Alopecurus carolinianus - Walt.
Tufted Foxtail
Other English Common Names: Carolina Foxtail, Tufted Meadow Foxtail
Other Common Names: Carolina foxtail
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Alopecurus carolinianus Walter (TSN 40440)
French Common Names: vulpin de Caroline
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.151682
Element Code: PMPOA07040
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Grass Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Cyperales Poaceae Alopecurus
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Alopecurus carolinianus
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Jun2016
Global Status Last Changed: 02Apr1986
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Widespread in the United States and southern Canada.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3 (08Feb2012)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNR), Arizona (SNR), Arkansas (SNR), California (SNR), Colorado (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (S4), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S3S4), Idaho (SNR), Illinois (S3S4), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S4), Kansas (SNR), Kentucky (S4?), Louisiana (SNR), Maryland (S5), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Minnesota (SNR), Mississippi (SNR), Missouri (SNR), Montana (SNA), Nebraska (SNR), New Jersey (S2), New Mexico (SNR), New York (SNA), North Carolina (S4), North Dakota (SNR), Ohio (SNR), Oklahoma (SNR), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNA), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Texas (SNR), Utah (S1), Virginia (S3S4), Washington (SNR), West Virginia (S1), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S2)
Canada Alberta (S3), British Columbia (S2), Ontario (SNA), Saskatchewan (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Massachusetts and New York, west to Washington, south to Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California. Also in British Columbia and Saskatchewan.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Draining of wetlands may threaten this species.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Massachusetts and New York, west to Washington, south to Florida, Texas, Arizona, and California. Also in British Columbia and Saskatchewan.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, AZ, CA, COexotic, CTexotic, DE, FL, GA, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MIexotic, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NYexotic, OH, OK, OR, PAexotic, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada AB, BC, ONexotic, SK

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
MD Prince Georges (24033)
MN Big Stone (27011), Brown (27015), Chippewa (27023), Clay (27027), Cottonwood (27033), Lac Qui Parle (27073), Nicollet (27103), Pipestone (27117), Redwood (27127), Renville (27129), Rock (27133), Scott (27139), Yellow Medicine (27173)
NJ Gloucester (34015)*, Salem (34033)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Cohansey-Maurice (02040206)+, Patuxent (02060006)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+
07 Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Chippewa (07020005)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+, Cottonwood (07020008)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+
09 Buffalo (09020106)+
10 Lower Big Sioux (10170203)+, Rock (10170204)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Annual grass with dense flowering spikes.
General Description: This is an annual bunchgrass forming tufts of erect stems up to about half a meter tall. The leaves are 8 to 15 centimeters in maximum length. The inflorescence is dense, cylindrical, and only a few centimeters in length.
Technical Description: Tribe Agrostideae. Tufted annual, often mat-forming, with erect stems, flat leaf blades and very dense compacted spikelike cylindrical inflorescences. Stems 1-5 dm tall, glabrous, nodes purplish. Leaf blades variable in length, to about 12 cm long, 0.5-1.0 mm wide, the upper sheaths somewhat inflated. Inflorescence 2-5 cm long, about 5 mm wide not including the awns. Spikelets on stalks 1 mm long or a little longer, 1-flowered, 2-3 mm long excluding awn; glumes equal, thin-scarious or green distally, as long as the spikelet, united at the very base, conspicuously ciliate on the keels, that is, at the margins of the laterally flattened spikelet, apically acute to short-soft-aristate; lemmas thin, somewhat shorter than glumes, awned from the back below the middle, awn extruded from the spikelet and diverging from the inflorescence 2-3 mm. Disarticulation is below the glumes. (Godfrey & Wooten 1981)
Diagnostic Characteristics: Plant annual; spikelet 2 to 2.5 mm long; panicle dense; anthers 0.5 mm long. (Hitchcock 1951)
Duration: ANNUAL
Reproduction Comments: Flowers of the tribe Agrostideae are usually perfect (Hitchcock 1951). Apomixis occurs in the genus (Fryxell 1957). The long awns attach to fur or clothing; seeds of the genus have been found in cattle dung (Ridley 1930).
Palustrine Habitat(s): HERBACEOUS WETLAND
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous, Old field
Habitat Comments: Moist to wet open places, fallow fields, shores of ponds and lakes, meadows, wet clearings of floodplain woodlands, ditches (Godfrey and Wooten 1981). Moist open ground, old fields, and wetlands (Hitchcock 1951). Old fields, watersides, ditches (Hough 1983). Low fields and woods and ditches (Radford et al. 1968).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Mar1995
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: M.E. Stover, TNC-HO
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Mar1995
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): M.E. STOVER, TNC-HO

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, and P.K. Holmgren. 1977. Intermountain flora: vascular plants of the intermountain West, U.S.A. Vol. Six. Monocotyledons. Columbia Univ. Press, New York. 584 pp.

  • Fryxell, P.A. 1957. Mode of reproduction of higher plants. Botanical Review 23(3): 135-233.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Hitchcock, A.S. 1951. Manual of the grasses of the United States. 2nd edition revised by Agnes Chase. [Reprinted, 1971, in 2 vols., by Dover Publications, Incorporated, New York.]

  • Hough, M.Y. 1983. New Jersey wild plants. Harmony Press, Harmony, NJ. 414 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Ridley, H.N. 1930. The dispersal of plants throughout the world. L. Reeve & Co., Ltd., Ashford, Kent, United Kingdom. 744 pp.

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