A. 1977. Range, requirements and status of the Eastern Spiny Softshell (Trionyx spiniferus spiniferus) in Canada. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario. Unpublished report. 32 pp.

  • Campbell, C.A. and G.R. Donaldson. 1980. A Status Report for the Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle, Trionyx spiniferus spiniferus, in Canada. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Toronto. 50 pp. (Edited and revised in March 1985 by M.E. Obbard).

  • Campbell, C.A. and G.R. Donaldson. 1991. Draft status report on the Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle Apalone spinifera in Canada. COSEWIC. Unpublished report. 61 pp.

  • Collins, J. T. 1990. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians and reptiles. 3rd ed. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Herpetological Circular No. 19. 41 pp.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84. Online with updates at: http://www.ssarherps.org/pages/comm_names/Index.php

  • Eastern Spiny Softshell Recovery Team. 1996. National Recovery Plan for the Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle (Apalone spiniferus spiniferus) in Canada. Unpublished report. 49 pp.

  • Ernst, C. H. and J. E. Lovich. 2009. Turtles of the United States and Canada, second edition. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 827 pages.

  • Ernst, C. H., and R. W. Barbour. 1972. Turtles of the United States. the University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. 347 pages.

  • Fletcher, M. 1996. In search of the softshell. The Cardinal 163: 14.

  • Fletcher, M. 1996. Management of Softshell Turtle Habitat (Year 1, 1996). Upper Thames River Conservation Authority and the McIlwraith Field Naturalists of London Ontario Incorporated, London, Ontario. 23 pp.

  • Fletcher, M. 1996. The road to protection: an ongoing study of the Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle in southwestern Ontario. The Cardinal 163: 13.

  • Fletcher, M. 1997. Management of Softshell Turtle Habitat, Year 2, 1997. World Wildlife Fund and Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada. 30 pp.

  • Fletcher, M. and S. Gillingwater. 1994. A survey of the Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle along the Thames and Sydenham Rivers 1994. Prepared for St. Clair Region Conservation Authority, Upper Thames River Conservation Authority, Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority, and ESSR Team. Unpublished report. 27 pp.

  • Fletcher, M.F., S. Graff, and S. D. Gillingwater. 1995. Site Specific Examination of Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle Populations on the Thames and Sydenham Rivers. Upper Thames River Conservation Authority, London, Ontario. 17 pp.

  • Gartshore, M. E. and P. J. Carson. 1990. Queen Snakes and Spiny Softshell Turtles on the Thames River, Aylmer District.

  • Graham T.E. and C.B. Cobb. 1998. Sexual Dimorphism of Neonate Eastern Spiny Softshells, Apalone spinifera spinifera. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 3(1): 111-112.

  • Graham, T. E. 1989. Preliminary Analysis of the Status and Ecology of the Spiny Softshell, Trionyx spiniferus spiniferus, near the mouths of the Lamoille and Winooski Rivers, Vermont.. Nongame and Natural Heritage Program, Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department, Waterbury, VT. 20 pp.

  • Graham, T.E. and A.A. Graham. 1997. Ecology of eastern spiny softshell, Apalone spinifera spinifera, in the Laoille River, Vermont. Pp. 363-369, in, Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(3).

  • Graham, T.E. and A.A. Graham. 1997. Ecology of the Eastern Spiny Softshell, Apalone spinifera spinifera, in the Lamoille River, Vermont. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(3): 363-369.

  • Hammerson, G. 2001. EO Specs for Softshell turtles (ELCODE ARAAG00001). NatureServe, unpublished. 2 pp.

  • Howe, C. 2005. Freshwater turtle DNA extraction and species identification from field collected eggshells. Technical report submitted to Bruce Pond, OMNR, Peterborough, ON. http://publicdocs.mnr.gov.on.ca/View.asp?Document_ID=20132&Attachment_ID=42591

  • Joel Bonin, co-ordinator. 1993. Spiny Softshell Turtle of Ottawa River, Survey of Populations and Vital habitats. Final Report to World Wildlife Fund Canada. 7 pp.

