Allium vineale - L.
Field Garlic
Other English Common Names: Wild Garlic
Other Common Names: wild garlic
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Allium vineale L. (TSN 42637)
French Common Names: ail des vignes
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.137664
Element Code: PMLIL022K0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Lily Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Monocotyledoneae Liliales Liliaceae Allium
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Allium vineale
Taxonomic Comments: FNA (vol. 26, 2002) lumps subspecific taxa.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (25Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), California (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Florida (SNA), Georgia (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Iowa (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Louisiana (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Missouri (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oklahoma (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, CAexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, FLexotic, GAexotic, IAexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, LAexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MOexotic, MSexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, OKexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, TNexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic
Canada BCexotic, ONexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Allium vineale appears to be predominately a pest of agriculture, with little data on possible effects in a natural ecosystem or on native species.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Medium/Low
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: High/Low
I-Rank Review Date: 13May2004
Evaluator: Fellows, M.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Europe (Cardina et al., Undated). North Africa and extreme western Asia (Mehrhoff et al. 2003).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: (Kartesz 1999; Cardina et al., Undated).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Meadows (Cardina et al., Undated). But mostly an agriculutral pest.

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Usually present in agricultural systems, not a significant part of natural communities, unlikely to cause significant deterioration in ecosystem processes.

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Forb (Kartesz 1999).

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Low significance
Comments: Can threaten growth of native species in New England (Mehrhoff et al. 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance
Comments: Many disturbed and/or waste places, but also in meadows, along rivers and streams (Cardina et al., Undated). Found in early successional forest, floodplain forest, and wet meadows (Mehrhoff et al. 2003). Forest thickets, borders of lakes and several 'cultural' habitats (Iverson et al. 1999).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Unknown

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:High significance
Comments: Possible in at least 35 ecoregions (inferred from Kartesz (1999)distribution and TNC (2001)).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Low significance
Comments: Many disturbed and/or waste places, but also in meadows, along rivers and streams (Cardina et al., Undated). Found in early successional forest, floodplain forest, and wet meadows (Mehrhoff et al. 2003). Forest thickets, borders of lakes and several 'cultural' habitats (Iverson et al. 1999).

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Medium/Low

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Medium/Low significance
Comments: Appears to be a weak invader under normal circumstances, dependent on water movement, therefore relatively limited expansion if at all.

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Inferred from Kartesz 1999. Present in every county of Illinois (Iverson et al. 1999).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:High/Moderate significance
Comments: Thought to have been transported to U.S. in balast (Mehrhoff et al. 2003). Can be transferred as a byproduct of agriculture - mud on equipment, feet of livestock, accidentally in grain (Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment 2002).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:High/Low significance
Comments: 'Spreads rapidly' (Fitzsimmons and Burrill 1993).

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Moderately invasive in VA (VNPS and VDCR 2003). But only found on edges or along banks of lakes and streams where "dispersal is facilitated by flood waters" (Mehrhoff et al. 2003). In Missouri, not capable of invading native vegetation (Ladd and Churchwell 1999).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:High/Low significance
Comments: Established in Australia and New Zealand (Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment 2002).

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Low significance
Comments: Reproduces by underground and aerial bulblets, seed, produces two kinds of underground blublets - one kind can stay dormant 1 to 5 years, creating a viable 'bank' (Cardina et al., Undated).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: High/Low

17. General Management Difficulty:High/Moderate significance
Comments: 'Troublesome,' 'difficult to control', seasonal tillage recommended for pastures or fields, hand pulling for small patches (Cardina et al., Undated). Difficult to control, burning tops only slows it down, use chemical methods, repeated applications are necessary (Fitzsimmons and Burrill 1993).

18. Minimum Time Commitment:High/Low significance
Comments: Several years required if using seasonal tilling (Fitzsimmons and Burrill 1993).

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:High/Low significance
Comments: Inferred - most management recommendations are highly likely to negatively impact any nearby native species.

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Cardina, J., C. Herms, T. Koch, T. Webster. No Date. Ohio Perennial and Biennial Weed Guide. The Ohio State University Extension. ONLINE http://www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/weedguide/credits.asp. Accessed 2004, January.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment. 2002. Service Sheet. Crow Garlic (Allium vineale L.).

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 2001. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 6, Monocotyledons (Acoraceae through Najadaceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria, BC. 361pp.

  • Fitzsimmons, J.P. and L.C. Burrill. 1993. Wild Garlic Allium vineale L. A Pacific Northwest Extension Publication. 444.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2002a. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 26. Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales. Oxford Univ. Press, New York. xxvi + 723 pp.

  • Iverson, L.R., D. Ketzner and J. Karnes. 1999. Illinois Plant Information Network. Database at http://fs.fed.us/ne/delaware/ilpin/ilpin.html. Illinois Natural History Survey and USDA Forest Service.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1996. Species distribution data at state and province level for vascular plant taxa of the United States, Canada, and Greenland (accepted records), from unpublished data files at the North Carolina Botanical Garden, December, 1996.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Ladd, D., and B. Churchwell. 1999. Ecological and Floristic Assessment of Missouri Prairie Foundation Lands. March 1999. The Nature Conservancy Missouri Field Office, St. Louis, MO. Online. Available: http://www.moprairie.org/eco/ (accessed January, March 2004).

  • Mehrhoff, L.J., J.A. Silander, Jr., S.A. Leicht and E. Mosher. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. Online. Available: http://invasives.eeb.uconn.edu/ipane/.

  • Montgomery, F.H. 1948. Introduced plants of Waterloo and adjacent counties, Ontario.  Canadian Field-Naturalist 62(2): 79-95.

  • Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. Morton Arboretum. Lisle, Illinois.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • Virginia Native Plant Society (VNPS) and Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VDCR). 2003. September-last update. List of invasive alien plant species of Virginia. Available: http://www.vnps.org/invasive.html.

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