Agrimonia gryposepala - Wallr.
Tall Hairy Groovebur
Other English Common Names: Hooked Agrimony, Tall Hairy Agrimony
Other Common Names: tall hairy agrimony
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. (TSN 25095)
French Common Names: aigremoine Ó sÚpales crochus
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.135223
Element Code: PDROS03030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Rose Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Rosales Rosaceae Agrimonia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Agrimonia gryposepala
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 27Aug2015
Global Status Last Changed: 09Feb1984
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Species is common and widespread in many parts of its range. While the number of populations is largely unknown, there are at least a number of thousands of populations rangewide. While it is vulnerable to certain threats, collection pressure is not heavy, and it is known to occur in disturbed areas of secondary habitat and is therefore not likely to be eradicated. Its population is relatively stable across a broad portion of its range, and there are numerous protected populations.
Nation: United States
National Status: N5?
Nation: Canada
National Status: N5 (27Aug2015)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (SNR), Arizona (S4), California (SNR), Connecticut (SNR), Delaware (S3), Georgia (S1?), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Iowa (S5), Kansas (S1), Kentucky (S1S2), Louisiana (SNR), Maine (SNR), Maryland (SNR), Massachusetts (SNR), Michigan (SNR), Minnesota (SNR), Missouri (SU), Montana (SU), Nebraska (SNR), New Hampshire (SNR), New Jersey (S4), New Mexico (SNR), New York (S5), North Carolina (S3), North Dakota (S3), Ohio (SNR), Oregon (SNR), Pennsylvania (SNR), Rhode Island (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), South Dakota (SNR), Tennessee (SNR), Vermont (SNR), Virginia (S5), Washington (SNR), West Virginia (S4), Wisconsin (SNR), Wyoming (S2)
Canada British Columbia (S3S4), Manitoba (S1S2), New Brunswick (S3), Nova Scotia (S3), Ontario (S5), Prince Edward Island (S2), Quebec (S3S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southern British Columbia to California, Arizona, and New Mexico; North Dakota to Nova Scotia, south to Georgia and Louisiana (Kartesz 1999). Species has been reported from the following provinces and states: British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming (Scoggan 1978, USDA-NRCS 1999, Kartesz 1999). Kartesz (1999) considers reports from Montana, Utah, Colorado, and Arkansas to be false, does not recognize the species to be extant in Manitoba, but recognizes it in Mississippi.

More detailed range information was available for the following provinces and states.

British Columbia: occurs in southern portion of B.C. (G. Douglas pers. comm.).

Manitoba: occurs in southern 1/8 of Manitoba (12% of area of Manitoba) (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Scoggan (1957, 1978) and Kartesz (1999) do not recognize the occurrence of Agrimonia gryposepala in Manitoba, however, the identity of specimens of A. gryposepala collected in Manitoba housed in the herbarium at the University of Manitoba (WIN) were recently confirmed by E. Punter, Special Projects Botanist with the Manitoba Conservation Data Centre (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Ontario: common and widespread throughout southern and central Ontario (north to Manitoulin Island and Algonquin Park); not sure of northern limits (M. Oldham pers. comm.).

Quebec: occurs in southern portion of Quebec including Lower Laurentides, Region of Montreal, Eastern Townships, up to the Quebec City area (Rousseau 1974). The species is absent from the Gasp? Peninsula and the Saguenay-Lake St. John area. However, Agrimonia striata, which is frequently misidentified as A. gryposepala, is present in these two regions (J. Labrecque pers. comm.).

Arizona: Mogollon Rim from Flagstaff area east to Whiteriver on the Fort Apache Reservation south to Sierra Ancha Mountains; Coconino, Gila, and Navajo Counties (Arizona Heritage Data Management System).

California: 150-1700 m in northwestern California, the high Cascade ranges, the northern high elevation Sierra Nevada, the San Bernardinos, and the Peninsular Ranges (California Natural Diversity Database).

Delaware: piedmont and Newcastle county, infrequently occurs on the coastal plain (Delaware Natural Heritage Program).

Florida: occurs throughout the state (Wunderlin et al. 1995).

Georgia: recorded in one county in far north of state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Illinois: occurs statewide (W. McClain pers. comm.).

Indiana: occurs in northern half of state (Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center).

