Amblema plicata - (Say, 1817)
Threeridge
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Amblema costata Rafinesque, 1832 (TSN 80039) ;Amblema plicata (Say, 1817) (TSN 80035)
French Common Names: amblème à trois côtes
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.118891
Element Code: IMBIV03020
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Mollusks - Freshwater Mussels
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoida Unionidae Amblema
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn, Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione, and J.D. Williams. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 2nd Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland: 526 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B98TUR01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Amblema plicata
Taxonomic Comments: Analysis of genetic structure (Elderkin et al., 2007) showed low structure among rivers and rainages separated by very large geographical distances, indicating high effedtive population size and/or highly vagile fish hosts. Northern populations were likely founded from at least two glacial refugia following the Pleistocene.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 08Jan2014
Global Status Last Changed: 25Nov1996
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: This species is considered common and widespread throughout much of the U.S. and Canada and is considered stable, or in some cases expanding, throughout its range.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (16Jul1998)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N4N5 (03Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S5), Arkansas (S5), Florida (S1), Illinois (S5), Indiana (S4), Iowa (SNR), Kansas (S4), Kentucky (S4S5), Louisiana (S5), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (S5), Missouri (S5), Nebraska (SNR), New York (S1), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (S5), Oklahoma (S3), Pennsylvania (S2S3), South Dakota (S2), Tennessee (S5), Texas (S4), Virginia (S5), West Virginia (S3), Wisconsin (S4)
Canada Manitoba (S3), Ontario (S4), Saskatchewan (SU)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern
American Fisheries Society Status: Currently Stable (01Jan1993)

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: >2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: This species ranges from the coastal plain portion of Gulf drainages from the Escambia River in Florida west to Texas and northward into the Mississippi River drainage (Mulvey et al,. 1997). Butler (1989) lists the distribution as throughout the Interior Basin and from the San Antonio River, Texas, east to the Choctawhatchee River, but not from the Yellow River. In Canada, it is restricted to southern Ontario, southern Manitoba, and southeastern Saskatchewan, but is widely distributed and often abundant In Canada, this species is restricted to the Lake Erie drainage in Ontario (Metcalfe-Smith and Cadmore-Vokey, 2004). It extends into the Niagara River drainage in western New York (Strayer and Jirka, 1997).

Area of Occupancy: >12,500 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments: Linear occupancy is >200,000 km.

