Ameiurus nebulosus - (Lesueur, 1819)
Brown Bullhead
Synonym(s): Ictalurus nebulosus
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ameiurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819) (TSN 164043)
French Common Names: barbotte brune
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.103081
Element Code: AFCKA06050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Fishes - Bony Fishes - North American Freshwater Catfishes
Image 17

© Noel Burkhead & Virginia Dept of Game and Inland Fisheries (Fishes of Virginia)

 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Actinopterygii Siluriformes Ictaluridae Ameiurus
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 20. 183 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B91ROB01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ameiurus nebulosus
Taxonomic Comments: The 1991 AFS checklist followed J. Lundberg (1989 unpublished abstract, 1992) in removing the bullheads and white catfish from the genus Ictalurus and placing them in the genus Ameiurus (Robins et al. 1991). Two subspecies sometimes are recognized, northern nebulosus and southern marmoratus.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 17Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 19Sep1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Large range extent in central and eastern North america; large population size;stable or increasing trend; no major threats.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (05Dec1996)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (09Feb2016)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arizona (SNA), Arkansas (S2), California (SNA), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (S5), Delaware (S5), District of Columbia (S5), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S5), Idaho (SNA), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S4), Iowa (S3), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (S4), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (S5), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (S5), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S4), Missouri (S3?), Nebraska (SNA), Nevada (SNA), New Hampshire (S5), New Jersey (S5), New Mexico (SNA), New York (S5), North Carolina (S5), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (SH), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (S5), Rhode Island (S5), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SU), Tennessee (S3), Texas (SNA), Vermont (S5), Virginia (S5), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (S2), Wisconsin (S5)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Manitoba (S5), New Brunswick (S5), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (SNA), Quebec (S5), Saskatchewan (S3)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This bullhead is native in most of the eastern United States and adjacent southern Canada, west to southeastern Saskatchewan, Nebraska, and Louisiana; it is common in the Northeast and on the Atlantic and Gulf slopes, sporadic elsewhere (Page and Burr 2011). It is widely introduced and established outside the native range.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but probably exceeds 1,000,000.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: No major threats are known.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable.

Long-term Trend: Relatively Stable to increase of >25%
Long-term Trend Comments: Range extent and abundance probably have increased over the long term as a result of introductions outside the native range.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (200,000 to >2,500,000 square km (about 80,000 to >1,000,000 square miles)) This bullhead is native in most of the eastern United States and adjacent southern Canada, west to southeastern Saskatchewan, Nebraska, and Louisiana; it is common in the Northeast and on the Atlantic and Gulf slopes, sporadic elsewhere (Page and Burr 2011). It is widely introduced and established outside the native range.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZexotic, CAexotic, COexotic, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IDexotic, IL, IN, KSexotic, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, ND, NEexotic, NH, NJ, NMexotic, NVexotic, NY, OH, OK, ORexotic, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TXexotic, VA, VT, WAexotic, WI, WV
