Anthocharis cethura - C. Felder and R. Felder, 1865
Desert Orangetip
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Anthocharis cethura C. Felder and R. Felder, 1865 (TSN 777757)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.116560
Element Code: IILEPA6010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Butterflies and Skippers
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Pieridae Anthocharis
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B02OPL01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Anthocharis cethura
Taxonomic Comments: Includes A. Pima. These two form a gradual cline between California, Nevada and Arizona, as discussed by Emmel et al. (1998) (Opler and Warren 2004). It could be recognized as a subspecies if there were a reason to do so.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 30Sep1998
Global Status Last Changed: 30Sep1998
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: In some areas, mainly in southern California deserts, it is subject to a wide variety of pressures but over all this is a fairly widespread desert speices and is not in trouble rangewide.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4N5 (30Sep1998)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S4), California (SNR), Nevada (SNR), New Mexico (SNR), Texas (SNR), Utah (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 250-20,000 square km (about 100-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Southern and eastern California to northern Baja California, east through parts of Nevada, and southeast through much of Arizona to southern New Mexico and extreme western Texas (from Scott, 1986), particularly in desert regions.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Population Size: 2500 - 10,000 individuals

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Urbanization, off road vehicles, possibly air pollution.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (250-20,000 square km (about 100-8000 square miles)) Southern and eastern California to northern Baja California, east through parts of Nevada, and southeast through much of Arizona to southern New Mexico and extreme western Texas (from Scott, 1986), particularly in desert regions.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, NM, NV, TX, UT

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Cochise (04003)*, Pima (04019)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
15 San Simon (15040006)+*, Upper Santa Cruz (15050301)+*, Rillito (15050302)+, Rio Sonoyta (15080102)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Butterfly, Pieridae.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Conifer, Woodland - Hardwood, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Habitats mostly low desert; also chapparal, woodland hills, canyons, glades, ridgeline meadows, that is various semi-open to open situations with the larval foodplants up to about 1800 meters.
Food Comments: Larvae on various Brassicaceae. Probably eat flowers and developing pods only.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Pieridae, General

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs, or recently has occurred, where there is potential for continued occurrence or regular recurrence. Minimally a place with a verified collection or photograph or in exceptional cases a sight record from an expert in association with larval foodplants in suitable habitat. Verification standards may vary by species and location, for example there is only one species of Anthocaris in the entire east so sight records would be more reasonable to accept there than in some western regions.
Mapping Guidance: Usually, but not always habitat boundaries are discernable based on vegetation type or structure, but in some cases they will be defined more by distribution of the larval foodplant. Include adjacent nectaring areas as habitat. Consult the habitat and food comments fields for species-specific information on what constitutes suitable habitat when mapping occurrences.
Separation Barriers: Very little information. At least some species such as patrolling male COLIAS routinely recognize and stay within habitat boundaries, but during other circumstances they readily leave them and at least some open country species very readily fly over forests and through or over cities, for example COLIAS PHILODICE, C. EURYTHEME, PIERIS RAPAE, P. PROTODICE.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 4 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: When dealing with multiple occurrences within the same large scale natural community such as COLIAS INTERIOR in openings in a large barrens complex, consider the occurrence a metapopulation and apply the suitable habitat distance. Also both distances may be lowered in very cold environments where sustained flight is almost always impossible except in highly sheltered warm microclimates. However do this very conservatively for suitable habitat distance since.
Separation Justification: These are strong flying dispersive to migratory species that easily travel several km per hour at least during warm sunny weather. Recall a meter per second, about right for the slowest species is 3.6 km per hour. While the species no doubt vary in their dispersive or colonial tendencies these figures seem reasonable in the absence of actual data. Both figures are arbitrary.

For woodland or forest species use the ten kilometer distance when assessing multiple "colonies" on wooded ridges, or in large canyons etc. As with most Lepidoptera all contiguous suitable habitat is likely to be occupied to some degree so there is little chance two collections only ten kilometers apart across largely suitable habitat would really be separate occurrences.

For species that routinely move along and into forest patches or through a dominant landscape feature that often has foodplants use the suitable habitat distance for marginal habitats. Likewise for feature adults like to follow such as forest edges for Anthocharis midea or edges, railroads and sand roads for some Eurema.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: In practice most occurrences will occupy a few hundred hectares or less and in such cases the inferred extent is simply all available habitat. Exceptions are most likely to occur among woodland species such as ANTHOCARIS for which foodplants are scattered more sparsely or patchily over large areas forcing at least females to move around a lot to find them. Use the 1 kilometer figure only with extensive habitat or proximate patches along a feature such as a ridgeline. As with most butterflies populations will usually occupy most of the potential habitat at least during good weather or favorable years. Beware though that in cold conditions at least Colias and presumably others concentrate in low, sheltered, sunny spots and appear more sedentary than they really are. Even the highly dispersive and somewhat migratory COLIAS EURYTHEME becomes intensely localized and sedentary in southern New Jersey from about mid November through February when sun angle is too low for the butterflies to reach optimum flight temperature even on warm days. Arctic and alpine species are also most active and dispersive on warm sunny days. It is unlikely that 1 kilometer will prove realistic except in arctic and alpine situations, for now there are insufficient observations to justify a larger figure.
Date: 14Sep2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Notes: Boreal forest or woodland PIERIS of the NAPI complex are included for now but may need different SPECS. The two which are reasonably well known are P. OLERACEA for which these SPECS should be suitable and P. VIRGINIENSIS which needs and has its own SPECS.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Jul1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Opler, P.A.; Schweitzer, D.F.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 04Aug1998

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bailowitz, R. A. and J. P. Brock. 1991. Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona. Sonoran Arthropod Studies, Inc., Tucson, AZ. 342 pp.

  • Emmel, Thomas C., editor. 1998. Systematics of western North American butterflies. Mariposa Press, Gainesville, Florida. 878 pp.

  • Garth, J.S. and J.W. Tilden. 1986. California Butterflies. University of California Press.

  • Opler, P. A. (chair), J. M. Burns, J. D. LaFontaine, R. K. Robbins, and F. Sperling. 1999. Scientific names of north american butterflies. Fort Collins, Colorado. Unpublished review draft.

  • Opler, P. A., and A. D. Warren. 2002. Butterflies of North America. 2. Scientific Names List for Butterfly Species of North America, north of Mexico. C.P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Department of Bioagricultural Sciences and Pest Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. 79 pp.

  • Pelham, J. P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. The Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. Volume 40. 658 pp. Revised 14 February, 2012.

  • Pyle, R.M., 1981. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North America Butterflies. Chanitcleer Press, Alfred A. Knopf, NY. 916 pp, 759 color figures.

  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Stanford University Press, Stanford CA. 583 pp.

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