Anthoxanthum odoratum - L.
Sweet Vernal Grass
Other Common Names: sweet vernalgrass
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Anthoxanthum odoratum L. (TSN 41395)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.160120
Element Code: PMPOA0F020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Anthoxanthum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Anthoxanthum odoratum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Mar1994
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (11Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Alaska (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Georgia (SNA), Hawaii (SNA), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), Montana (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New Mexico (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA), Wyoming (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), New Brunswick (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: It ranges from northern Florida to southern Canada along the East Coast and west to the Mississippi River flood plain. It also occurs from northern California to Vancouver Island, Canada (Hitchcock 1971, Grant and Antonovics 1978). It was introduced to North America from Europe in the late 1700s as a meadow grass and has since escaped cultivation (Munz and Keck 1973, Grant and Antonovics 1978).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM occurs on Nature Conservancy grassland preserves in Oregon from west of the Cascade Mountains to the coast. At present, it is not a significant threat to California preserves, but where present, as at the Northern California Coast Range Preserve, its elimination is the ultimate goal.

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: It ranges from northern Florida to southern Canada along the East Coast and west to the Mississippi River flood plain. It also occurs from northern California to Vancouver Island, Canada (Hitchcock 1971, Grant and Antonovics 1978). It was introduced to North America from Europe in the late 1700s as a meadow grass and has since escaped cultivation (Munz and Keck 1973, Grant and Antonovics 1978).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AKexotic, ALexotic, ARexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, GAexotic, HIexotic, IDexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NHexotic, NJexotic, NMexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, TNexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic, WYexotic
Canada BCexotic, NBexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, PEexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description:

ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM is a sweet-smelling perennial grass with flat blades and spikelike panicles.

The name ANTHOXANTHUM is derived from the Greek, ANTHOS meaning flower and XANTHOS meaning yellow, alluding to the yellow inflorescence.

Technical Description: The following description of ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM has been adapted primarily from Jepson (1923), Abrams (1940), Hitchcock (1971), and Munz and Keck (1973).

The slender culms are tufted, erect, 3-6 (rarely 10) dm tall, with leaf blades 2-5 mm wide. The panicles are brownish-yellow, long-- exserted, acute, 2-6 (7) cm long.

The brownish-green spikelets are 8-10 mm long. Glumes are scabrous; the first about half as long as the second. The sterile lemmas are subequal, appressed-pilose with golden hairs; the first short-awned below the apex, the second awned from near the base, the awn twisted below, geniculate, slightly exceeding the second glume. The fertile lemma is about 2 mm long, brown, smooth, and shiny.

Diagnostic Characteristics: ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM can be distinguished from other grass species by its perennial habit and sweet, vanilla scent, especially when dry.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM reproduces from seeds, flowering early in the spring and forming distinct, identifiable clumps that do not spread vegetatively (Grant and Antonovics 1978). The plants are generally self-incompatible (Antonovics 1972). Plants in North Carolina were reported to produce from 58 to 1,257 seeds per plant (Grant and Antonovics 1978).

SEED DISPERSAL AND GERMINATION

Seeds with awns are able to move further along the soil surface than awnless seeds. ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM seeds have awns that wind and unwind with changes in atmospheric humidity. The movement of seeds by this mechanism is not great, averaging 1.6 cm on dry soil and 1.3 cm on wet soil over a 5-day period, but it may give the seeds a slight advantage in reaching suitable germination sites (Schonfeld and Chancellor 1983).

Harris (1961) found some dormancy in ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM seeds. Most germination began the 4th week after sowing and ceased by the 8th week, but a few seeds germinated more than a year later. In experimental studies in England (Williams 1983a), A. ODORATUM seeds stored for 48 weeks in dry storage resulted in 86% germination. There is thus indirect evidence of seed dormancy, which may increase a seed's chance of being incorporated into the soil while still viable. For seeds sown on moist soil, however, emergence occurred rapidly (within three months). Those seeds that did not emerge within 10 months were not viable. Emergence was highest for seeds sown at a depth of 1 cm (75% viable) and decreased to 52% for seeds sown at a depth of 5 cm.

In another British study (Williams 1983b), ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM was compared with eight other grassland species. It showed a greater ability to germinate under constant conditions than when conditions were varied. When A. ODORATUM seeds were stored for 28 weeks, a much higher percentage of the seeds germinated when stored at constant temperatures.