Iowa: infrequent in south half of state, frequent to common elsewhere (Iowa Department of Natural Resources).

Kansas: known from a single historical collection from Marshall County (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

Kentucky: found in 4 counties in the central and eastern portions of the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Louisiana: one known population in Caddo Parish (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program).

Massachusetts: occurs throughout the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Maine: occurs in every county in the state (Haines and Vining 1998, Maine Natural Areas Program).

Michigan: occurs throughout the state (Michigan Natural Features Inventory).

Missouri: scattered locations, mostly in northern Missouri (T. Smith pers. comm.).

Montana: not previously known to occur here, specimens have been sent for identification verification (Montana Natural Heritage Program).

North Dakota: recorded in 2 counties in the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

New Mexico: occurs in San Miguel county (New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, Martin and Hutchins 1980-81).

New York: found throughout the state (S. Young pers. comm.).

North Carolina: known to occur in 10 of 13 mountain counties (J. Amoroso pers. comm.).

Ohio: throughout the state, but particularly frequent on the Appalachian Plateau (A. Cusick pers. comm.).

Rhode Island: recorded in at least 2 counties in the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

South Dakota: found in the northern Black Hills, and in south-central South Dakota; Lawrence, Pennington, Meade, and Todd counties (D. Ode pers. comm.).

South Carolina: occurs in 6 counties in the northern and eastern parts of the state (Boyle et al.).

Tennessee: occurs in 2 counties in the northeast portion of the state and 1 in the southeast (APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium 1999).

Virginia: occurs in at least 43 counties throughout the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Vermont: occurs throughout the state (R. Popp pers. comm.).

Wisconsin: found throughout the state (Mason and Iltis 1958, K. Westad pers. comm.).

West Virginia: occurs in 18 counties in the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Wyoming: known to occur in Bear Lodge Mountains (Black Hills) of Crook County. One historical record from "Wind River" (Wind River Range or more likely Wind River Valley) in Fremont County (W. Fertig pers. comm.).

Confirmation was received that this species does not occur in Alberta (Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre), Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre), Alaska (Alaska Natural Heritage Program), Arkansas (Smith 1988; Arkansas Natural Heritage Program), Nevada (Nevada Natural Heritage Program), and Utah (Welsh et al. 1993; Utah Natural Heritage Program).

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: 1000's of populations exist rangewide. British Columbia: 21-100 (G. Douglas pers. comm.); Manitoba: 5? (E. Punter pers. comm.); Ontario: 1000's (M. Oldham pers. comm.); Quebec: >30 (J. Labrecque pers. comm.); Delaware: 4 (Delaware Natural Heritage Program); Georgia: at least 1*; Kansas 0 (C. Freeman pers. comm.); Kentucky: at least 4*; Louisiana: 1 known (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program); North Dakota: at least 2*; Massachusetts: at least 13*; Missouri: 6 (T. Smith pers. comm.); Ohio: perhaps 1000's? (A. Cusick pers. comm.); Rhode Island: at least 2*; South Carolina: at least 6*; Tennessee: at least 3*; Virginia: at least 43*; Wisconsin: 100's or 1000's (K. Westad pers. comm.); West Virginia: at least 18*; Wyoming: 4 (W. Fertig pers. comm.). A * indicates a minimum number of populations based on the number of counties for which the species is recorded according to state distribution maps.

A very common woodland, scrubland, and old field plant in southern Ontario (M. Oldham pers. comm.).

There were about 90 specimens of A. gryposepala in the Wisconsin state herbarium in 1958 (Mason and Iltis 1958) but this species is likely under-collected (K. Westad pers. comm.).

Three of the four presumed extant sites in Wyoming were discovered during a general floristic survey in 1983-84 (W. Fertig pers. comm.).

There are only six herbarium specimens of this species that were collected in Manitoba up to the late 1970's. Some of these populations may now be extirpated (E. Punter pers. comm.).

This species is likely under-collected in Quebec (J. Labrecque pers. comm.).

Only one historical record of this species in Kansas exists. Unsubstantiated occurrences also appear in the literature but efforts to locate populations have been unsuccessful (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

Species is largely untracked, and too common and widespread to be able to choose an "exemplary" population (A. Cusick pers. comm., M. Oldham pers. comm., S. Young pers. comm.).