Canada BCexotic, MB, NB, NS, ON, PEexotic, QC, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MO Bollinger (29017), Cape Girardeau (29031)*, Jefferson (29099), New Madrid (29143), Pemiscot (29155)*, St. Charles (29183), Stoddard (29207), Wayne (29223)
OK McCurtain (40089)*, Murray (40099)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Upper St. John (01010001), Allagash (01010002), Fish (01010003), Aroostook (01010004), Meduxnekeag (01010005), West Branch Penobscot (01020001), East Branch Penobscot (01020002), Mattawamkeag (01020003), Piscataquis (01020004), Lower Penobscot (01020005), Upper Kennebec (01030001), Dead (01030002), Lower Kennebec (01030003), Lower Androscoggin (01040002), St. Croix (01050001), St. George-Sheepscot (01050003), Presumpscot (01060001), Saco (01060002), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003), Pemigewasset (01070001), Merrimack (01070002), Contoocook (01070003), Nashua (01070004), Concord (01070005), Upper Connecticut (01080101), Passumpsic (01080102), Waits (01080103), Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (01080104), White (01080105), Black-Ottauquechee (01080106), West (01080107), Middle Connecticut (01080201), Miller (01080202), Deerfield (01080203), Chicopee (01080204), Lower Connecticut (01080205), Westfield (01080206), Farmington (01080207), Charles (01090001), Cape Cod (01090002), Blackstone (01090003), Narragansett (01090004), Pawcatuck-Wood (01090005), Quinebaug (01100001), Shetucket (01100002), Thames (01100003), Quinnipiac (01100004), Housatonic (01100005), Saugatuck (01100006), St. Francois (01110000)
02 Lake George (02010001), Otter (02010002), Winooski (02010003), Ausable (02010004), Lamoille (02010005), Great Chazy-Saranac (02010006), Missisquoi (02010007), Upper Hudson (02020001), Sacandaga (02020002), Hudson-Hoosic (02020003), Mohawk (02020004), Schoharie (02020005), Middle Hudson (02020006), Rondout (02020007), Hudson-Wappinger (02020008), Lower Hudson (02030101), Bronx (02030102), Hackensack-Passaic (02030103), Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104), Raritan (02030105), Northern Long Island (02030201), Southern Long Island (02030202), Upper Delaware (02040101), East Branch Delaware (02040102), Lackawaxen (02040103), Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead (02040104), Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105), Lehigh (02040106), Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201), Lower Delaware (02040202), Schuylkill (02040203), Brandywine-Christina (02040205), Cohansey-Maurice (02040206), Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207), Mullica-Toms (02040301), Great Egg Harbor (02040302), Upper Susquehanna (02050101), Chenango (02050102), Owego-Wappasening (02050103), Tioga (02050104), Chemung (02050105), Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock (02050106), Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna (02050107), Upper West Branch Susquehanna (02050201), Sinnemahoning (02050202), Middle West Branch Susquehanna (02050203), Bald Eagle (02050204), Pine (02050205), Lower West Branch Susquehanna (02050206), Lower Susquehanna-Penns (02050301), Upper Juniata (02050302), Lower Juniata (02050304), Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305), Lower Susquehanna (02050306), Chester-Sassafras (02060002), Gunpowder-Patapsco (02060003), Severn (02060004), Choptank (02060005), Patuxent (02060006), Blackwater-Wicomico (02060007), Nanticoke (02060008), Pocomoke (02060009), Chincoteague (02060010), South Branch Potomac (02070001), North Branch Potomac (02070002), Cacapon-Town (02070003), Conococheague-Opequon (02070004), South Fork Shenandoah (02070005), Shenandoah (02070007), Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008), Monocacy (02070009), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010), Lower Potomac (02070011), Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock (02080103), Lower Rappahannock (02080104), Mattaponi (02080105), Pamunkey (02080106), York (02080107), Lynnhaven-Poquoson (02080108), Western Lower Delmarva (02080109), Eastern Lower Delmarva (02080110), Upper James (02080201), Maury (02080202), Middle James-Buffalo (02080203), Rivanna (02080204), Middle James-Willis (02080205), Lower James (02080206), Appomattox (02080207), Hampton Roads (02080208)