Number of Occurrences: > 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: It is in the Cache and White (Christian, 1995; Christian et al., 2005; Gordon, 1982; Gordon et al., 1994), lower Arkansas (Gordon, 1985), St. Francis (Ahlstedt and Jenkinson, 1991), Ouachita (Posey, 1997; Posey et al., 1996), and Poteau (Vaughn and Spooner, 2004) drainages, Arkansas. In South Dakota, it is in the upper and middle Big Sioux and tributaries (Skadsen and Perkins, 2000), James and Vermillion Rivers (Backlund, 2000; Perkins and Backlund, 2003). It is throughout E and SE Texas and San Antonio and Guadalupe systems N and E; Nueces River (Howells et al., 1996); Village Creek (Hardin/Tyler/Polk Cos.) (Bordelon and Harrel, 2004). In Kansas, it is widespread in the E third and relictual N and W (Couch, 1997); also Wakarusa (Tiemann, 2006). It is in the Spring River drainage, Kansas and Oklahoma (Branson, 1966). Oklahoma: Verdigris (Boeckman and Bidwell, 2008), Neosho, Boggy, Clear Boggy, Blue, Kiamichi, Little (Vaughn and Taylor, 1999), Chikaskia, Canadian, Poteau, and Mountain Fork (Spooner and Vaughn, 2007) systems (Branson, 1982; Vaughn, 2000). It is widespread and common in Illinois and most of Wisconsin (Cummings and Mayer, 1992; 1997; Mathiak, 1979; Schanzle et al., 2004; Tiemann et al., 2005). In Indiana: Blue (Sietman et al., 1995), Tippecanoe (Cummings and Berlocher, 1990), E Fork White (Harmon, 1992), Muscatatuck (Harmon, 1989), St. Joseph (Pryor, 2005). In Minnesota, it is in the W and S but absent from Lake Superior, Rainy River, and most of Mississippi drainage above St. Anthony Falls (Sietman, 2003); including Red River (Cvancara, 1970). It was widespread and common in Ohio (Watters, 1992; 1995; Lyons et al., 2007; Grabarkiewicz, 2008; Hoggarth et al., 2007); but range has decreased in the past decade (Watters et al., 2009). In Tennessee, it is in most drainages (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998). It is statewide in Kentucky (Cicerello and Schuster, 2003; Evans, 2008); Red (Clark, 1988), Middle Green (Gordon, 1991) and Barren Rivers (Cochran and Layzer, 1993). In West Virginia, it is in the Middle and lower Ohio (Zeto et al., 1987), Mud Rivers (Guyandotte drainage) (Schmidt and Zeto, 1986), Kanawha (Morris and Taylor, 1992); and Copper Creek in Virginia (relict) (Fraley and Ahlstedt, 2000). It is common and widespread throughout Louisiana (Vidrine, 1993). In Mississippi, it is in the Mississippi River N and S, Big Black, Yazoo, Tennessee, Pearl, Pascagoula, and Tombigbee drainages (Jones et al., 2005). It is reported from the Escambia and Yellow (Picket Wretch Lake) drainages in Florida and Alabama (also Choctawhatchee River, Walton Co.) (Butler, 1989) but now extirpated (Blalock-Herod et al., 2005). In the Alabama and Mobile basin, it is in the Tennessee and Mobile basins except upper Tallapoosa and possibly Coosa drainage (Williams et al., 2008). It is historic from the Black Warrior River, but was in the upper Tombigbee in Sumter and Greene Cos., Alabama (Williams et al., 1992; McGregor et al., 1999); also Bear Creek drainage, AL/MS (McGregor and Garner, 2004). In the Big Blue system (NE Nebraska and Kansas) it was only in the Kansas portion (6 sites), and 1 subfossil N of the border (Hoke, 2005). In the Little Blue basin weathered shells are in the Kansas portion (Hoke, 2004). I is in Tonawanda Creek (Niagara drainage), western New York (Marangelo and Strayer, 2000) and in Muddy Creek (French Creek drainage), Crawford Co., Pennsylvania (Mohler et al., 2006). It occurs in the St. Clair/Detroit drainage in Michigan (Strayer, 1980; Trdan and Hoeh, 1993) and S upper peninsula (Goodrich and Van der Schalie, 1939; Badra and Goforth, 2003). In Canada, it is widespread from southern Manitoba (incl. Assiniboine- Watson, 2000), northern (Churchill River, Stony Rapids east of Lake Athabasca) and southeastern Saskatchewan (Frenchman, Assiniboine, Qu'Appelle, North and South Saskatchewan, Carrot Rivers; Moose Jaw, Swift Current Creeks); and the Lake Erie drainage in Ontario (Metcalfe-Smith and Cadmore-Vokey, 2004).

Population Size: >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Smith and Crabtree (2010) found this species at 5 of 32 sites (3 with recruitment) along the entire length of Pennsylvania's French Creek.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very many (>125)

Overall Threat Impact: Low

Short-term Trend: Increase of >10%
Short-term Trend Comments: Sietman (2003) noted the range of this species has recently expanded above St. Anthony Falls in the Mississippi River drainage in Minnesota. In Canada, it is common and widely distributed, especially in Ontario, where it is increasing (Metcalfe-Smith and Cadmore-Vokey, 2004). It has been declining in Ohio in the past decade (Watters et al., 2009). Pip (2006) was unable to find this species in surveys of 90 sites in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, despite previous documentation of the species there. Only relict shells remain in Copper Creek (Upper Clinch), Virginia (Hanlon et al., 2009).

