Ajuga reptans - L.
Carpet-bugle
Other English Common Names: Carpet Bugleweed, Common-bugle, Creeping Bugleweed
Other Common Names: common bugle
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Ajuga reptans L. (TSN 32454)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.147291
Element Code: PDLAM04030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Mint Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Lamiales Lamiaceae Ajuga
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Ajuga reptans
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: GNR
Global Status Last Changed: 22Mar1994
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Nation: United States
National Status: NNA
Nation: Canada
National Status: NNA (22Mar1994)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNA), Arkansas (SNA), Connecticut (SNA), Delaware (SNA), District of Columbia (SNA), Georgia (SNA), Illinois (SNA), Indiana (SNA), Kansas (SNA), Kentucky (SNA), Maine (SNA), Maryland (SNA), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNA), Mississippi (SNA), Montana (SNA), New Jersey (SNA), New York (SNA), North Carolina (SNA), Ohio (SNA), Oregon (SNA), Pennsylvania (SNA), Rhode Island (SNA), South Carolina (SNA), Tennessee (SNA), Texas (SNA), Utah (SNA), Vermont (SNA), Virginia (SNA), Washington (SNA), West Virginia (SNA), Wisconsin (SNA)
Canada British Columbia (SNA), Newfoundland Island (SNA), Nova Scotia (SNA), Ontario (SNA), Quebec (SNA)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The distribution shown may be incomplete, particularly for some rapidly spreading exotic species.

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States ALexotic, ARexotic, CTexotic, DCexotic, DEexotic, GAexotic, ILexotic, INexotic, KSexotic, KYexotic, MA, MDexotic, MEexotic, MIexotic, MSexotic, MTexotic, NCexotic, NJexotic, NYexotic, OHexotic, ORexotic, PAexotic, RIexotic, SCexotic, TNexotic, TXexotic, UTexotic, VAexotic, VTexotic, WAexotic, WIexotic, WVexotic
Canada BCexotic, NFexotic, NSexotic, ONexotic, QCexotic

Range Map
No map available.

Ecology & Life History Not yet assessed
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Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank)
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Disclaimer: While I-Rank information is available over NatureServe Explorer, NatureServe is not actively developing or maintaining these data. Species with I-RANKs do not represent a random sample of species exotic in the United States; available assessments may be biased toward those species with higher-than-average impact.

I-Rank: Medium/Insignificant
Rounded I-Rank: Unknown
I-Rank Reasons Summary: Ajuga reptans occurs across most of the eastern U.S. and also in Texas, Kansas, Utah, Oregon, and Washington. It is apparently commonly cultivated but uncommonly established; however, there is very little information. Both Maryland and Virginia have listed it as a species that poses at least some threat to natural areas and native vegetation. In Virginia, it is listed as occasionally invasive, possibly outcompeting one or more native plants and often establishing in severely disturbed areas; it may spread slowly or not at all from disturbed sites. Ajuga reptans seems to have at least some aggressive reproductive characteristics. Plants spread vigorously by leafy stolons and form loose mats. It also re-seeds well.
Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant
Subrank II - Current Distribution/Abundance: High/Medium
Subrank III - Trend in Distribution/Abundance: Unknown
Subrank IV - Management Difficulty: Unknown
I-Rank Review Date: 23Jan2004
Evaluator: Tomaino, A.
Native anywhere in the U.S?
Native Range: Eurasia (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Native of Europe, west Asia and north Africa (Gleason 1952).

Download "An Invasive Species Assessment Protocol: Evaluating Non-Native Plants for their Impact on Biodiversity". (PDF, 1.03MB)
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Screening Questions

S-1. Established outside cultivation as a non-native? YES
Comments: Established outside cultivation (Kartesz 1999).

S-2. Present in conservation areas or other native species habitat? Yes
Comments: Listed as an occasionally invasive species, which may alter plant community composition by outcompeting native plants (VNPS and VDCR 2003). Listed as an exotic plant that poses at least some threat to native plants and natural habitats in Maryland (MDNR 2003).

Subrank I - Ecological Impact: Low/Insignificant

1. Impact on Ecosystem Processes and System-wide Parameters:Insignificant
Comments: Listed as an occasionally invasive species, which is definied as one that does not affect ecosystem process (VNPS and VDCR 2003).

2. Impact on Ecological Community Structure:Unknown

3. Impact on Ecological Community Composition:Low significance
Comments: It may alter plant community composition by outcompeting native plants (VNPS and VDCR 2003). Listed as an exotic plant that poses at least some threat to native plants and natural habitats in Maryland (MDNR 2003).

