Amphiuma tridactylum - Cuvier, 1827
Three-toed Amphiuma
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier, 1827 (TSN 173612)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103379
Element Code: AAAAB01030
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Amphibians - Salamanders
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Amphibia Caudata Amphiumidae Amphiuma
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Amphiuma tridactylum
Taxonomic Comments: Electrophoretic studies of 24 presumptive genetic loci indicated a high level of genetic similarity between A. MEANS and A. TRIDACTYLUM and a much greater dissimilarity between A. PHOLETER and A. TRIDACTYLUM (Karlin and Means 1994).

Dundee has petitioned the ICZN to suppress an unused senior synonym (SYREN QUADRUPEDA Custis, 1807).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Dec2001
Global Status Last Changed: 04Oct2001
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Many locally abundant populations throughout the range (southeastern United States); able to use human-created habitats that offset losses of natural habitats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Nov1996)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S3), Arkansas (S4), Kentucky (S1), Louisiana (S5), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S2), Oklahoma (S1), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S5)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Western Alabama through eastern Texas, north through Mississippi, Arkansas and western Tennessee to southeastern Missouri and adjacent Kentucky (Conant and Collins 1991, Petranka 1998).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: Many occurrences.

Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but likely exceeds 100,000.

Overall Threat Impact: Low
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Loss of natural wetland habitat has been offset by the creation of canals and permanent ponds, which serve as suitable habitat because this amphiuma can coexist with fishes (Petranka 1998).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Unknown

Environmental Specificity: Moderate. Generalist or community with some key requirements scarce.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000-2,500,000 square km (about 80,000-1,000,000 square miles)) Western Alabama through eastern Texas, north through Mississippi, Arkansas and western Tennessee to southeastern Missouri and adjacent Kentucky (Conant and Collins 1991, Petranka 1998).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, KY, LA, MO, MS, OK, TN, TX

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
KY Fulton (21075), Hickman (21105)
MO Bollinger (29017), Butler (29023), Cape Girardeau (29031)*, Dunklin (29069), Mississippi (29133)*, New Madrid (29143)*, Pemiscot (29155)*, Ripley (29181), Scott (29201)*, Stoddard (29207), Wayne (29223)*
OK McCurtain (40089)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
07 Whitewater (07140107)+
08 Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201)+, Obion (08010202)+, New Madrid-St. Johns (08020201)+*, Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204)+
11 Upper Black (11010007)+, Current (11010008)+, Upper Little (11140107)+, Mountain Fork (11140108)+*, Lower Little (11140109)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Lays eggs April-September, depending on year and locality. Clutch size averages about 200. Female stays with eggs during most of incubation, which may last 5 months. Eggs complete development after being flooded.
Ecology Comments: Farancia snakes are common predators.
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, Low gradient, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, HERBACEOUS WETLAND, Riparian
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: Common habitats include wooded alluvial swamps, calcareous streams, marshes and lakes in floodlands, seepy pools and swampy banks of bayous and cypress sloughs. Extensive networks of crayfish burrows are a common feature of habitat. Usually lays eggs under logs in or near water; terrestrial development of larvae may be typical (Salthe 1973).
Adult Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Carnivore, Invertivore
Food Comments: Eats small fishes, amphibian larvae, crayfish (a frequent prey item), snails, aquatic insects, earthworms, and other aquatic animals.
Adult Phenology: Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Individuals may be active throughout year along Gulf Coast.
Length: 76 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: There are no available data on movements, but these salamanders probably move significant distances within suitable habitat and may occasionally move overland on rainy nights. The separation distance for unsuitable habitat reflects the nominal minimum of 1 km. The separation distance for suitable habitat reflects the high likelihood that amphiuma locations up to at least 10 km apart are part of the same population if the intervening area is suitable habitat. For occupied locations more than 10 km apart, existence of a single occurrence becomes increasingly uncertain.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .3 km
Date: 29Jan2002
Author: Hammerson, G., and D. R. Jackson
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 17Dec2001
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 13Dec1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • Bartlett, R. D., and P. P. Bartlett. 1999a. A field guide to Texas reptiles & amphibians. Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, Texas. xviii + 331 pp.

  • Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.

  • CAGLE, F. R. 1948. OBSERVATIONS ON A POPULATION OF THE SALAMANDER AMPHIUMA TRIDACTYLUM CUVIER. ECOLOGY 29:479-491.

  • Cliburn, J.W. 1976. A key to the amphibians and reptiles of Mississippi. Fourth edition. Mississippi Museum of Natural Science, Jackson, Mississippi. 71 pp.

  • Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.

  • Cook, F.A. 1957. Salamanders of Mississippi. Mississippi Game and Fish Commission Museum. 28 pp.

  • Crother, B. I. (editor). 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Sixth edition. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular 37:1-84.

  • DIXON, JAMES R. 1987. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF TEXAS, WITH KEYS, TAXONOMIC SYNOPSES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND DISTRIBUTION MAPS. TEXAS A& M UNIV. PRESS, COLLEGE STATION. xii + 434 pp.

  • Dundee, H. A. 1991. AMPHIUMA TRIDACTYLUM Cuvier, 1827 (Amphibia, Caudata): proposed conservation of the specific name. Bull. Zool. Nomen. 48(3):238-239.

  • Dundee, H.E., and D.A. Rossman. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge. 300 pp.

  • Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.

  • GARRETT, JUDITH M. AND DAVID G. BARKER. 1987. A FIELD GUIDE TO REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS OF TEXAS. TEXAS MONTHLY PRESS, AUSTIN. xi + 225 pp.

  • Johnson, T. R. 2000. The amphibians and reptiles of Missouri. Second edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City. 400 pp.

  • Johnson, T.R. 1977. The Amphibians of Missouri. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Public Education Series 6: ix + 134 pp.

  • KECK, MICHAEL B. 1993. NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES FROM TITUS COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS J. SCI. 45(4):360-362.

  • Karlin, A. A., and D. B. Means. 1994. Genetic variation in the aquatic salamander genus Amphiuma. Am. Midl. Nat. 132:1-9.

  • Lohoefener, R. and R. Altig. 1983. Mississippi herpetology. Mississippi State University Research Center, NSTL Station, Mississippi. 66 pp.

  • Mirarchi, R.E., editor. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume 1. A checklist of vertebrates and selected invertebrates: aquatic mollusks, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pages.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pages.

  • Mount, R. H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn, Alabama. vii + 347 pp.

  • Mount, R.H. 1975. The reptiles and amphibians of Alabama. Auburn University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn. 347 pp.

  • Petranka, J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

  • Redmond, W. H., and A. F. Scott. 1996. Atlas of amphibians in Tennessee. The Center for Field Biology, Austin Peay State University, Miscellaneous Publication Number 12. v + 94 pp.

  • SALTHE, S. N. 1973. AMPHIUMA TRIDACTYLUM. CAT. AM. AMPHIB. AND REPTILES. PP. 149.1-149.3.

  • STURDIVANT, H. P. 1949. THE SPERM CYCLE IN AMPHIUMA. J. TENNESSEE ACAD. SCIENCES 24:170.

  • Salthe, S.N. 1973. Amphiuma means. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 148:1-2.

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Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

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