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%
Long-term Trend Comments: This species is considered extirpated from the Choctawhatchee River drainage of Florida (none in Alabama) where it was formerly known from four historical sites (2 recently resurveyed along with a few dozen other sites in the drainage but none found) (Blalock-Herod et al., 2005).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Freshwater mussels are inherently vulnerable to threats from siltation, pollution, eutrophication, channelization, impoundment, collection, drought and water withdrawal, competiton from invasive non-native mussels, and changes to larval host fish populations.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Protection Needs: Maintain high water and benthic habitat (substrate) qualities, as well as adequate flow regimes, throughout all occupied river systems. This may be partially accomplished via establishment of buffers and streamside management zones for all agricultural, silvicultural, mining, and developmental activities; protection of floodplain forests and adjoining upland habitat is paramount. Best management practices to follow include employing forestry practices that cause minimal soil erosion; preventing access of livestock to natural surface waters and drains; situating roads at least 0.25 mi. (0.4 km) from heads of all tributaries, even more on steep slopes; using silt fencing and vegetation to control runoff and siltation at all stream crossings, especially during construction and maintenance; using and maintaining sewer systems rather than septic tanks and stream-dumping for management of wastewater; and avoiding use of agricultural pesticides on porous soils near streams. Prevent damming, dredging, and pollution throughout drainages, but especially near recorded sites. Remove existing dams, but with great care to limit downstream sedimentation. Limit withdrawal of surface and subterranean waters as necessary to maintain normal stream flows, especially during drought. Prevent or limit establishment of invasive species (including zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha) to the extent possible. Where appropriate, protect populations through acquisitions and easements over streamside lands by working with government agencies and conservation organizations.

