Anchusa azurea - P. Mill.
Italian Bugloss
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Anchusa azurea P. Mill. (TSN 31715)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.129564
Element Code: PDBOR02020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Borage Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Boraginaceae Anchusa
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Anchusa azurea
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (11Oct2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Montana (SNA), New Hampshire (SNA), New York (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Washington (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States CAexotic, COexotic, CTexotic, IAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MTexotic, NHexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, WAexotic
Canada BCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Very little is known of the impact on biodiversity of this perennial ornamental species. It is established in 16 scattered states across the U.S. but only reported as invasive in Oregon by the Native Plant Society of Oregon, who noted that this species' abundance is greatly increasing in one county, with new occurrences found in two other counties.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: High/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 11Jan2004
Evaluator: Lu, S.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Native to central and southern Europe (Jepson Flora Project, no date).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: It is a non-native established outside of cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Found in the woods of Benton County, OR (NPS of Oregon - Emerald Chapter, 2002; Medary, 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Medium/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Insignificant
Comments: No reported ecological impacts on abiotic ecosystem processes or system-wide parameters.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Unknown
Comments: No data available on Oregon population explosions.

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Unknown
Comments: No data available on Oregon population explosions. This species may also be a vector for other invasive species. According to Hoskoven and Rejzek (2004), Coptosia sancta, a beetle, develops in its host plant, Anchusa italica . I'm not sure if Coptosia sancta is non-native to the U.S., but if it is, this plant would increase the likelihood of the beetle to become established in the U.S. If the beetle does establish, it would impact the ecological community composition. However, since it hasn't established yet, the data is not relevant to the answer to this question.

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown
Comments: No data available on Oregon population explosions.

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Unknown
Comments: No data available on Oregon population explosions.

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Established in 16 scattered states in the United States - CA, CO, CT, IA, MA, MD, MI, MT, NH, NY, OH, OR, PA, TX, UT, and WA (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Low significance
Comments: Only known biodiversity impacts in Oregon (PCA 2003).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High/Low significance
Comments: At least 6 ecoregions and at the most 42 ecoregions (Inference using data from Kartesz 1999 and TNC Ecoregion 2001 map).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Unknown
Comments: At least known to establish in woods. May establish in other habitats also. (NPS of Oregon - Emerald Chapter)

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: High/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Low significance
Comments: Total range is stable. Abundance only reported to be exploding locally in Oregon.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Unknown
Comments: Do not know what its potential range is. However, it survives in the USDA hardiness zones 04a-10b (Crescent Bloom, no date).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Was able to travel between Benton and Clackamas counties in Oregon (NPS of Oregon), which are separated by at least 100 miles. The species has nutlets (Jepson Flora Project, no date).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High significance
Comments: Exploding in large patches roadside and in woods in western Benton County. Also known recently from Lane and Clackamas counties (NPS of Oregon).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Unknown
Comments: No data found on ability to invade without disturbance.

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Unknown
Comments: No data found on invasions in other countries.

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Unknown
Comments: No data found on reproductive characteristics.

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Unknown
Comments: No data found on management difficulty.

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown
Comments: No data found on management difficulty.

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown
Comments: No data found on management difficulty.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Comments: No data found on management difficulty. However, it is planted as an ornamental.

Other Considerations: In the Mediterranean region, this species is a secondary host for leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina, which impacts durum wheat. Thalictrum speciosissimum is the corresponding secondary host for temperate regions, so Anchusa azurea doesn't occupy that function or niche in the U.S. (Ezzahiri, no date)
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Crescent Bloom. 2004, January 24, 2004 - last update. Compleat Botanica. Available: http://www.crescentbloom.com/Plants/Specimen/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Ezzahiri, B. No date. Leaf rust of durum wheats. Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II. Available: http://ressources.ciheam.org/om/pdf/a40/00600059.pdf. (Accessed 2004).

  • Hoskovec, M. and M. Rejzek. 2004. Last updated January 14, 2004. Cyrambycidae: longhorn beetles of the west Palaearctic region. Available: http://www.uochb.cas.cz/~natur/cerambyx/. (Accessed 2004).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Medary, S. 2003. City of Eugene non-native invasive plant policy. City of Eugene, Oregon. Available: http://www.ci.eugene.or.us/environment/invasive_memo.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • Native Plant Society of Oregon, Emerald Chapter. 2002. Invasive gardening and landscaping plants of Southern Willamette Valley. Available: http://www.emeraldnpso.org/PDFs/Invas_Orn.pdf. (Accessed 2004).

  • Plant Conservation Alliance (PCA). 2003. Alien plant invaders of natural areas. Last updated 4 September 2003. Available: http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/list/all.htm. (Accessed 2004).

  • The Jepson Flora Project. No date. Index to Treatments from the Jepson Manual. Available: http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/interchange/I_treat_indexes.html. (Accessed 2004).

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