Sclerocactus brevihamatus ssp. tobuschii - (W.T. Marsh.) N.P. Taylor
Shorthook Fishhook Cactus
Synonym(s): Ancistrocactus tobuschii (W.T. Marsh) W.T. Marsh ex Backeberg ;Echinocactus tobuschii (W.T. Marsh.) Weniger
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Sclerocactus brevihamatus ssp. tobuschii (W.T. Marsh.) N.P. Taylor (TSN 525076)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.153206
Element Code: PDCAC0J0S1
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Cactus Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Cactaceae Sclerocactus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.
Concept Reference Code: B99KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Sclerocactus brevihamatus ssp. tobuschii
Taxonomic Comments: Ancistrocactus tobuschii and Echinocactus tobuschii were included in Sclerocactus scheeri by Kartesz (1994); this taxon is treated as a subspecies of S. brevihamatus in Kartesz (1999) and synonym of the full species by FNA (2003).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4T3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Feb2016
Global Status Last Changed: 17Dec1998
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: T3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Occurs in Texas on the Edwards Plateau, with almost 100 extant occurrences. Most occurrences are small (less than 100 individuals) but overall the species is fairly stable. At least 10 occurrences are being protected and monitored. The primary threat as of 2016 is mortality by parasitic insects.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Texas (S3)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE, PT: Listed endangered, proposed threatened (29Dec2016)
Comments on USESA: In a 90-day petition finding, USFWS has initiated a status review to see if downgrading this taxon from endangered to threatened is warranted (Federal Register, 9 September 2013).  In the December 29, 2016 Federal Register, USFWS proposed to reclassify the Tobusch fishhook cactus as threatened. "This determination is based on a thorough review of the best available scientific and commercial information, which indicates that the threats to this plant have been reduced to the point that it no longer meets the definition of endangered under the Act, but may still become endangered within the foreseeable future."
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R2 - Southwest

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Occurs in 8 counties of the Edwards Plateau in Texas.

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Ninty-nine extant EOs (USFWS 2010).

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Threats include land subdivision and residential development and other land use changes (subdivision of ranches to ranchettes with subsequent supporting developments of roads and utilities), increased juniper density that is caused by periodic cutting and prescribed burns, damage by parasitic insects and mammals, and extreme overgrazing. Overgrazing has caused loss of plant cover and subsequent soil erosion in much of this species' habitat.

Two Coleopteran cactus parasites can cause high mortality rates up to 70%: Moneilema armata LeConte (Cerambycidae) and an undescribed species of Gerstaeckeria (Curculionidae).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Occurs in 8 counties of the Edwards Plateau in Texas.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
TX Bandera (48019), Edwards (48137), Gillespie (48171)*, Kerr (48265), Kimble (48267), Kinney (48271), Real (48385), Uvalde (48463), Val Verde (48465)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
12 North Llano (12090202)+, South Llano (12090203)+, Llano (12090204)+, Upper Guadalupe (12100201)+, Medina (12100302)+, Nueces headwaters (12110101)+, West Nueces (12110102)+, Turkey (12110104)+*, Upper Frio (12110106)+
13 Lower Devils (13040302)+, Dry Devils (13040303)+, Elm-Sycamore (13080001)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A spiny succulent that typically grows as a solitary stem up to 13 cm tall and 9 cm thick. One spine in each spine cluster is distinctively hooked. Prominent yellow flowers bloom from mid-February to early April.
Duration: PERENNIAL, Long-lived
Reproduction Comments: Seeds dispersed by ants (USFWS 2010).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest/Woodland, Grassland/herbaceous, Shrubland/chaparral, Woodland - Mixed
Habitat Comments: Banks of streams and on loose water-deposited gravel bars, where it has been reduced by flooding and stream bank erosion. Limestone uplands in very shallow, gravelly soil over flaggy limestone in seral shortgrass grasslands among oak-juniper woodlands and semi-desert shrublands. Occasionally in gravels along creek bottoms. Absent from, or undetected in, later seral stage midgrass grasslands on similar sites.  In 1987, this taxon was thought to occur primarily along floodplains or stream terraces but by the early 1990s it had been discovered at many new locations, most of which were lower slopes to ridgetops (Poole and Janssen 2002 cited by USFWS 2010).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb2016
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Roth, E. (1987), rev. J. Poole & K. Maybury (1996), rev. A. Treher (2016)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Benson, L. 1982. The Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. 1044 pp.

  • Hunt, D., ed. 2006a. The New Cactus Lexicon. dh books. The Manse, Chapel Lane, England. 373 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T., and C. Meacham. 1998b. Unpublished review draft of Floristic Synthesis, 14 May 1998. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Lowe, D.W., J.R. Matthews, and C.J. Moseley, eds. 1990. The official World Wildlife Fund guide to endangered species of North America. Beacham Publishing, Washington, D.C. 1180 pp.

  • Poole, J.M., and D.H. Riskind. 1987. Endangered, threatened, or protected native plants of Texas. Texas Parks Wildlife Dept., Austin, TX.

  • Poole, Jackie M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price, and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 640 pp.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2010. Tobusch Fishhook Cactus (Sclerocactus brevihamatus ssp. tobuschii) completed 5-year review. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Austin Ecological Services Field Office, Austin, Texas. Available: http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3073.pdf.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2016. Reclassifying the Tobusch Fishhook Cactus from Endangered to Threatened on the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Plants. Proposed rule and 12-month petition finding. Federal Register 81(250): 95932-95941.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Tobusch fishhook cactus (Ancistrocactus tobuschii) recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2013. 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or Reclassify From Endangered to Threatened Five Southwest Species. Federal Register 78(174): 55046-55051.

  • Wauer, R.H. 1973. Naturalist's Big Bend. Texas A & M University Press, College Station. 149 pp.

  • Weniger, D. 1979. Status report on Ancistrocactus tobuschii. Report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  • Weniger, D. 1984. Cacti of Texas and neighboring states: a field guide. Univ. of Texas Press, Austin. 356 pp.

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