Distribution
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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) This species ranges from the coastal plain portion of Gulf drainages from the Escambia River in Florida west to Texas and northward into the Mississippi River drainage (Mulvey et al,. 1997). Butler (1989) lists the distribution as throughout the Interior Basin and from the San Antonio River, Texas, east to the Choctawhatchee River, but not from the Yellow River. In Canada, it is restricted to southern Ontario, southern Manitoba, and southeastern Saskatchewan, but is widely distributed and often abundant In Canada, this species is restricted to the Lake Erie drainage in Ontario (Metcalfe-Smith and Cadmore-Vokey, 2004). It extends into the Niagara River drainage in western New York (Strayer and Jirka, 1997).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, FL, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, MS, ND, NE, NY, OH, OK, PA, SD, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV
Canada MB, ON, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Bibb (01007), Dallas (01047), Greene (01063), Jackson (01071), Jefferson (01073), Lauderdale (01077), Limestone (01083)*, Lowndes (01085), Madison (01089), Marengo (01091), Marshall (01095), Montgomery (01101), Morgan (01103), Pickens (01107), Shelby (01117), Tuscaloosa (01125), Wilcox (01131)
FL Escambia (12033)*, Santa Rosa (12113)*, Walton (12131)*, Washington (12133)*
IA Allamakee (19005), Buena Vista (19021), Carroll (19027), Chickasaw (19037), Clay (19041), Clayton (19043), Clinton (19045), Des Moines (19057), Dickinson (19059), Dubuque (19061), Franklin (19069), Greene (19073), Hamilton (19079), Hardin (19083), Howard (19089), Jackson (19097), Johnson (19103), Jones (19105), Lee (19111), Linn (19113), Louisa (19115), Mitchell (19131), Muscatine (19139), O Brien (19141), Osceola (19143), Scott (19163), Story (19169), Webster (19187), Wright (19197)
NE Cass (31025), Cedar (31027), Dakota (31043)*, Dixon (31051)*, Dodge (31053)*, Gage (31067)*, Johnson (31097)*, Nemaha (31127), Otoe (31131), Pawnee (31133), Richardson (31147), Thurston (31173)*, Wayne (31179)*
NY Chautauqua (36013), Erie (36029), Genesee (36037), Niagara (36063)
OH Clermont (39025), Defiance (39039), Delaware (39041), Franklin (39049), Gallia (39053), Hamilton (39061), Hancock (39063), Lawrence (39087), Logan (39091), Lucas (39095), Madison (39097), Muskingum (39119), Ottawa (39123), Pickaway (39129), Scioto (39145), Union (39159), Warren (39165), Washington (39167)
PA Armstrong (42005)*, Beaver (42007), Butler (42019)*, Crawford (42039), Erie (42049), Forest (42053)*, Greene (42059), Lawrence (42073), Mercer (42085), Venango (42121), Warren (42123)
SD Beadle (46005), Brookings (46011), Clay (46027), Davison (46035), Grant (46051), Hanson (46061), Hutchinson (46067), Moody (46101), Union (46127)*, Yankton (46135)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+*, Escambia (03140305)+*, Upper Alabama (03150201)+, Cahaba (03150202)+, Middle Alabama (03150203)+, Sipsey (03160107)+, Locust (03160111)+*, Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw (03160201)+
04 Upper Maumee (04100005)+, Tiffin (04100006)+, Blanchard (04100008)+, Lower Maumee (04100009)+, Cedar-Portage (04100010)+, Chautauqua-Conneaut (04120101)+, Niagara (04120104)+, Lake Erie (04120200)+
05 Upper Allegheny (05010001)+, Conewango (05010002)+, Middle Allegheny-Tionesta (05010003)+, French (05010004)+, Middle Allegheny-Redbank (05010006)+*, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Shenango (05030102)+, Mahoning (05030103)+*, Connoquenessing (05030105)+, Muskingum (05040004)+, Upper Scioto (05060001)+, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Raccoon-Symmes (05090101)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Little Miami (05090202)+
06 Wheeler Lake (06030002)+, Pickwick Lake (06030005)+
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+, Grant-Little Maquoketa (07060003)+, Turkey (07060004)+, Apple-Plum (07060005)+, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+, South Skunk (07080105)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+, Boone (07100005)+, North Raccoon (07100006)+
10 Middle James (10160006)+, Lower James (10160011)+, Lewis and Clark Lake (10170101)+, Vermillion (10170102)+, Upper Big Sioux (10170202)+, Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Logan (10220004)+*, Blackbird-Soldier (10230001)+*, Little Sioux (10230003)+, Keg-Weeping Water (10240001)+, Little Nemaha (10240006)+, South Fork Big Nemaha (10240007)+, Big Nemaha (10240008)+, Middle Big Blue (10270202)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed (based on multiple information sources) Help
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: a freshwater mussel
Reproduction Comments: Infestation by glochidia confirmed (though transformation not tested) on Hiodon tergisus, Notropis antherinoides, Cyprinella spiloptera, Cyprinella whipplei, Erimystax dissimilis, Moxostoma duquesnei, Moxostoma erythrurum, Hyperntelium nigricans, Ictalurus punctatus (confirmed host), Lepomis macrochirus (confirmed host), Percina caprodes, Aplodinotus grunniens (Weiss and Layzer, 1995).
Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): BIG RIVER, CREEK, High gradient, Low gradient, MEDIUM RIVER, Moderate gradient, Pool, Riffle
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Deep water, Shallow water
Special Habitat Factors: Benthic
Habitat Comments: This species can be found in a variety of habitats, ranging from small streams to big rivers, and from locations such as lakes, rivers, and streams with little or no current to areas of very swift current. It is found in a variety of substrates including clay, mud, sand, sand mixed with gravel, and gravel. It is most common on bottoms composed of sand and gravel in one to three feet of water, but has been taken at depths of 30 feet (Parmalee and Bogan, 1998).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Freshwater Mussels

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens, including live specimens or recently dead shells (i.e., soft tissue still attached and/or nacre still glossy and iridescent without signs of external weathering or staining), at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Weathered shells constitute a historic occurrence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information.
Mapping Guidance: Based on the separation distances outlined herein, for freshwater mussels in STANDING WATER (or backwater areas of flowing water such as oxbows and sloughs), all standing water bodies with either (1) greater than 2 km linear distance of unsuitable habitat between (i.e. lotic connections), or (2) more than 10 km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat (including lentic shoreline, linear distance across water bodies, and lentic water bodies with proper lotic connections), are considered separate element occurrences. Only the largest standing water bodies (with 20 km linear shoreline or greater) may have greater than one element occurrence within each. Multiple collection or observation locations in one lake, for example, would only constitute multiple occurrences in the largest lakes, and only then if there was some likelihood that unsurveyed areas between collections did not contain the element.

For freshwater mussels in FLOWING WATER conditions, occurrences are separated by a distance of more than 2 stream km of unsuitable habitat, or a distance of more than 10 stream km of apparently unoccupied though suitable habitat. Standing water between occurrences is considered suitable habitat when calculating separation distance for flowing water mussel species unless dispersal barriers (see Separation Barriers) are in place.

