Alloperla biserrata - Nelson and Kondratieff, 1980
Dusky Sallfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Alloperla biserrata Nelson and Kondratieff, 1980 (TSN 103219)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.116534
Element Code: IIPLE11050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Stoneflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Plecoptera Chloroperlidae Alloperla
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Stark, B.P. 1996. Last updated 16 February 2001. North American Stonefly List. Online. Available: http://www.mc.edu/campus/users/stark/Sfly0102.htm.
Concept Reference Code: N96STA01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Alloperla biserrata
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 11Sep2009
Global Status Last Changed: 20Sep1999
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Distribution includes the Allegheny Mountains- Ridge and Valley Province of Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia in the upper reaches of the Potomac, North Fork of the Shenandoah, James, New-Kanawha River drainages and into Pennsylvania. These are susceptible to logging and development.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (20Sep1999)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Maryland (SNR), Pennsylvania (S3), Virginia (S2S3), West Virginia (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Distribution includes the Allegheny Mountains- Ridge and Valley Province of Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia in the upper reaches of the Potomac, North Fork of the Shenandoah, James, New-Kanawha River drainages (Surdick, 2004). Earle (2004) reports this species from Pennsylvania.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Surdick (2004) cites Maryland (Alleghany Co.), Virginia (Montgomery, western Rockbridge Cos.; Bath, northwestern Rockingham, Montgomery, northwestern Augusta Cos.), and West Virginia (Pendleton, Pocahontas, Grant, Hardy Cos.). Earle (2004) reports this species from Pennsylvania.

Population Size: Unknown

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Unknown

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: (5000-20,000 square km (about 2000-8000 square miles)) Distribution includes the Allegheny Mountains- Ridge and Valley Province of Maryland, West Virginia and Virginia in the upper reaches of the Potomac, North Fork of the Shenandoah, James, New-Kanawha River drainages (Surdick, 2004). Earle (2004) reports this species from Pennsylvania.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States MD, PA, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History
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General Description: The nymph is undescribed (Surdick, 2004). Detailed epiproct morphology was examined by Willett and Stark (2009).

Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Stoneflies

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical presence or current presence of single or multiple specimens (including nymphs or adults) at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults during dispersal following emergence.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 3 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 3 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Stoneflies (Order Plecoptera) are a relatively small insect order with an immature larval stage that is entirely aquatic in North America. Nymphs of most genera occur in cold lotic habitats, with several occurring in warm lotic systems, comparatively few in cold lentic habitats, and none in warm lentic habitats (Baumann, 1979). Dispersal is primarily accomplished stochastically by nymphs and actively by winged adults; although the adult of Capnia lacustra Jewett, 1965, is entirely aquatic (Jewett, 1962) and Capnura fibula (Claassen, 1924), and Allocapnia vivipara (Claassen, 1924) are apparently wingless (Jewett, 1960). Numbers of described North American species (in nine families) have steadily grown from 350 (Jewett, 1960) to 537 (Stark et al., 1986) to 550 (Stewart and Stark, 1993) to 575 (DeWalt and Stewart, 1995) and most recently 614 (Stark et al., 1998).

Separation distances (unsuitable and suitable) have been set at three km based upon several life history characteristics that limit occurrences to the area of emergence, among them: (1) most stoneflies require some form of moving water for development of nymphs (Hynes in Stark and Armitage, 2000; Jewett, 1960); (2) although some species occur in cool lentic habitats, no stonefly genera occur in warm lentic habitats and most cool lentic taxa live along active, wave-swept areas of shorelines (Hynes in Stark and Armitage, 2000; Stark et al., 1996); (3) although drift does occur for some species, drft tendency is low for stoneflies (Stewart and Szczytko, 1983); (4) stonefly adults generally remain in the area (within m) of larval emergence and mate on nearby solid substratum (Brittain, 1990; Bubb et al., 2004; Cummins and Merritt, 1996); (5) the known life cycle of North American stoneflies is either univoltine (one year) or semivoltine (two or three years) (Hynes in Stark and Armitage, 2000; Stewart and Ricker, 1997; Stewart and Stark, 1993); (6) flying ability (particularly for adult females) is not strong with dispersal rarely exceeding a few km (Malmqvist, 2000) wherein, according to Stewart and Stark (1993), "most students of plecopteran biogeography have emphasized low vagility of adult stoneflies and the necessity for former land bridges or vicariant events to account for range disjunctions"; (7) recently, limited wind-driven dispersal of adults between tributaries has been demonstrated wherein Bubb et al. (2004) showed that between 0.1% and 0.2% of a population of Leuctra inermis moved a distance of 1 km while a very small percentage of a population of Peltoperla tarteri demonstrated genetic flow over 0.5 to 2.0 km (Schultheis et al., 2002).

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11Sep2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J. (2009); Kondratieff, B. (1999)

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Earle, J.I. 2004. New records and clarifications of the Pennsylvania stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna, with an annotated list of the stoneflies of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Entomological News 115(4): 191-200.

  • Stark, B. P., K. W. Stewart, S. W. Szczytko, R. W. Baumann, and B. C. Kondratieff. 2012. Scientific and common names of Nearctic stoneflies (Plecoptera), with corrections and additions to the list. The Caddis Press, Miscellaneous Contribution No. 1. 20 pp.

  • Stark, B.P. 1996. Last updated 16 February 2001. North American Stonefly List. Online. Available: http://www.mc.edu/campus/users/stark/Sfly0102.htm.

  • Surdick, R.F. 2004. Chloroperlidae (The Sallflies). Pages 1-60 in B.P. Stark and B.J. Armitage (eds.) The Stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Eastern North America. Volume II. Chloroperlidae, Perlidae, and Perlodidae (Perlodinae). Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey New Series 14. 192 pp.

  • Tarter, D.C. and C.H. Nelson. 2006. A revised checklist of the stoneflies (Plecoptera) of West Virginia (USA). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 108(2):429-442.

  • Willett, M.R. and B.P. Stark. 2009. The Alloperla leonarda group of eastern North America, with SEM images of four out-group species (Plecoptera: Chloroperlidae). Illiesia 5(11):108-127.

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