Ecology Comments: GROWTH AND COMPETITION

When grown with other common pasture grasses, ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM is highly competitive. In a North Carolina study, it generally dominated mixtures that included PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA, POA PRATENSIS, SALVIA LYRATA, and RUMEX ACETOSELLA (Fowler 1982).

In a study of competition with LOLIUM PERENNE, DACTYLIS GLOMERATA, and HOLCUS LANATUS (Remison and Snaydon 1978), sweet vernal grass proved highly competitive in the early spring due to its rapid growth and early flowering. Later in the summer it declines in aggressiveness. Among these species, sweet vernal grass is the most highly competitive for potassium (Remison and Snaydon 1978). A Dutch study revealed similar results (Berendse 1983). Even at low densities, competition between ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM and PLANTAGO LANCEOLATA is very strong. ANTHOXANTHUM's competitive ability is highest in early spring.

In competition experiments (Remison 1978) with HOLCUS LANATUS and DACTYLIS GLOMERATA, ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM had the lowest yield, especially at low densities. It proved most competitive at intermediate densities. Again, however, sweet vernal grass was most competitive early in the growing season, due to its rapid spring growth.

ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM roots are quite shallow, absorbing nutrients mainly from the upper 10 cm of soil (Berendse 1982). It commonly occurs on soils that are low in phosphorus (Roberts 1982). On fertilized soils, sweet vernal grass develops a dense surface root mat (Remison and Snaydon 1978). Although ANTHOXANTHUM tillers profusely, its poor root growth reduces its competitive ability (Remison 1978). The ratio of roots to shoots is therefore quite low at 0.(55) (Remison and Snaydon 1978).

In mixed species plots, intraspecific competition is more important than interspecific competition (Berendse 1983). Like many other grasses, sweet vernal grass contains allelopathic chemicals that suppress the growth of other plant species (Scott 1975). It is "allo-inhibited," growing better with exudate from its own and similar species in permanent grasslands (Newman and Rovira 1975).

The decomposing roots of ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM have an effect opposite that of the allelopathic leachate. Old roots appear to enhance the growth of other grass species, while decreasing the growth of new ANTHOXANTHUM plants. Phosphorus content in the roots averaged 0.155%, a relatively high level. This is probably one of the factors leading to the increased growth of other species on sites with decomposing sweet vernal grass roots (Newberry 1979).

ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM plants average 3.5 leaves per shoot. The individual leaves are unusually short-lived, with a mean survival of only 19 days. Only a few leaves survive for three months. This rapid turnover of leaves is probably a reflection of the plant's rapid growth rate (Sydes 1984).

POPULATION DYNAMICS

The biology of ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM populations is complex and depends upon the particular habitat. Different character complexes are favored by different habitat types leading to substantial phenetic differences between ecologically marginal and central populations. Ecologically marginal populations have higher turnover rates than central ones. Individual life expectancy is shorter in marginal populations, while central populations contain a skewed age distribution in favor of older individuals, making them potentially less stable (Grant and Antonovics 1978).

In response to contrasting environments, sweet vernal grass can rapidly differentiate, even without geographic barriers. In one study (Kiang 1982), significant differences in morphology, flowering date, and pollen fertility developed in less than 40 years. Such differences among populations were genetic adaptations to contrasting soil environments. Similar results are reported by Snaydon and Davies (1972, 1976) for populations at distances of less than 30 m apart.

When environmental boundaries are distinct, ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM populations can exhibit sharp differences. Plants growing only 0.1 m apart across a sharp environmental boundary that had existed for less than 120 years showed significant differences in height, yield, flowering date, and morphology (Snaydon and Davies 1976).

Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Sweet vernal grass is a native of Eurasia (Hitchcock 1971, Munz and Keck 1973). It occurs on poorer soils in dry fields, lawns, meadows, and waste places (Muenscher 1955).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM is a sweet-smelling perennial grass of Eurasian origin that has escaped from cultivation in North America. It occurs primarily on poor soils but is not considered a major weed pest. It reproduces by seeds and can be highly competitive with other grasses, particularly during the spring. Sweet vernal grass also shows a remarkable ability to genetically adapt to different environmental conditions. It can be controlled by hand pulling individual plants, hand hoeing, mowing, or by using the herbicide Dalapon. Monitoring needs to be continued after the initial removal of ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM plants because of their potentially long seed dormancy in the soil.
Restoration Potential: With the right combination of control measures, it should be possible to eliminate sweet vernal grass from selected areas. Annual monitoring and removal must continue until soil seedbanks are exhausted.
Management Requirements: Control of ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM requires active management once it becomes established in an area. Control through prescribed burning is being attempted on Oregon preserves.