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101), Middle Roanoke (03010102), Upper Dan (03010103), Lower Dan (03010104), Banister (03010105), Roanoke Rapids (03010106), Lower Roanoke (03010107), Nottoway (03010201), Blackwater (03010202), Ghowan (03010203), Meheriin (03010204), Albemarle (03010205), Upper Tar (03020101), Fishing (03020102), Lower Tar (03020103), Pamlico (03020104), Pamlico Sound (03020105), Bogue-Core Sounds (03020106), Upper Neuse (03020201), Middle Neuse (03020202), Contentnea (03020203), Lower Neuse (03020204), New (03030001), Haw (03030002), Deep (03030003), Upper Cape Fear (03030004), Lower Cape Fear (03030005), Black (03030006), Northeast Cape Fear (03030007), Upper Yadkin (03040101), South Yadkin (03040102), Lower Yadkin (03040103), Upper Pee Dee (03040104), Rocky, North Carolina, (03040105), Lower Pee Dee (03040201), Lynches (03040202), Lumber (03040203), Little Pee Dee (03040204), Black (03040205), Waccamaw (03040206), Upper Catawba (03050101), South Fork Catawba (03050102), Lower Catawba (03050103), Wateree (03050104), Upper Broad (03050105), Lower Broad (03050106), Tyger (03050107), Enoree (03050108), Saluda (03050109), Congaree (03050110), Lake Marion (03050111), Santee (03050112), Cooper (03050201), South Carolina Coastal (03050202), North Fork Edisto (03050203), South Fork Edisto (03050204), Edisto (03050205), Four Hole Swamp (03050206), Salkehatchie (03050207), Broad-St. Helena (03050208), Seneca (03060101), Tugaloo (03060102), Upper Savannah (03060103), Broad (03060104), Little (03060105), Middle Savannah (03060106), Stevens (03060107), Brier (03060108), Lower Savannah (03060109), Upper Ogeechee (03060201), Lower Ogeechee (03060202), Canoochee (03060203), Ogeechee Coastal (03060204), Upper Oconee (03070101), Lower Oconee (03070102), Upper Ocmulgee (03070103), Lower Ocmulgee (03070104), Little Ocmulgee (03070105), Altamaha (03070106), Ohoopee (03070107), Satilla (03070201), Little Satilla (03070202), Cumberland-St. Simons (03070203), St. Marys (03070204), Nassau (03070205), Upper St. Johns (03080101), Oklawaha (03080102), Lower St. Johns (03080103), Daytona - St. Augustine (03080201), Vero Beach (03080203), Kissimmee (03090101), Northern Okeechobee Inflow (03090102), Western Okeechobee Inflow (03090103), Lake Okeechobee (03090201), Everglades (03090202), Big Cypress Swamp (03090204), Caloosahatchee (03090205), Peace (03100101), Myakka (03100102), Charlotte Harbor (03100103), Sarasota Bay (03100201), Manatee (03100202), Little Manatee (03100203), Alafia (03100204), Hillsborough (03100205), Tampa Bay (03100206), Crystal-Pithlachascotee (03100207), Withlacoochee (03100208), Waccasassa (03110101), Econfina-Steinhatchee (03110102), Aucilla (03110103), Upper Suwannee (03110201), Alapaha (03110202), withlacoochee (03110203), Little (03110204), Lower Suwannee (03110205), Santa Fe (03110206), Apalachee Bay-St. Marks (03120001), Upper Ochlockonee (03120002), Lower Ochlockonee (03120003), Upper Chattahoochee (03130001), Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding (03130002), Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F. George Reservoir (03130003), Lower Chattahoochee (03130004), Upper Flint (03130005), Middle Flint (03130006), Kinchafoonee-Muckalee (03130007), Lower Flint (03130008), Ichawaynochaway (03130009), Spring (03130010), Apalachicola (03130011), Chipola (03130012), New (03130013), St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays (03140101), Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102), Yellow (03140103), Blackwater (03140104), Perdido (03140106), Upper Choctawhatchee (03140201), Pea (03140202), Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203), Patsaliga (03140302), Sepulga (03140303), Escambia (03140305), Conasauga (03150101), Coosawattee (03150102), Etowah (03150104), Upper Coosa (03150105), Middle Coosa (03150106), Lower Coosa (03150107), Upper Tallapoosa (03150108), Middle Tallapoosa (03150109), Lower Tallapoosa (03150110), Upper Alabama (03150201), Cahaba (03150202), Middle Alabama (03150203), Upper Tombigbee (03160101), Tibbee (03160104)*, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106), Noxubee (03160108)*, Lower Black Warrior (03160113), Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201), Mobile - Tensaw (03160204), Mobile Bay (03160205), Upper Leaf (03170004)*, Mississippi Coastal (03170009), Upper Pearl (03180001), Middle Pearl-Strong (03180002)*, Lower Pearl. Mississippi (03180004)
04 Beartrap-Nemadji (04010301), Bad-Montreal (04010302), Black-Presque Isle (04020101), Ontonagon (04020102), Keweenaw Peninsula (04020103), Sturgeon (04020104), Dead-Kelsey (04020105), Betsy-Chocolay (04020201), Tahquamenon (04020202), Waiska (04020203), Lake Superior (04020300), Manitowoc-Sheboygan (04030101), Door-Kewaunee (04030102), Oconto (04030104), Peshtigo (04030105), Brule (04030106), Michigamme (04030107), Menominee (04030108), Cedar-Ford (04030109), Escanaba (04030110), Tacoosh-Whitefish (04030111), Fishdam-Sturgeon (04030112), Upper Fox (04030201), Wolf (04030202), Lake Winnebago (04030203), Lower Fox (04030204), Little Calumet-Galien (04040001), Pike-Root (04040002), Milwaukee (04040003), St. Joseph (04050001), Black-Macatawa (04050002), Kalamazoo (04050003), Upper Grand (04050004), Maple (04050005), Lower Grand (04050006), Thornapple (04050007), Pere Marquette-White (04060101), Muskegon (04060102), Manistee (04060103), Betsie-Platte (04060104), Boardman-Charlevoix (04060105), Manistique (04060106), Brevoort-Millecoquins (04060107), St. Marys (04070001), Carp-Pine (04070002), Cheboygan (04070004), Black (04070005), Thunder Bay (04070006), Au Sable (04070007), Au Gres-Rifle (04080101), Kawkawlin-Pine (04080102), Pigeon-Wiscoggin (04080103), Birch-Willow (04080104), Tittabawassee (04080201), Pine (04080202), Shiawassee (04080203), Flint (04080204), Cass (04080205), Saginaw (04080206), St. Clair (04090001), Lake St. Clair (04090002), Clinton (04090003), Detroit (04090004), Huron (04090005), Ottawa-Stony (04100001), Raisin (04100002), St. Joseph (04100003), St. Marys (04100004), Upper Maumee (04100005), Tiffin (04100006), Lower Maumee (04100009), Cedar-Portage (04100010), Sandusky (04100011)*, Huron-Vermilion (04100012)*, Black-Rocky (04110001), Cuyahoga (04110002)*, Ashtabula-Chagrin (04110003), Grand (04110004), Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101), Cattaraugus (04120102), Buffalo-Eighteenmile (04120103), Niagara (04120104), Lake Erie (04120200), Oak Orchard-Twelvemile (04130001), Upper Genesee (04130002), Lower Genesee (04130003), Irondequoit-Ninemile (04140101), Salmon-Sandy (04140102), Seneca (04140201), Oneida (04140202), Oswego (04140203), Black (04150101), Chaumont-Perch (04150102), Upper St. Lawrence (04150301), Oswegatchie (04150302), Indian (04150303), Grass (04150304), Raquette (04150305), St. Regis (04150306), English-Salmon (04150307)
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001), Conewango (05010002)*, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003), French (05010004), Clarion (05010005), Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006), Conemaugh (05010007), Lower Allegheny (05010009), Tygart Valley (05020001), West Fork (05020002), Upper Monongahela (05020003), Cheat (05020004), Youghiogheny (05020006), Upper Ohio (05030101), Shenango (05030102), Mahoning (05030103)*, Connoquenessing (05030105), Upper Ohio-Wheeling (05030106), Little Muskingum-Middle Island (05030201), Upper Ohio-Shade (05030202), Little Kanawha (05030203), Hocking (05030204), Tuscarawas (05040001), Mohican (05040002)*, Walhonding (05040003), Muskingum (05040004)*, Wills (05040005), Licking (05040006)*, Lower Kanawha (05050008), Coal (05050009), Upper Scioto (05060001), Lower Scioto (05060002), Upper Great Miami (05080001), Whitewater (05080003), Raccoon-Symmes (05090101), Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103), Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201), Little