- Hallowell, 1856
Other English Common Names: blue-spotted salamander
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s):
Ambystoma laterale Hallowell, 1856 (TSN 173599)
French Common Names: salamandre à points bleus
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.102149
Element Code: AAAAA01060
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
Check this box to expand all report sections:
Concept Reference: Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B85FRO01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ambystoma laterale
Taxonomic Comments: Ambystoma jeffersonianum and A. laterale comprise a complex that includes pure bisexual diploid populations and populations that may be represented by bisexual diploid individuals, female hybrids with several different combinations of parental chromosomes (including diploids, triploids, tetraploids, and pentaploids), and/or rare male hybrids. Up to at least five different chromosomal combinations have been found at a single site.
In response to the nomenclatural difficulties presented by this complex, an informal system of indicating ploidy and chromosomal makeup has been recommended (Bogart and Klemens 1997). For example, the "LLLJ" designation (or "A. (3) laterale-jeffersonianum") indicates a tetraploid salamander with three sets of laterale chromosomes and one set of jeffersonianum chromosomes. For convenience, all populations including pure laterale (LL) and laterale-dominated genomes (e.g., LLJ) might be included in the species A. laterale (e.g., Klemens 1993).
However, biological complexities confound such a simple treatment. Polyploid hybrid individuals in the complex may produce offspring with diverse chromosomal makeup. For example, an LLJ female can produce offspring that do not have laterale-dominated genomes (e.g., LJJ). And single clutches have been documented with both diploid and triploid embryos. It is even possible for a triploid hybrid to produce pure diploid offspring (e.g., LL or JJ).
Truly intermediate hybrids with equal chromosomal representation (i.e., LJ, LLJJ) are uncommon and are but two of many possible outcomes of hybridization. In New England and New York, hybrids are more common than are the bisexual species, but bisexuals usually (or are presumed to) exist in low numbers in populations composed mostly of hybrids (Bogart and Klemens 1997). Thus, for example, a pond with triploid LLJ should also have at least some LL.
Hybrid populations are maintained by breeding between a hybrid female and a male of one of the diploid bisexual species, and the hybrid offspring are the result of gynogenetic or hybridogenetic reproduction (Bogart and Klemens 1997). In gynogenetic reproduction, male sperm stimulates egg development, but the male genome is not incorporated into the zygote. In hybridogenetic reproduction, the male genome is incorporated, "but upon maturity of the offspring, the paternal genome is eliminated in a meiotic or pre-meiotic event while the rest of the hybrid's genome is passed on to future generations, usually in an altered state" (Bogart and Klemens 1997).
Thus, recent work on hybrid phenomena in these salamanders indicates that the species names "A. platineum" (= LJJ) or "A. tremblayi" (= LLJ) formerly used for the A. jeffersonianum-A. laterale hybrids are inappropriate because LJJ and LLJ are not strictly gynogenetic triploid lineages. Consequently, a recent checklist (Crother et al. 2000) did not recognize either A. platineum or A. tremblayi as valid species.
To accommodate the genetic variation in these salamanders (and the often uncertain genetic composition of particular populations), we have established for this database the following elements: (1) Ambystoma jeffersonianum (Jefferson Salamander), used for pure populations only; (2) Ambystoma laterale (Blue-spotted salamander), used for pure populations only; (3) Ambystoma hybrid pop. 1 (jeffersonianum x laterale; jeffersonianum genome dominates), used for hybrid populations dominated by the jeffersonianum genome (e.g., populations that include mainly LJJ individuals); this element includes "Ambystoma platineum"; (4) Ambystoma hybrid pop. 2 (jeffersonianum x laterale; laterale genome dominates), used for hybrid populations dominated by the laterale genome (e.g., populations that include mainly LLJ individuals); this element includes "Ambystoma tremblayi"; (5) Ambystoma pop. 3 (jeffersonianum/laterale complex - uncertain composition), used for populations for which chromosomal representation is unknown. If needed we could establish additional elements for hybrid populations that involve A. laterale, A. texanum, and/or A. tigrinum.
See Kraus (1985), Bogart and Licht (1987), Bogart et al. (1987), Kraus et al. (1991), Lowcock et al. (1991), and Bogart and Klemens (1997) for information on the involvement of A. jeffersonianum in hybridization with A. texanum, A. tigrinum, and/or A. laterale. See Lowcock et al. (1987) and Bogart and Klemens (1997) for discussions of nomenclatural treatment of hybrid populations.