4. Impact on Individual Native Plant or Animal Species:Unknown

5. Conservation Significance of the Communities and Native Species Threatened:Low significance/Insignificant
Comments: Lawns and roadsides; commonly cultivated, uncommonly established (Weakley 2002). Listed as an exotic plant that poses at least some threat to native plants and natural habitats in Maryland (MDNR 2003). In Connecticut it sometimes escapes into wild areas (Connecticut Botanical Society 2003). In Virginia, its listed as occasionally invasive (VNPS and VNDR 2003).

Subrank II. Current Distribution and Abundance: High/Medium

6. Current Range Size in Nation:High significance
Comments: Occurs across most of the eastern US and also in Texas, Kansas, Utah, Oregon, and Washington (Kartesz 1999).

7. Proportion of Current Range Where the Species is Negatively Impacting Biodiversity:Medium/Low significance
Comments: There is information that it may be a problem in Connecticut, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina (Connecticut Botanical Society 2003; MDNR 2003; VNPS and VDCR 2003; HARP 2003).

8. Proportion of Nation's Biogeographic Units Invaded:Moderate significance
Comments: At most, 30 units, based on Kartesz (1999) and TNC (2001).

9. Diversity of Habitats or Ecological Systems Invaded in Nation:Unknown

Subrank III. Trend in Distribution and Abundance: Unknown

10. Current Trend in Total Range within Nation:Unknown

11. Proportion of Potential Range Currently Occupied:Low significance
Comments: Roughly 70%, based on USDA (1990).

12. Long-distance Dispersal Potential within Nation:Medium significance/Insignificant
Comments: Mericarps are 1.7-2 mm long (Radford et al. 1968).

13. Local Range Expansion or Change in Abundance:Unknown

14. Inherent Ability to Invade Conservation Areas and Other Native Species Habitats:Low significance
Comments: Lawns and roadsides; commonly cultivated, uncommonly established (Weakley 2002). Sometimes escaped into lawns etc. in the northeastern US (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Listed as an exotic plant that poses at least some threat to native plants and natural habitats in Maryland (MDNR 2003). In Connecticut it sometimes escapes into wild areas (Connecticut Botanical Society 2003). In Virginia, its listed as occasionally invasive, often establishing in severely disturbed areas; it may spread slowly or not at all from disturbed sites (VNPS and VNDR 2003).

15. Similar Habitats Invaded Elsewhere:Unknown

16. Reproductive Characteristics:Moderate significance
Comments: It spreads by repent stems and also re-seeds well so it can be invasive if left unchecked (HARP 2003). Plants spread vigorously by leafy stolons and form loose mats (Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

Subrank IV. General Management Difficulty: Unknown

17. General Management Difficulty:Unknown

18. Minimum Time Commitment:Unknown

19. Impacts of Management on Native Species:Unknown

20. Accessibility of Invaded Areas:Unknown
Authors/Contributors
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Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Connecticut Botanical Society. 2003. February 15 last update. Gallery of Connecticut Wildflowers: Ajuga reptans. Online. Available: http://www.ct-botanical-society.org/galleries/galleryindex.html (accessed 23 January 2004).

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Haw River Program (HARP). 2003. January 1 last update. The Vascular Flora of North Carolina: Ajuga reptans. Online. Available: http://www.hawriverprogram.org/NCPlants/Ajuga_reptans_page.html (accessed 23 January 2004).

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Maryland Department of Natural Resources (MDNR). 2003. September 10-last update. List of invasive exotic plants that threaten native species and natural habitats in Maryland. Online. Available: http://www.dnr.state.md.us/wildlife/ieplists.html. (Accessed 2004).

  • Meades, S.J. & Hay, S.G; Brouillet, L. 2000. Annotated Checklist of Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. Memorial University Botanical Gardens, St John's NF. 237pp.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • The Nature Conservancy. 2001. Map: TNC Ecoregions of the United States. Modification of Bailey Ecoregions. Online . Accessed May 2003.

  • USDA Agricultural Research Service. 1990. USDA Plants Hardiness Zone Map. Misc. Publ. Number 1475.

  • Virginia Native Plant Society (VNPS) and Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation (VDCR). 2003. September-last update. List of invasive alien plant species of Virginia. Available: http://www.vnps.org/invasive.html.

  • Weakley, A.S. 2002. July 19-last update. Flora of the Carolinas and Virginia: working draft of July 19, 2002. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical Garden, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Online. Available: http://www.herbarium.unc.edu/weakley_flora/default.htm. Accessed 2003, April 11.

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