Population Size Comments: The number of individual plants per population varies from 1 or 2 to 10 or 20 (R. Popp pers. comm.), 24 (T. Smith pers. comm.), possibly hundreds (A. Cusick pers. comm.), to thousands (S. Young pers. comm.).

Overall Threat Impact Comments: There is evidence of collecting Agrimonia gryposepala from the wild in Illinois (W. McClain pers. comm.) and New Mexico. McClain stated that the evidence is indirect, but obtained from a reliable source. A website for a company selling herbal products apparently largely obtained through wildcrafting listed Agrimonia gryposepala for sale in single extract form. The company may now be out of business as there is no telephone number listed under the company name in the current telephone directory. Agrimonia gryposepala has been seen in nurseries but extent of cultivation, and whether this might involve wild-collection, is unknown (S. Young pers. comm.).

While this species has historically been used for medicinal purposes, it is unlikely to become a popular herb and therefore come under collection pressure unless future research uncovers previously unknown medicinal properties that are therapeutically more specific or can provide stronger evidence of its value. A person highly knowledgable with the herbal medicinal industry says that he has never seen this plant in a product (M. McGuffin pers. comm.).

Threats to this species and/or its habitats include clearing of woodlots and forests (W. McClain pers. comm., J. Amoroso pers. comm.), grazing in wood lots, riverbank clearing, fragmentation of habitat (E. Punter pers. comm.), increasing deer population, competition by invasives (Connecticut Natural Diversity Database), conversion of bogs to wet meadows (J. Amoroso pers. comm.), and general development and habitat destruction (W. Fertig pers. comm., K. Westad pers. comm.). The main threats in Wyoming result from habitat loss and degradation associated with gold mining, logging, grazing, recreation, and home construction (W. Fertig pers. comm.).

A. gryposepala is considered a threatened species in North Dakota, as it occurs in woodlands and riparian areas which now cover less than one percent of the state (Bry).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Agrimonia gryposepala is, in general, a common and widespread species across its range, and therefore is not tracked by any of the Natural Heritage Programs (U.S.A.) or Conservation Data Centres (Canada) that responded to this survey. Because it is not tracked, trends at the state and local level are largely unknown. Since the species is widespread and common in many areas of it's range, is known to occur in second growth habitat, and is not threatened by collecting or any other major threat, it is assumed in general to be in a stable state at this time.

This species is reported to be stable in Illinois (B. McClain pers. comm.), Maine (Maine Natural Areas Program), New Jersey (New Jersey Natural Heritage Program), New York (S. Young pers. comm.), Ohio (A. Cusick pers. comm.), Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory), and Vermont (R. Popp pers. comm.).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southern British Columbia to California, Arizona, and New Mexico; North Dakota to Nova Scotia, south to Georgia and Louisiana (Kartesz 1999). Species has been reported from the following provinces and states: British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming (Scoggan 1978, USDA-NRCS 1999, Kartesz 1999). Kartesz (1999) considers reports from Montana, Utah, Colorado, and Arkansas to be false, does not recognize the species to be extant in Manitoba, but recognizes it in Mississippi.

More detailed range information was available for the following provinces and states.

British Columbia: occurs in southern portion of B.C. (G. Douglas pers. comm.).

Manitoba: occurs in southern 1/8 of Manitoba (12% of area of Manitoba) (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Scoggan (1957, 1978) and Kartesz (1999) do not recognize the occurrence of Agrimonia gryposepala in Manitoba, however, the identity of specimens of A. gryposepala collected in Manitoba housed in the herbarium at the University of Manitoba (WIN) were recently confirmed by E. Punter, Special Projects Botanist with the Manitoba Conservation Data Centre (E. Punter pers. comm.).

Ontario: common and widespread throughout southern and central Ontario (north to Manitoulin Island and Algonquin Park); not sure of northern limits (M. Oldham pers. comm.).

Quebec: occurs in southern portion of Quebec including Lower Laurentides, Region of Montreal, Eastern Townships, up to the Quebec City area (Rousseau 1974). The species is absent from the Gasp? Peninsula and the Saguenay-Lake St. John area. However, Agrimonia striata, which is frequently misidentified as A. gryposepala, is present in these two regions (J. Labrecque pers. comm.).