See Kraus (1988), Shaffer et al. (1991), and Jones et al. (1993) for phylogenetic analyses of North American Ambystoma.
Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 05Jun2015
Global Status Last Changed: 14Dec2001
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
National Status: N5
U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Connecticut (S1), Illinois (S3), Indiana (S2), Iowa (S1), Maine (S4), Massachusetts (S3), Michigan (S5), Minnesota (S5), New Hampshire (S3), New Jersey (S1), New York (S4), Ohio (S1), Pennsylvania (S1), Vermont (S3), Wisconsin (S4S5)
Labrador (S4), Manitoba (S3S4), New Brunswick (S4), Nova Scotia (S5), Ontario (S4), Prince Edward Island (S4), Quebec (S5)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Candidate (Low)
IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors
Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Southeastern Quebec to Lake Winnipeg, south through Great Lakes region and New England to northern Indiana and New Jersey. Several apparently disjunct populations occur around the periphery of the range (e.g., see Brownlie  for Nova Scotia record). Hybridizes with A. jeffersonianum over a large area south of this range. See Nyman et al. (1988) for distribution in New Jersey.
Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:
Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Number of occurrences of pure A. laterale is uncertain, but there are many.
Population Size: 100,000 - 1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but likely exceeds 100,000.
Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Biggest threat is loss and degradation of habitat as a result of coversion to agricultural and urban use. Roads negatively impact salamander abundance in roadside habitat (deMaynadier and Hunter 2000). Increased acid deposition is a potential threat.
Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable
Long-term Trend: Decline of <50% to Relatively Stable
Intrinsic Vulnerability: Moderately vulnerable
Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.
Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information
(20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles))
Southeastern Quebec to Lake Winnipeg, south through Great Lakes region and New England to northern Indiana and New Jersey. Several apparently disjunct populations occur around the periphery of the range (e.g., see Brownlie  for Nova Scotia record). Hybridizes with A. jeffersonianum over a large area south of this range. See Nyman et al. (1988) for distribution in New Jersey.
U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
CT, IA, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, NH, NJ, NY, OH, PA, VT, WI
LB, MB, NB, NS, ON, PE, QC
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted.
For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.
Range Map Compilers: IUCN, Conservation International, NatureServe, and collaborators, 2004
U.S. Distribution by County
||County Name (FIPS Code)
New Haven (09009)*,
New London (09011),
Black Hawk (19013),
De Kalb (18033),
St. Joseph (18141),
Grand Isle (50013),
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed
||Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
Piscataqua-Salmon Falls (01060003)+,
Middle Connecticut (01080201)+,
Lower Connecticut (01080205)+,
Cape Cod (01090002)+,
Lower Hudson (02030101)+*,
Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+
Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+,
St. Joseph (04050001)+,
St. Joseph (04100003)+,
Lower Maumee (04100009)+,
Mettawee River (04150401)+,
Otter Creek (04150402)+,
Winooski River (04150403)+,
Lake Champlain (04150408)+
Upper Allegheny (05010001)+,
Upper Wabash (05120101)+,
Middle Cedar (07080205)+,
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Basic Description: A salamander.
Reproduction Comments: In most areas, eggs are laid in March-April (early May at Isle Royale, Michigan), singly or in clusters of up to about 35; up to 500 eggs per female. Metamorphosis late June through August, or larvae may overwinter. Aggregates when breeding.
Hybrid offspring are the result of gynogenetic or hybridogenetic reproduction (Bogart and Klemens 1997).
Ecology Comments: See Van Buskirk and Smith (1991) for evidence of density-dependent population regulation in a population at Isle Royale, Michigan (increasing larval density in breeding pools resulted in reduced survival and growth, probably due to interference).
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Migrates up to several hundred meters between breeding pools and summer range.