Several mussel species in North America occur in both standing and flowing water (see Specs Notes). Calculation of separation distance and determination of separation barriers for these taxa should take into account the environment in which the element was collected. Juvenile mussels do not follow this pattern and juveniles are typically missed by most standard sampling methods (Hastie and Cosgrove, 2002; Neves and Widlak, 1987), therefore juvenile movement is not considered when calculating separation distance.

Separation Barriers: Separation barriers within standing water bodies are based solely on separation distance (see Separation Distance-suitable, below). Separation barriers between standing water bodies and within flowing water systems include lack of lotic connections, natural barriers such as upland habitat, absence of appropriate species specific fish hosts, water depth greater than 10 meters (Cvancara, 1972; Moyle and Bacon, 1969) or anthropogenic barriers to water flow such as dams or other impoundments and high waterfalls.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Adult freshwater mussels are largely sedentary spending their entire lives very near to the place where they first successfully settled (Coker et al., 1921; Watters, 1992). Strayer (1999) demonstrated in field trials that mussels in streams occur chiefly in flow refuges, or relatively stable areas that displayed little movement of particles during flood events. Flow refuges conceivably allow relatively immobile mussels to remain in the same general location throughout their entire lives. Movement occurs with the impetus of some stimulus (nearby water disturbance, physical removal from the water such as during collection, exposure conditions during low water, seasonal temperature change or associated diurnal cycles) and during spawning. Movement is confined to either vertical movement burrowing deeper into sediments though rarely completely beneath the surface, or horizontal movement in a distinct path often away from the area of stimulus. Vertical movement is generally seasonal with rapid descent into the sediment in autumn and gradual reappearance at the surface during spring (Amyot and Downing, 1991; 1997). Horizontal movement is generally on the order of a few meters at most and is associated with day length and during times of spawning (Amyot and Downing, 1997). Such locomotion plays little, if any, part in the distribution of freshwater mussels as these limited movements are not dispersal mechanisms. Dispersal patterns are largely speculative but have been attributed to stream size and surface geology (Strayer, 1983; Strayer and Ralley, 1993; van der Schalie, 1938), utilization of flow refuges during flood stages (Strayer, 1999), and patterns of host fish distribution during spawning periods (Haag and Warren, 1998; Watters, 1992). Lee and DeAngelis (1997) modeled the dispersal of freshwater into unoccupied habitats as a traveling wave front with a velocity ranging from 0.87 to 2.47 km/year (depending on mussel life span) with increase in glochidial attachment rate to fish having no effect on wave velocity.

Nearly all mussels require a host or hosts during the parasitic larval portion of their life cycle. Hosts are usually fish, but a few exceptional species utilize amphibians as hosts (Van Snik Gray et al., 2002; Howard, 1915) or may metamorphose without a host (Allen, 1924; Barfield et al., 1998; Lefevre and Curtis, 1911; 1912). Haag and Warren (1998) found that densities of host generalist mussels (using a variety of hosts from many different families) and displaying host specialists (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but mussel females have behavioral modifications to attract hosts to the gravid female) were independent of the densities of their hosts. Densities of non-displaying host specialist mussels (using a small number of hosts usually in the same family but without host-attracting behavior) were correlated positively with densities of their hosts. Upstream dispersal of host fish for non-displaying host specialist mussels could, theoretically, transport mussel larvae (glochidia) over long distances through unsuitable habitat, but it is unlikely that this occurs very often. D. Strayer (personal communication) suggested a distance of at least 10 km, but a greater distance between occurrences may be necessary to constitute genetic separation of populations. As such, separation distance is based on a set, though arbitrary, distance between two known points of occurrence.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: Contact Jay Cordeiro (jay_cordeiro@natureserve.org) for a complete list of freshwater mussel taxa sorted by flow regime.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Jan2014
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Jackson, D. R. (2013); Cordeiro, J. (2009)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 17Dec2007
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Ahlstedt, S., C. Walker, and S. Bakaletz. 2008. Status of freshwater mussels in the coal mining basin of the New River (Big South Fork Cumberland River drainage) in portions of Scott, Anderson, Morgan and Campbell Counties, Tennessee (2006-2008). Ellipsaria, 10(3): 7.