Arizona: Mogollon Rim from Flagstaff area east to Whiteriver on the Fort Apache Reservation south to Sierra Ancha Mountains; Coconino, Gila, and Navajo Counties (Arizona Heritage Data Management System).

California: 150-1700 m in northwestern California, the high Cascade ranges, the northern high elevation Sierra Nevada, the San Bernardinos, and the Peninsular Ranges (California Natural Diversity Database).

Delaware: piedmont and Newcastle county, infrequently occurs on the coastal plain (Delaware Natural Heritage Program).

Florida: occurs throughout the state (Wunderlin et al. 1995).

Georgia: recorded in one county in far north of state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Illinois: occurs statewide (W. McClain pers. comm.).

Indiana: occurs in northern half of state (Indiana Natural Heritage Data Center).

Iowa: infrequent in south half of state, frequent to common elsewhere (Iowa Department of Natural Resources).

Kansas: known from a single historical collection from Marshall County (C. Freeman pers. comm.).

Kentucky: found in 4 counties in the central and eastern portions of the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Louisiana: one known population in Caddo Parish (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program).

Massachusetts: occurs throughout the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Maine: occurs in every county in the state (Haines and Vining 1998, Maine Natural Areas Program).

Michigan: occurs throughout the state (Michigan Natural Features Inventory).

Missouri: scattered locations, mostly in northern Missouri (T. Smith pers. comm.).

Montana: not previously known to occur here, specimens have been sent for identification verification (Montana Natural Heritage Program).

North Dakota: recorded in 2 counties in the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

New Mexico: occurs in San Miguel county (New Mexico Natural Heritage Program, Martin and Hutchins 1980-81).

New York: found throughout the state (S. Young pers. comm.).

North Carolina: known to occur in 10 of 13 mountain counties (J. Amoroso pers. comm.).

Ohio: throughout the state, but particularly frequent on the Appalachian Plateau (A. Cusick pers. comm.).

Rhode Island: recorded in at least 2 counties in the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

South Dakota: found in the northern Black Hills, and in south-central South Dakota; Lawrence, Pennington, Meade, and Todd counties (D. Ode pers. comm.).

South Carolina: occurs in 6 counties in the northern and eastern parts of the state (Boyle et al.).

Tennessee: occurs in 2 counties in the northeast portion of the state and 1 in the southeast (APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium 1999).

Virginia: occurs in at least 43 counties throughout the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Vermont: occurs throughout the state (R. Popp pers. comm.).

Wisconsin: found throughout the state (Mason and Iltis 1958, K. Westad pers. comm.).

West Virginia: occurs in 18 counties in the state (USDA-NRCS 1999).

Wyoming: known to occur in Bear Lodge Mountains (Black Hills) of Crook County. One historical record from "Wind River" (Wind River Range or more likely Wind River Valley) in Fremont County (W. Fertig pers. comm.).