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Shallow water
Palustrine Habitat(s): FORESTED WETLAND, Riparian, SCRUB-SHRUB WETLAND, TEMPORARY POOL
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest - Mixed
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic, Burrowing in or using soil, Fallen log/debris
Habitat Comments: In New England and New Jersey, generally associated with lowland swamps and marshes and surrounding uplands with sandy or loamy soils (Nyman et al. 1988, Klemens 1993). in overgrown pastures. Adults usually under are objects or underground. Eggs are attached to submerged sticks or bottom of shallow forest ponds and pools. At Isle Royale, Michigan, breeds in splash pools on exposed rocky shorelines (Van Buskirk and Smith 1991). In northern Minnesota, successful reproduction in acidic bog water either does not occur or is a rare event (Karns 1992).
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Metamorphosed individuals eat snails, earthworms, beetles, beetle larvae, springtails, spiders, and other small invertebrates. Larvae eat small aquatic animals (zooplankton and benthic invertebrates).
Adult Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Immature Phenology: Hibernates/aestivates, Nocturnal
Phenology Comments: Inactive late fall through most of winter.
Colonial Breeder: Y
Length: 13 centimeters
Not yet assessed
Not yet assessed
Group Name: Ambystomatid Salamanders
Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on evidence of historical presence, or current and likely recurring presence, at a given location. Such evidence minimally includes collection or reliable observation and documentation of one or more individuals (including larvae or eggs) in or near appropriate habitat where the species is presumed to be established and breeding.
Separation Barriers: Heavily traveled road, especially at night during salamander breeding season, such that salamanders almost never successfully traverse the road; road with a barrier that is impermeable to salamanders; wide, fast rivers; areas of intensive development dominated by buildings and pavement.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 1 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Justification: BARRIERS/UNSUITABLE HABITAT: Rivers may or may not be effective barriers, depending on stream width and hydrodynamics; identification of streams as barriers is a subjective determination. Bodies of water dominated by predatory fishes have been described as barriers but probably should be regarded as unsuitable habitat. For A. barbouri, a stream-pool breeder, predatory fishes appeared to act as a barrier to larval dispersal and gene flow for populations separated by as little as 500-1000 m (Storfer 1999). Highly disturbed land, such as the cleared and bedded soils of some silvicultural site preparation, may serve as an impediment to movement of A. cingulatum (Means et al. 1996), although Ashton (1998) noted the species' use of pine plantations, pastures, and three-year-old clearcuts. Such areas should be treated as unsuitable habitat rather than barriers.
MOVEMENTS: Palis's (1997b) suggested use of 3.2 km between breeding sites to distinguish breeding populations of A. cingulatum was based on Ashton's (1992) finding that individuals may move as much as 1.6 km from their breeding ponds. Ambystoma californiense sometimes migrates up to 2 km between breeding ponds and terrestrial habitat (see USFWS 2004). Funk and Dunlap (1999) found that A. macrodactylum managed to recolonize lakes after trout extirpation despite evidence of low levels of interpopulation dispersal. Based on a review of several Ambystoma species (e.g., Semlitsch 1981, Douglas and Monroe 1981, Kleeberger and Werner 1983, Madison 1997), Semlitsch (1998) concluded that a radius of less than 200 meters around a breeding pond would likely encompass the terrestrial habitat used by more than 95 percent of adults. Faccio's (2003) study of radio-tagged A. maculatum and A. jeffersonianum in Vermont supports this conclusion. In New York, all movements of A. tigrinum occurred in areas within 300 m of the nearest breeding pond (Madison and Farrand 1998). However, most studies of these salamanders had small sample sizes and/or were not designed to detect long-distance movements, so migration distance may be somewhat underestimated.
In summary, ambystomatid salamanders generally stay within a few hundred meters of their breeding pool. Due to high breeding site fidelity and limitation of breeding to pool basins, populations using different breeding sites exhibit little or no interbreeding among adults. Thus one might argue that each pool constitutes a separate occurrence or that the separation distance for suitable habitat should be the nominal minimum of 1 km. However, little is known about how frequently first-time (or experienced) breeders use non-natal pools (pools from which they did not originate) or how far they may move to such sites. Frequent colonization of new and remote habitats by at least some species suggests that dispersal movements sometimes may be longer than typical adult migration distances. It seems unlikely that locations separated by a gap of less than a few kilometers of suitable habitat would represent independent occurrences over the long term.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .3 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Inferred extent distance pertains to breeding sites (with the center of the circle in the center of the breeding site). Most ambystomatids stay within a few hundred meters of their breeding pool (see separation justification section).
Author: Hammerson, G.