  • Blalock-Herod, H. N., J. J. Herod, J. D. Williams, B. N. Wilson, and S. W. McGregor. 2005. A historical and current perspective of the freshwater mussel fauna (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from the Choctawhatchee River drainage in Alabama and Florida. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 24:1-26.

  • Bordelon, V.L. and R.C. Harrel. 2004. Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Village Creek drainage basin in southeast Texas. The Texas Journal of Science, 56(1): 63-72.

  • Branson, B.A. 1966a. A partial biological survey of the Spring River drainage in Kansas, Oklahoma and Missouri. Part I, collecting sites, basic limnological data, and mollusks. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 69(3/4): 242-293.

  • Burch, J.B. 1975a. Freshwater unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Malacological Publications: Hamburg, Michigan. 204 pp.

  • Butler, R.S. 1989. Distributional records for freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Florida and south Alabama, with zoogeographic and taxonomic notes. Walkerana, 3(10): 239-261.

  • Christian, A.D. 1995. Analysis of the commercial mussel beds in the Cache and White Rivers in Arkansas. M.S. Thesis, Arkansas State University. 210 pp.

  • Clark, C.F. 1988. Some fresh-water mussels from the Red River drainage, Kentucky. Malacology Data Net, 2(3/4): 100-104.

  • Clarke, A.H. 1981a. The freshwater mollusks of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, D. W. Friesen and Sons, Ltd.: Ottawa, Canada. 446 pp.

  • Clarke, A.H. and C.O. Berg. 1959. The freshwater mussels of central New York. Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station Memoir 367.

  • Cochran, T.G. II and J.B. Layzer. 1993. Effects of commercial harvest on unionid habitat use in the Green and Barren Rivers, Kentucky. Pages 61-65 in K.S. Cummings, A.C. Buchanan, and L.M. Koch (eds.) Conservation and Management of Freshwater Mussels: Proceedings of a UMRCC Symposium, 12-14 October, 1992, St. Louis, Missouri. Upper Mississippi River Conservation Committee, Rock Island, Illinois. 189 pp.

  • Cummings, K.S. and C.A. Mayer. 1992. Field Guide to Freshwater Mussels of the Midwest. Illinois Natural History Survey Manual 5, Illinois. 194 pp.

  • Cummings, K.S. and J.M. Berlocher. 1990. The naiades or freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) of the Tippecanoe River, Indiana. Malacological Review 23:83-98.

  • Cvancara, A.M. 1970. Mussels (Unionidae) of the Red River Valley in North Dakota and Minnesota, U.S.A.. Malacologia, 10(1): 57-92.

  • Deyrup, M., and R. Franz. 1994. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Volume IV: Invertebrates. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. 798 pp.

  • Ecological Specialists, Inc. 1996. Unionid Mussel Survey of the Blue River, Indiana. Prepared for The Nature Conservancy. 23 pp.

  • Elderkin, C.L., A.D. Christian, C.C. Vaughn, J.L. Metcalfe-Smith, and D.J. Berg. 2007. Population genetics of the freshwater mussel, Amblema plicata (Say 1817) (Bivalvia: Unionidae): evidence of high dispersal and post-glacial colonization. Conservation Genetics, 8(2): 355-372.

  • Fraley, S.J. and S.A. Ahlstedt. 2000. The recent decline of the native mussels (Unionidae) of Copper Creek, Russell and Scott Counties, Virginia. Pages 189-195 in R.A. Tankersley, D.I. Warmolts, G.T. Watters, B.J. Armitage, P.D. Johnson, and R.S. Butler (eds.). Freshwater Mollusk Symposia Proceedings. Ohio Biological Survey, Columbus, Ohio. 274 pp.

  • General Status, Environment Canada. 2015. Manitoba Mollusk species list and subnational ranks proposed by an expert.

  • Goodrich, C. and H. van der Schalie. 1939. Aquatic mollusks of the upper peninsula of Michigan. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, 43: 1-45.

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