Aneides hardii - (Taylor, 1941)
Sacramento Mountain Salamander
Other English Common Names: Sacramento Mountain salamander
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Aneides hardii (Taylor, 1941) (TSN 173702)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.105472
Element Code: AAAAD01040
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Salamanders
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Caudata Plethodontidae Aneides
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Aneides hardii
Taxonomic Comments: Mahoney (2001) used mtDNA data to examine phylogenetic relationships of western and eastern PLETHODON and ANEIDES. She found strong support for eastern PLETHODON as a clade, but monophyly of ANEIDES was only weakly supported in some analyses, though "the monophyly of this clade is not in doubt." Analyses indicated that PLETHODON STORMI and P. ELONGATUS are clearly sister taxa, and P. DUNNI and P. VEHICULUM also are well-supported sister taxa. PLETHODON LARSELLI and P. VANDYKEI appear to be closely related, whereas P. NEOMEXICANUS did not group with any other lineage. All analyses yielded a paraphyletic PLETHODON but constraint analyses did not allow rejection of a monophyletic PLETHODON. Mahoney recommended continued recognition of ANEIDES as a valid genus and adoption of the metataxon designation for PLETHODON*, indicating this status with an asterisk. (A metataxon is a group of lineages for which neither monophyly nor paraphyly can be demonstrated.)
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Dec2001
Global Status Last Changed: 04Oct2001
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Small range in three mountain ranges in southern New Mexico; relatively abundant in several areas; incompatible forestry practices are a potential threat, but apparently relatively secure under current management practices.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States New Mexico (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 250-5000 square km (about 100-2000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Sacramento Mountains, Capitan Mountains, and Sierra Blanca in Lincoln and Otero counties of southern New Mexico. Largely within Lincoln National Forest; elevations of 2438 m (possibly 2380 m) to 3600 m (Ramotnik 1997).

Area of Occupancy: 126-12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 1 - 20
Number of Occurrences Comments: Ramotnik (1997) mapped slightly more than 100 collection/observation sites in 3 highly localized areas in 2 counties of New Mexico.

Population Size: 10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but likely is at least several thousand. Appears to be numerous in several restricted areas (New Mexico Department of Fish and Game 1985). Densities of 6/100 sq m were found in occupied areas (Ramotnik and Scott 1988, cited by New Mexico Department of Game and Fish 1996).

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include logging, overgrazing, and forest fires. Highly vulnerable to desiccation and exposure due to habitat alteration. Negatively impacted by opening up of shady mature forest and by destruction or removal of downed logs (Bury et al. 1980). Intensive logging, slash removal, and burning probably are detrimental (Ramotnik and Scott 1988, Ramotnik 1997). Populations may persist through the first intensive logging of an area, but may not survive a repeated 10-year logging cycle (Ramotnik and Scott 1988, cited by Degenhardt et al. 1996). Apparently relatively secure under current management practices (Ramotnik 1997).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Distribution is relatively stable; abundance trend is uncertain.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Establish baseline population data for all three mountain ranges (Ramotnik 1997).

Protection Needs: Protect through proper management the known and potential areas of salamander habitat.

Distribution
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Global Range: (250-5000 square km (about 100-2000 square miles)) Sacramento Mountains, Capitan Mountains, and Sierra Blanca in Lincoln and Otero counties of southern New Mexico. Largely within Lincoln National Forest; elevations of 2438 m (possibly 2380 m) to 3600 m (Ramotnik 1997).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single state or province

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States NM

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM Lincoln (35027), Otero (35035)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
13 Tularosa Valley (13050003)+, Salt Basin (13050004)+, Arroyo Del Macho (13060005)+*, Rio Hondo (13060008)+, Rio Penasco (13060010)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A lungless salamander.
Reproduction Comments: Apparently females lay eggs every other year; eggs begin to hatch in July (New Mexico Department of Fish and Game 1985).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Bare rock/talus/scree, Forest - Conifer
Special Habitat Factors: Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Douglas-fir, Engelmann spruce, and white fir forests. Typically found on north- and east-facing slopes; often found in canyons in rotting logs, rock crevices, or under forest litter. Spends much of its life underground. Females with eggs have been found in cavities in Douglas-fir logs (Stebbins 1985).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Invertebrates, especially ants and beetle larvae.
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates
Phenology Comments: Inactive in cold temperatures and hot, dry weather. Usually emerges during summer rains and is most active between late June and August (Behler and King 1979).
Length: 11 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Develop management techniques that preserve mesic microhabitat.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Terrestrial Plethodontid Salamanders

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy highway, especially with high traffic volume at night; major river or lake; other totally inappropriate habitat that the salamanders cannot traverse.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Justification: These salamanders rarely successfully cross roadways that have heavy traffic volume at night, when most movements occur. Rivers and lakes pose formidable impediments to movement and generally function as barriers, with the effect increasing with river and lake size. Treatment of these as barriers or unsuitable habitat is a subjective determination.

Compared to larger ambystomatid salamanders, the movements of plethodontids are poorly documented, but it is clear that home ranges tend to be very small (e.g., Marvin 2001), on the order of a few meters to a few dozen meters in diameter. For example, Welsh and Lind (1992) found that over six months, 66% of Plethodon elongatus males and 80% of females recaptured were in the same 7.5 x 7.5 m grid, and the maximum distance moved was 36.2 m. D. Clayton (pers. comm 1998) estimated that average home ranges may be as small as one square meter. Yet, on occasion, dispersing plethodontids likely travel at least several hundred meters. The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the limited movements of these salamanders, tempered by their tendency to occur throughout patches of suitable habitat and the likely low probability that two locations separated by a gap of less than a few kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .1 km
Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02May2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G., and M. K. Clausen
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 26May1989
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Behler, J. L., and F. W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society field guide to North American reptiles and amphibians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. 719 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Bury, R. B., C. K. Dodd, Jr., and G. M. Fellers. 1980. Conservation of the Amphibia of the United States: a review. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., Resource Publication 134. 34 pp.

  • Degenhardt, W. G., C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. xix + 431 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Mahoney, M. J. 2001. Molecular systematics of Plethodon and Aneides (Caudata: Plethodontini): phylogenetic analysis of an old and rapid radiation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18:174-188.

  • New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. 1985. Handbook of species endangered in New Mexico.

  • New Mexico Department of Game and Fish. 1996. October 1-last update. Fish and Wildlife Information Exchange-VA Tech. Online. Available: http//www.fw.vt.edu/fishex/nm.html. Accessed 1997, April 8.

  • Ramotnik, C. A. 1997. Conservation assessment of the Sacramento Mountain salamander. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-293. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado. 19 pp.

  • Ramotnik, C. A., and N. J. Scott. 1988. Habitat requirements of New Mexico's endangered salamanders. Pages 54-63 in R.C. Szaro, et al., technical coordinators. 1988. Management of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals in North America. USDA For. Serv., Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166. 458 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1985a. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xiv + 336 pp.

  • Wake, D. 1965. Aneides hardii. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 17:1-2.

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