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
Not yet assessed
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 02May2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Hammerson, G.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 30Jan1998
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.
Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of
natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).
- Aquin, P. 1999. Évaluation de la situation des groupes taxonomiques d'amphibiens du Québec. Ministère de l'Environnement et de la Faune. 2 pages.
- Blackburn, L., P. Nanjappa, and M. J. Lannoo. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Copyright, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, USA.
- Bogart, J. P., and M. W. Klemens. 1997. Hybrids and genetic interactions of mole salamanders (Ambystoma jeffersonianum and A. laterale) (Amphibia: Caudata) in New York and New England. American Museum Novitates (3218):1-78.
- Bogart, J.P. and L.E. Licht. 1987. Evidence for the requirement of sperm in unisexual salamander hybrids (genus Ambystoma). Canadian Field-Naturalist. 101:434-436.
- Bogart, J.P., Lowcock, L.A., Zeyl, C.W. and Mable, B.K. 1987. Genome constitution and reproductive biology of hybrid salamanders, genus Ambystoma, on Kelleys Island in Lake Erie. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 65:2188-2201.
- Brownlie, J. 1988. A disjunct population of the blue-spotted salamander, AMBYSTOMA LATERALE, in southwestern Nova Scotia. Canadian Field-Nat. 102:263-264.
- Conant, R. and J. T. Collins. 1991. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 450 pp.
- Conant, R., and J. T. Collins. 1998. A field guide to reptiles and amphibians: eastern and central North America. Third edition, expanded. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 616 pp.
- Cook, F. R. 1984. Introduction to Canadian amphibians and reptiles. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
- DeGraaf, R. M., and D. D. Rudis. 1983. Amphibians and reptiles of New England. Habitats and natural history. Univ. Massachusetts Press. vii + 83 pp.
- Desroches, J.-F. et D. Rodrigue 2004. Amphibiens et reptiles du Québec et des Maritimes. Éditions Michel Quintin. 288 pages.
- Frost, D. R. 1985. Amphibian species of the world. A taxonomic and geographical reference. Allen Press, Inc., and The Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, Kansas. v + 732 pp.
- Green, N. B., and T. K. Pauley. 1987. Amphibians and reptiles in West Virginia. University of Pittsburg Press, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. xi + 241 pp.
- Harding, J. H. 1997. Amphibians and reptiles of the Great Lakes region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. xvi + 378 pp.
- Hulse, A. C., C. J. McCoy, and E. Censky. 2001. Amphibians and reptiles of Pennsylvania and the Northeast. Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca. 419 pp.
- Jones, T. R., A. G. Kluge, and A. J. Wolf. 1993. When theories and methodologies clash: a phylogenetic reanalysis of the North American ambystomatid salamanders (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Systematic Biology 42:92-102.
- Karns, D. R. 1992. Effects of acidic bog habitats on amphibian reproduction in a northern Minnesota peatland. J. Herpetol. 26:401-412.
- Kingsbury, Bruce A., and Spencer Cortwright. 1994. Status and Distribution of Candidate Endangered Herpetofauna in the Fish Creek Watershed. Submitted to the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 38 pp.
- Klemens, M. W. 1993. Amphibians and reptiles of Connecticut and adjacent regions. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin 112. xii + 318 pp.
- Krapu, G.L., G.C. Iverson, K.J. Reinecke and C.M. Boise. 1985. Fat deposition and usage by arctic-nesting sandhill cranes during spring. Auk. 102:362-368.
- Kraus, F. 1985. A new unisexual salamander from Ohio. Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool., Occas. Pap. 709:1-24.
- Kraus, F. 1985. Unisexual salamander lineages in northwestern Ohio and southeastern Michigan: a study of the consequences of hybridization. Copeia 1985:309-324.
- Kraus, F. 1988. An empirical evaluation of the use of the ontogeny polarization criterion in phylogenetic inference. Systematic Zoology 37:106-141.
- Kraus, F. 1991. Intra-individual ploidy consistency among unisexual AMBYSTOMA. Copeia 1991:38-43.
- Kraus, F., P.K. Ducey, P. Moler,. and M.M. Miyamoto. 1991. Two new triparental unisexual Ambystoma from Ohio and Michigan. Herpetologica. 47:429-439.