MECHANICAL CONTROL

The physical removal of sweet vernal grass by hand pulling or hoeing is an effective method of control for small patches. Control can also be obtained by mowing early in the season and before the seeds have matured. Badly infested fields should be plowed and seeded with a cover crop (Muenscher 1955).

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

According to Charles Turner of the USDA Biocontrol Lab in Albany, California (pers. comm. 1985), grass species such as ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM present a major problem for biocontrol techniques. The lack of known host-specific insect or disease pest controls means that more experimenting must be done. Such experiments could damage ecologically or agriculturally important grass species. In addition, sweet vernal grass is not considered an undesirable plant everywhere. Keeping insects or pathogens within property boundaries is impossible.

CONTROL BY GRAZING

Grazing is not known to be a useful control method for ANTHOXAN- THUM ODORATUM.

CHEMICAL CONTROL

A variety of herbicides are effective on ANTHOXANTHUM, but they will also kill other, more desirable grasses. Dalapon (Dowpon) provides excellent control of ANTHOXANTHUM ODORATUM (Fryer and Makepeace 1978). Dr. Jim McHenry (pers. comm. 1985), of the University of California, Davis, recommends it to control sweet vernal grass on Nature Conservancy lands. It will kill both annual and perennial grasses but is not as effective on broadleaf plants. Dalapon should be applied in the spring when there is maximum top growth, prior to the appearance of the seed head. Apply the herbicide at the rate of 10 lbs/100 gal of water along with one quart of surfactant. Surfactants lower the surface tension of the spray and increase the herbicide's effectiveness. Dalapon is cleared for use on right-of-ways and grazing lands (if spot treated). Dalapon has low toxicity to animals and fish and breaks down rapidly and completely in soils (Beste 1983).

Herbicides can be applied uniformly over an area for large infestations or by spot spraying individuals plants. Due to the nonselective nature of Dalapon, spot spraying is recommended for most purposes. Dr. McHenry recommends using a flat-fan nozzle (Spraying Systems Co. #8003 or #8004 nozzle tip) rather than the cone nozzles available on most garden sprayers. Cone sprayers produce greater atomization of the chemicals and increase the chance of unwanted drift. Spraying should be done to dry plants on calm days since dew or rain will dilute the herbicide, reducing its effectiveness. When spraying large areas, a horizontal boom (6-8 feet long) made from aluminum tubing will improve herbicide coverage.

Monitoring Requirements: Monitoring is needed to determine the effectiveness of any sweet vernal grass control measures. Methods will vary depending upon the degree of the problem on a given preserve.

A. ODORATUM is being monitored on all Oregon preserves where it occurs using nested frequency methods and, in some cases, with density counts (Macdonald pers. comm. 1988). It is not being monitored in California.


Management Programs: Annual monitoring following prescribed burning continues at Cascase Head and Willow Creek preserves in Oregon.
Monitoring Programs: For more information on monitoring efforts in Oregon contact: Cathy Macdonald, Land Steward The Nature Conservancy Oregon Field Office 1205 NW 25th Avenue Portland, OR 97210 (503) 228-9561
Management Research Programs: Research burns were conducted in 1986 and 1987 at Willow Creek Preserve, OR. Additional research burns were done at Cascade Head Preserve, OR, in 1988. It is still too early to evaluate the results of these burns on the control of sweet vernal grass (Macdonald pers. comm. 1988). For further information contact: Cathy Macdonald, Land Steward The Nature Conservancy Oregon Field Office 1205 NW 25th Avenue Portland, OR 97210 (503) 228-9561
Management Research Needs: Very little research has been done on controlling sweet vernal grass. Much research needs to be done in the areas of biological control, prescribed burning, and mechanical removal techniques.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 04Nov1988
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: DON PITCHER MARY J RUSSO (Revision), CAFO
Management Information Edition Date: 04Nov1988
Management Information Edition Author: DON PITCHER; MARY J RUSSO (REVISION), CAFO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 04Nov1988
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): DON PITCHER MARY J RUSSO (Revision), CAFO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Abrams, L. 1940. Illustrated flora of the Pacific states: Washington, Oregon, and California. Vol. 1. Ophioglossaceae to Aristolochiaceae. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 538 pp.