Miami (05090202)*, Middle Ohio-Laughery (05090203), Licking (05100101), South Fork Licking (05100102), Upper Kentucky (05100204), Middle Green (05110003), Rough (05110004), Lower Green (05110005), Upper Wabash (05120101), Salamonie (05120102), Mississinewa (05120103), Eel (05120104), Middle Wabash-Deer (05120105), Tippecanoe (05120106), Wildcat (05120107), Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108), Sugar (05120110), Middle Wabash-Busseron (05120111), Lower Wabash (05120113), Upper White (05120201), Lower White (05120202), Eel (05120203), Driftwood (05120204), Flatrock-Haw (05120205), Upper East Fork White (05120206), Muscatatuck (05120207), Lower East Fork White (05120208), Patoka (05120209), South Fork Cumberland (05130104), Silver-Little Kentucky (05140101), Blue-Sinking (05140104), Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon (05140201), Highland-Pigeon (05140202), Lower Ohio-Bay (05140203), Lower Ohio (05140206)
06 Upper French Broad (06010105), Pigeon (06010106), Lower French Broad (06010107), Lower Little Tennessee (06010204), Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga (06020001), Hiwassee (06020002), Ocoee (06020003), Guntersville Lake (06030001), Wheeler Lake (06030002), Lower Elk (06030004), Kentucky Lake (06040005)
07 Mississippi Headwaters (07010101), Leech Lake (07010102), Prairie-Willow (07010103), Elk-Nokasippi (07010104), Pine (07010105), Crow Wing (07010106), Redeye (07010107), Long Prairie (07010108), Platte-Spunk (07010201), Sauk (07010202), Clearwater-Elk (07010203), Crow (07010204), South Fork Crow (07010205), Twin Cities (07010206), Rum (07010207), Upper Minnesota (07020001), Pomme De Terre (07020002), Lac Qui Parle (07020003), Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004), Chippewa (07020005), Redwood (07020006), Middle Minnesota (07020007), Cottonwood (07020008), Blue Earth (07020009), Watonwan (07020010), Le Sueur (07020011), Lower Minnesota (07020012), Upper St. Croix (07030001), Namekagon (07030002), Kettle (07030003), Snake (07030004), Lower St. Croix (07030005), Rush-Vermillion (07040001), Cannon (07040002), Buffalo-Whitewater (07040003), Zumbro (07040004), La Crosse-Pine (07040006), Black (07040007), Root (07040008), Upper Chippewa (07050001), Flambeau (07050002), South Fork Flambeau (07050003), Jump (07050004), Lower Chippewa (07050005), Eau Claire (07050006), Red Cedar (07050007), Coon-Yellow (07060001), Upper Iowa (07060002), Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003), Upper Wisconsin (07070001), Castle Rock (07070003), Lower Wisconsin (07070005), Kickapoo (07070006), South Skunk (07080105)*, Upper Cedar (07080201), Shell Rock (07080202), Winnebago (07080203), Upper Rock (07090001), Crawfish (07090002), Pecatonica (07090003), Sugar (07090004), Kishwaukee (07090006)*, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001), Upper Des Moines (07100002), East Fork Des Moines (07100003), Peruque-Piasa (07110009)+, Kankakee (07120001), Iroquois (07120002), Des Plaines (07120004), Upper Fox (07120006), Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake (07130001)*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003), Lower Sangamon (07130008)*, Lower Illinois (07130011)*, Meramec (07140102)+, Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau (07140105)+, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)*
08 Lower Mississippi-Memphis (08010100)+, Bayou De Chien-Mayfield (08010201), Obion (08010202), South Fork Forked Deer (08010205), Lower St. Francis (08020203)+, Little River Ditches (08020204), Little Tallahatchie (08030201), Yocona (08030203)*, Yalobusha (08030205)*, Upper Yazoo (08030206)*, Big Sunflower (08030207)*, Upper Ouachita (08040102), Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre (08040202), Lower Ouachita (08040207), Lower Mississippi-Natchez (08060100)*, Upper Big Black (08060201)*, Lower Big Black (08060202)*