- Lowcock, L. A., H. Griffith, and R. W. Murphy. 1991. The AMBYSTOMA LATERALE-JEFFERSONIANUM complex in central Ontario: ploidy structure, sex ratio, and breeding dynamics in a bisexual-unisexual community. Copeia 1991:87-105.
- Lowcock, L. A., L. E. Licht, and J. P. Bogart. 1987. Nomenclature in hybrid complexes of Ambystoma (Urodela: Ambystomatidae): no case for the erection of hybrid "species." Syst. Zool. 36:328-336.
- Minton, S. A., Jr. 1972. Amphibians and reptiles of Indiana. Indiana Academy Science Monographs 3. v + 346 pp.
- Minton, S. A., Jr. 2001. Amphibians & reptiles of Indiana. Revised second edition. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. xiv + 404 pp.
- Nyman, S., M. J. Ryan, and J. D. Anderson. 1988. The distribution of the AMBYSTOMA JEFFERSONIANUM complex in New Jersey. Journal of Herpetology 22:224-228.
- Petranka, J. W. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
- Phillips, C. A., R. A. Brandon, and E. O. Moll. 1999. Field guide to amphibians and reptiles of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Manual 8. xv + 282 pp.
- Resetar, Alan. 1985. The Status of State-Listed Herpetofauna Within the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Unpublished. 37 pp.
- Resetar, Alan. 1988. Distribution and Ecology of Amphibians and Reptiles in Selected Areas of Lake, Porter, Laporte and Newton Counties, Indiana with Special Emphasis on State-Listed Species. Prepared for Indiana Department of Natural Resources Nongame and Endangered Wildlife Program. 109 pp.
- Semenchuk, G. P. 1992. The Atlas of breeding birds of Alberta. Federation of Alberta Naturalists, Edmonton, Alberta.
- Shaffer, H. B., J. M. Clark, and F. Kraus. 1991. When molecules and morphology clash: a phylogenetic analysis of the North American ambystomatid salamanders (Caudata: Ambystomatidae). Systematic Zoology 40:284-303.
- Smith, D. W. 1961. The amphibians and reptiles of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 28(1)1-298.
- Smith, P. W. 1961. The amphibians and reptiles of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey 28:1-298.
- Uzzell, T.M. Jr. 1967. Ambystoma jeffersonianum. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles. 47:1-2.
- Uzzell, Thomas M. 1964. Relations of the diploid and triploid species of Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex (Amphibia: Caudata). Copeia 1964(2):257-300.
- Van Buskirk, J., and D. C. Smith. 1991. Density-dependent population regulation in a salamander. Ecology 72:1747-1756.
- Vogt, R. C. 1981. Natural history of amphibians and reptiles of Wisconsin. Milwaukee Public Museum. 205 pp.
- Weller, W. F., and D. M. Green. 1997. Checklist and current status of Canadian amphibians. Pages 309-328 in D. M. Green, editor. Amphibians in decline: Canadian studies of a global problem. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Herpetological Conservation 1.
- deMaynadier, P. G., and M. L. Hunter, Jr. 2000. Road effects on amphibian movements in a forested landscape. Natural Areas Journal 20:56-65.
Use Guidelines & Citation
Use Guidelines and Citation
The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.
Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org
were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of October 2015.
Note: This report was printed on
Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and
all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company
names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.
Copyright © 2015 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved.
Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary
notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following
citation should be used in any published materials which reference the
on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from
this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2015. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia.
Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:
Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."
Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."
Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.
Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."
NOTE: Full metadata
for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
Warranty Disclaimer: All
documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents
which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without
warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific
data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard
to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are
referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all
implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular
purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about
the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other
documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall
NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential
damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with
the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided
by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked
to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update
or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without
notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information
contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually
being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a
year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and
informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed
for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies.
If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate
state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted
for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit
- The above copyright notice
must appear in all copies;
- Any use of the documents available
from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance
for commercial purposes;
- Some data may be downloaded
to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data
should still be referenced using the citation above;
- No graphics available from
this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying
text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed
as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right
under any trademark of NatureServe. No
trademark owned by NatureServe may be used
in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents
delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above,
nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or
right under any NatureServe copyright.
encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions
that you find in the data through (see Contact
Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall
quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.