Anaxyrus debilis - (Girard, 1854)
Green Toad
Other English Common Names: green toad
Synonym(s): Bufo debilis Girard, 1854
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Anaxyrus debilis (Girard, 1854) (TSN 773518)
Spanish Common Names: Sapo Verde
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102043
Element Code: AAABB01060
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Frogs and Toads
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae Anaxyrus
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Bufo debilis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 29Mar2002
Global Status Last Changed: 12Oct2001
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range in southcentral United States and Mexico; many stable populations; no major threats of wide scope.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4 (01Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (S3), Colorado (S2), Kansas (S2), New Mexico (S4), Oklahoma (S3), Texas (S4)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species occurs from south-central United States to Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi, Mexico, then north to Colorado and Kansas (Conant and Collins, 1991) in the United States.

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: Represented by many and/or large occurrences throughout most of the range.

Population Size: 100,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but likely exceeds 100,000.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major pervasive threats are known. Tolerates livestock grazing. Locally threatened by conversion of desert or grassland habitat to human uses and probably also by pesticide use.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Population trend is unknown but probably stable to slightly declining.

Long-term Trend: Unknown

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable

Environmental Specificity: Moderate to broad.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) This species occurs from south-central United States to Zacatecas and San Luis Potosi, Mexico, then north to Colorado and Kansas (Conant and Collins, 1991) in the United States.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CO, KS, NM, OK, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Cochise (04003), Graham (04009)
CO Baca (08009)*, Bent (08011)*, Las Animas (08071)*, Otero (08089)
KS Greeley (20071), Hamilton (20075), Logan (20109), Morton (20129)*, Wallace (20199)
OK Cimarron (40025)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Smoky Hill Headwaters (10260001)+, Upper Smoky Hill (10260003)+, Ladder (10260004)+
11 Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith (11020005)+, Upper Arkansas-John Martin (11020009)+*, Purgatoire (11020010)+, Upper Cimarron (11040002)+, North Fork Cimarron (11040003)+*, Bear (11040005)+
15 Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir (15040005)+, San Simon (15040006)+, Willcox Playa (15050201)+, Upper San Pedro (15050202)+*, Whitewater Draw (15080301)+, San Bernardino Valley (15080302)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Breeds in aggregations after heavy spring or summer rains. Breeding choruses usually last only a few days. Aquatic larvae metamorphose in a few weeks.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates between nonbreeding terrestrial habitats and breed- ing pools.
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool
Palustrine Habitat(s): TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Cropland/hedgerow, Desert, Grassland/herbaceous, Savanna
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: This species inhabits arid and semiarid plains, valleys, and foothills in grasslands and desert shrublands. It burrows in soil or hides under rocks, in cracks in soil, or in rodent burrows when inactive. Eggs and larvae develop in the shallow water of temporary ponds, rain pools, and pools along intermittent streams.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore
Food Comments: Metamorphosed toads probably eat various small terrestrial arthropods. Larvae eat suspended matter, organic debris, algae, and plant tissue.
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Mostly nocturnal but sometimes diurnal, especially during breeding period. Inactive during cold season and during summer dry spells.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 5 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Bufonid Toads

Use Class: Not applicable
Subtype(s): Breeding Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Busy major highway such that toads rarely if ever cross successfully; roads with nonpermeable barriers to toad movement; urbanized areas dominated by buildings and pavement.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Opportunistic observations of various toad species in lowland habitats indicate regular movements of up to at least several hundred meters from the closest known breeding site (G. Hammerson, pers. obs.). Sweet (1993) recorded movements of up to 1 km in Bufo californicus. In defining critical habitat for B. californicus, USFWS (2000) included breeding streams and upland areas within a 25-m elevational range of each essential stream reach and no more than 1.5 km away from the stream. In northwestern Utah, Thompson (2004) recorded movements of Bufo boreas of up to 5 km across upland habitat between two springs during the summer-fall season. Another toad moved 1.3 km between May of one year and May of the next year; the following June it was back at the original breeding location (Thompson 2004). Most studies of toad movements have not employed radiotelemetry and were not designed to detect long-range movements or dispersal.

The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum value of 1 km. The separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the good vagility of toads, their ability to utilize ephemeral or newly created breeding sites, and the consequent likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of suitable habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Date: 27Apr2005
Author: Hammerson, G.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Mar2002
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Jul1988
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999a. A field guide to Texas reptiles & amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xviii + 331 pp.

  • Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999b. A field guide to Florida reptiles and amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xvi + 278 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • Collins, J. T. 1982. Amphibians and reptiles in Kansas. Second edition. Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. Ed. Ser. 8. xiii + 356 pp.

  • Degenhardt, W. G., C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. xix + 431 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 2002. Amphibian Species of the World: an online reference. V2.21 (15 July 2002). Electronic database available at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.html.

  • Frost, D. R. 2010. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.4 (8 April 2010). Electronic Database accessible at http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

  • Frost, D. R., R. W. McDiarmid, and J. R. Mendelson III. 2008. Anura: Frogs. IN B. I. Crother (ed.), Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, pp. 2-12 SSAR Herpetological Circular 37.

  • Hammerson, G. A. 1982b. Amphibians and reptiles in Colorado. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Denver. vii + 131 pp.

  • Stebbins, R. C. 1985a. A field guide to western reptiles and amphibians. Second edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts. xiv + 336 pp.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
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