  • Antonovics, J. 1972. Population dynamics of the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum on a zinc mine. J. Ecology. 60:351-365.

  • Antonovics, J. 1984. Genetic variation within populations. Pp. 229-241 in R. Dirzo and J. Sarukhan (ed.), Perspectives of plant population ecology. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.

  • Berendse, F. 1982. Competition between plant populations with different rooting depths. III. Field experiments. Oecologia 53:50-55.

  • Berendse, F. 1983. Interspecific competition and niche differentiation between Plantango lanceolata and Anthoxanthum odoratum in a natural hay field. J. Ecology 71:379-390.

  • Beste, C. E. 1983. Herbicide handbook. Weed Science Society of America, Herbicide Handbook Committee. Champagne, IL.

  • Dwire, K. A. 1983. Dispersal and colonization of the invading perennial grass, Anthoxanthum odoratum, in annual patches in a California coastal grassland. MS thesis. Univ. of California, Davis.

  • Fowler, N. 1982. Competition and coexistence in a North Carolina Grassland. III. Mixtures of component species. J. Ecology 70:77-92.

  • Fryer, J. D. and R. J. Makepeace. 1978. Weed control handbook. Vol. II. Recommendations. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England.

  • Grant, M. C., and J. Antonovics. 1977. Biology of ecologically marginal populations of Anthoxanthum odoratum: I. phenetics and dynamics. Evolution 32(4):822-838.

  • Harris, G. S. 1961. The periodicity of germination in some grass species. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 4:253-260.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. [Reprinted, 1971, in 2 vols., by Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York.]

  • Jepson, W.L. 1925. A manual of the flowering plants of California. Independent Pressroom: San Francisco, CA.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kinag, Y. T. 1982. Local differentiation of Anthoxanthum odoratum populations on roadsides. American Midland Naturalist 107:340-350.

  • Macdonald, C. 1988. Oregon Land Steward, The Nature Conservancy. Memorandum to M. J. Russo, The Nature Conservancy, Western Regional Office. September 11, 1988.

  • Muenscher, W. C. 1955. Weeds. The MacMillan Co., New York.

  • Munz, P.A., and D.D. Keck. 1973. A California Flora and Supplement. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 1905 pp.

  • Newberry, D. M. 1979. The effects of decomposing roots on the growth of grassland plants. J. Applied Ecology 16:613-622.

  • Newman, E. I., and A. D. Rovira. 1975. Allelopathy among some British grassland plants. J. of Ecology 63:727-737.

  • Remion, S. U. 1978. The effects of decomposing roots on the growth of grassland plants. J. Applied Ecology 16:613-622.

  • Remison, S. U. and R. W. Snaydon. 1978. Yield, seasonal changes in root competitive ability and competition for nutrients among grass species. J. Agricultural Science, Cambridge 90:115-124.

  • Roberts, H. A., ed. 1982. Weed control handbook: principles. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England.

  • Schonfeld, M. A. and R. J. Chacellor. 1983. Factors influencing seed movement and dormancy in grass seeds. Grass and Forage Science 38:234-250.

  • Scott, D. 1975. Allelopathic interactions of resident tussock grassland species on germination of oversown seed. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture 3:135-141.

  • Snaydon, R. W. 1970. Rapid population differentiation in a mosaic environment. The response of Anthoxanthum odoratum to soils. Evolution 24:257-269.

  • Snaydon, R. W. and M. S. Davies. 1972. Rapid population differentiation in a mosaic environment. II. Morphological variation in Anthoxanthum odoratum. Evolution 26:390-405.

  • Snaydon, R.W. and M. S. Davies. 1976. Rapid population differentiation in a mosaic environment. IV. Populations of Anthoxanthum odoratum at sharp boundaries. Heredity 37:9-25.

  • Sydes, C. L. 1984. A comparative study of leaf demography in limestone grassland. J. Ecology 72:331-345.

  • Williams, E. D. 1983b. Effects of temperature, light, nitrate and pre-chilling on seed germination of grassland plants. Annals of Applied Biology 103:161-172.

  • Williams, E.D. 1983a. Germinability and enforced dormancy in seeds of species of indigenous grassland. Annals of Applied Biology 102:557-566.

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