  • Kraus, D. 1996. Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle Project. The Egret II(2): 16-17.

  • Lamond, W.G. 1994. The Reptiles and Amphibians of the Hamilton Area: An Historical Summary and the results of The Hamilton Herpetofaunal Atlas. Hamilton Naturalists' Club, Hamilton, Ontario. 174 pp.

  • Martin, D. 1994. Educational awareness programs in the recovery plan for the Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle. Paper presented at The Centre for Endangered Reptiles 1994 Herpetological Symposium - Conservation of Canadian Reptiles, held 5 November 1994, at CNE Park, Toronto, Ontario.

  • Martin, D. 1994. Spiny Softshell update. The Cardinal No. 156: 23.

  • Martin, D. 1994. The Eastern Spiny Softshell. The Cardinal No. 155: 20.

  • McGaugh, S. E., C. M. Eckerman, and F. J. Janzen. 2008. Molecular phylogeography of Apalone spinifera (Reptilia, Trionychidae). Zoologica Scripta 37:289-304.

  • Metras, M. 1996. Spiny Softshell Turtle update. The Cardinal 164: 21.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pages.

  • Obbard, M.E. 1983. The Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle in western Lake Ontario. Submitted to Royal Botanical Gardens, Burlington, Ontario. Unpublished report on field work conducted in 1982.

  • Obbard, M.E. and N.E. Down. 1984. A recent specimen of the Eastern Spiny Softshell, Trionyx spiniferus spiniferus, from Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario. Canadian Field-Naturalist 98(2): 254-255.

  • Oldham, M.J. 1995. COSSARO Candidate V,T,E Species Evaluation Form for Eastern Spiny Softshell (Apalone spinifera). Unpublished report prepared by Natural Heritage Information Centre for Committee on the Status of Species at Risk in Ontario (COSSARO), Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. 7 pp.

  • Planck, J.T. 1983. Eastern Spiny Softshell nesting at Long Point National Wildife Area: management concerns at critical habitats. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ontario Region, London, Ontario. Unpublished report. 37 pp.

  • Stone, P.A., J.L. Dobie, and R.P. Henry. 1992. Cutaneous Surface Area and Bimodal Respiration in Soft-Shelled (Trionyx spiniferus), Stinkpot (Sternotherus odoratus), and Mud Turtles (Kinosternon subrubrum). Physiol. Zool. 65(2): 311-330.

  • Turtle Taxonomy Working Group [van Dijk, P.P., Iverson, J.B., Shaffer, H.B., Bour, R., and Rhodin, A.G.J.]. 2012. Turtles of the world, 2012 update: annotated checklist of taxonomy, synonymy, distribution, and conservation status. In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Pritchard, P.C.H., van Dijk, P.P., Saumure, R.A., Buhlmann, K.A., Iverson, J.B., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Conservation Biology of Freshwater Turtles and Tortoises: A Compilation Project of the IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group. Chelonian Research Monographs No. 5:000.243-000.328. Online. Available: www.iucn-tftsg.org/cbftt/.

  • Zammit, A.E. 1998. Amphibian and reptile conservation in Ontario: guidelines for parks and protected areas at Long Point, Rondeau and Point Pelee. Pp. 252-267 In: Proceedings of the Parks Research Forum of Ontario (PRFO) Annual General Meeting. February 5 & 6, Peterborough, Ontario (J.G. Nelson and K. Van Osch with T.J. Beechey, W.R. Stephenson, and J. Marsh). Parks Research Forum of Ontario (PRFO), Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON. 252-267 pp.

  • [Fletcher, M.] 1995. Eastern spiny softshell turtle: distribution, habitat requirements, and consequences of habitat alterations to the southwestern Ontario population. Upper Thames River Conservation Authority et al., London, Ontario. 21 pp.

  • l'Equipe de retablissement de la tortue-molle a epines. 1997. Plan d'intervention sur la tortue-molle a epines (APALONE SPINIFERA SPINIFERA) au Quebec. Ministere de l'Environnement et de la Faune, Quebec. 68 pp.

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