09 Upper Souris (09010001), Des Lacs (09010002), Lower Souris (09010003), Willow (09010004), Deep (09010005), Bois De Sioux (09020101), Mustinka (09020102), Otter Tail (09020103), Upper Red (09020104), Western Wild Rice (09020105), Buffalo (09020106), Elm-Marsh (09020107), Eastern Wild Rice (09020108), Goose (09020109), Devils Lake (09020201), Upper Sheyenne (09020202), Middle Sheyenne (09020203), Lower Sheyenne (09020204), Maple (09020205), Sandhill-Wilson (09020301), Red Lakes (09020302), Red Lake (09020303), Thief (09020304), Clearwater (09020305), Grand Marais-Red (09020306), Turtle (09020307), Forest (09020308), Snake (09020309), Park (09020310), Lower Red (09020311), Two Rivers (09020312), Pembina (09020313), Roseau (09020314), Upper Rainy (09030004), Big Fork (09030006), Rapid (09030007), Lower Rainy (09030008), Lake of the Woods (09030009)
10 James Headwaters (10160001), Pipestem (10160002), Upper James (10160003), Upper Big Sioux (10170202), Lower Big Sioux (10170203), Rock (10170204), Little Sioux (10230003), Keg-Weeping Water (10240001), Thompson (10280102), Upper Gasconade (10290201)*, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)*
11 Middle Washita (11130303)+*, Pecan-Waterhole (11140106), Upper Little (11140107)+, Mountain Fork (11140108)+*, Lower Little (11140109)+*, Bodcau Bayou (11140205)
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Reproduction Comments: Spawns in late spring and summer. Eggs hatch in 6-9 days. Parents stay with eggs and hatchlings. Usually first breed in third year (Becker 1983, Moyle 1976).
Ecology Comments: Moves widely in large lakes, as much as 26 km from point of release (Moyle 1976).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Pool
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: Habitat includes ponds, lakes, sluggish creeks and small to large rivers, sloughs, backwaters, and reservoirs. Usually this bullhead occurs in vegetated shallows over sand, rock, mud, or silt (most often soft substrates), in clear to turbid water (Lee et al. 1980, Page and Burr 2011). It may burrow into soft bottoms and become inactive in winter. Eggs are laid in open excavations in sand, gravel, or (rarely) mud, often in shelter of logs, rocks, or vegetation, or in holes, burrows, or debris. Nest made by one or both sexes usually are around shores or in coves or creek mouths.
Adult Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Immature Food Habits: Herbivore, Invertivore, Piscivore
Food Comments: Bottom feeder. Young eat chironomid larvae and small crustaceans. Adults eat larger insect larvae and fishes, also fish eggs, mollusks, carrion, and plant material (Becker 1983, Moyle 1976).
Adult Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Crepuscular, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Mostly nocturnal. May burrow into soft bottom and become inactive at low temperatures (Becker 1983).
Length: 53 centimeters
Economic Attributes
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Economic Comments: Has been used in carcinogenesis testing (Metcalfe 1989).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Bullheads and Small Catfishes

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including eggs and larvae) in appropriate habitat.
Separation Barriers: Dam lacking a suitable fishway; high waterfall; upland habitat.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Data on dispersal and other movements generally are not available. Separation distance (in aquatic kilometers) is arbitrary but reflects the likely low probability that two occupied locations separated by less than several kilometers of aquatic habitat would represent truly independent populations over the long term.

Because of the difficulty in defining suitable versus unsuitable habitat, especially with respect to dispersal, and to simplify the delineation of occurrences, a single separation distance is used regardless of habitat quality.

Date: 21Sep2004
Author: Hammerson, G.
Notes: This Specs Group includes catfishes that generally are less than 50 cm in length and all bullheads.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Oct2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 15Oct2011
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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References for Watershed Distribution Map
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