Confirmation was received that this species does not occur in Alberta (Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre), Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan Conservation Data Centre), Alaska (Alaska Natural Heritage Program), Arkansas (Smith 1988; Arkansas Natural Heritage Program), Nevada (Nevada Natural Heritage Program), and Utah (Welsh et al. 1993; Utah Natural Heritage Program).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AZ, CA, CT, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY
Canada BC, MB, NB, NS, ON, PE, QC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AZ Coconino (04005), Gila (04007)*, Navajo (04017)
DE Kent (10001), New Castle (10003)
KS Marshall (20117)*
KY Bullitt (21029)*, Garrard (21079), Marshall (21157)*, Pike (21195)*, Rockcastle (21203)
MO Adair (29001), Clark (29045), Clinton (29049)*, Douglas (29067)*, Lewis (29111), Macon (29121)*, Platte (29165)*, Polk (29167)*, Putnam (29171), Ralls (29173)*, Randolph (29175), Schuyler (29197), Sullivan (29211), Wright (29229)*
ND Cass (38017)*, Cavalier (38019), Ransom (38073), Richland (38077), Walsh (38099)*
WY Crook (56011)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+, Broadkill-Smyrna (02040207)+
05 Lower Levisa (05070203)+*, Lower Kentucky (05100205)+, Salt (05140102)+*, Rolling Fork (05140103)+*
06 Lower Tennessee (06040006)+*
07 Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+, North Fabius (07110002)+, The Sny (07110004)+*
09 Bois De Sioux (09020101)+*, Western Wild Rice (09020105)+*, Lower Sheyenne (09020204)+, Maple (09020205)+*, Park (09020310)+*, Lower Pembina River (09020316)+
10 Upper Belle Fourche (10120201)+, Lower Belle Fourche (10120202)+, Redwater (10120203)+, Platte (10240012)+*, Lower Big Blue (10270205)+*, Lower Grand (10280103)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Lower Chariton (10280202)+, Pomme De Terre (10290107)+*, Upper Gasconade (10290201)+*, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+*, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+
11 Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)+*, North Fork White (11010006)+*
15 Silver (15020005)+*, Middle Little Colorado (15020008)+, White (15060102)+*, Upper Salt (15060103)+, Upper Verde (15060202)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: Perennial herb with long fibrous roots. Stems stout, up to 1.8 m in height, glandular and sparsely hirsute throughout. Stipules large, leaf-like, semi-cordate, usually 1-2 cm wide. Leaves pinnately compound, the 3-many larger leaflets interspersed with much smaller ones. Principal leaflets of the larger leaves number 5-9, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic or obovate, and 1.5-5 cm across. Leaves glandular beneath, and sparsely hirsute on the veins. Small flowers with 5 yellow petals in long, interrupted, spike-like raceme, hypanthium with several rows of hooked bristles (Fernald 1950, Gleason 1952).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Species is difficult to identify in vegetative state. Agrimonia rostellata Wallr. in vegetative form looks similar and occurs in similar habitats (M. McHale, pers. comm.).
Habitat Comments: Agrimonia gryposepala occurs in a wide variety of habitats across its range in North America. These include: mesic to moist edges of forests and woods; woodlands (California Natural Diversity Database); deciduous or mixed forests, and thickets in lowland to montane zones (Maine Natural Areas Program, G. Douglas pers. comm., E. Punter pers. comm., S. Young pers. comm.); clearings, openings in deciduous forest, and 2nd growth woods (J. Labrecque pers. comm., M. McHale pers. comm.); moist soil along streams in canyons or ravines and in the understory of ponderosa pine woodlands at 4100 to 8000 ft (D. Ode pers. comm., Arizona Heritage Data Management System); river floodplains, alluvial, and gallery forest (Minnesota Natural Heritage); savannas and upland prairies (T. Smith pers. comm.); marshes, bogs, low meadows, and pastures (J. Amoroso pers. comm.); pastured woods, on wooded bluffs, roadsides, and pastures (Mason and Iltis 1958, Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory, K. Westad pers. comm.); moist drainage bottoms and draws in bur oak, paper birch, or ponderosa pine thickets (W. Fertig pers. comm.).
Economic Attributes
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Economic Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG
Production Method: Wild-harvested
Economic Comments: The plant is purportedly useful for its therapeutic properties; it "builds up blood", "cools the liver", and acts as an antidiarrheal, gastro-intestinal aid, and as a mild astringent to mucous membranes (Moerman, Medicinas del Bosque).
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
Help
U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 07Jan2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Barbara S. Dyck (2000)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • APSU Center for Field Biology and University of Tennessee Herbarium. 1999. October 6-last update. Atlas of Tennessee Vascular Plants. Online. Available: http://www.bio.utk.edu/botany/herbarium/vascular/atlas.html. Accessed 2000-Jan.

  • Andreas, B.K. 1989. The vascular flora of the glaciated Allegheny Plateau Region of Ohio. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey - New Series 8(1).

  • Boyle, K., C. Eastman, and T. Mousseau. South Carolina plant atlas. Online. Available: http://cricket.biol.sc.edu/herb. Accessed 2000, January 7.

  • Bry, E. The rare ones: Woodlands. Online. Available: http://159.189.96.215/resource/othrdata/rareone/woodland.htm . Accessed 2000, January 7.

  • Campiglio, J. Single herbal extracts. Online. Available: http://www.lasvegasnewmexico.com/medicinas/single.htm. Accessed 2000, January 7.

  • Cusick, A.W. and G.M. Silberhorn. 1977. The vascular plants of unglaciated Ohio. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Bulletin of the Ohio Biological Survey- New Series 5(4): 102.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley and D. Meidinger. 1991. The vascular plants of British Columbia. Part 3 - Dicotyledons (Primulaceae through Zygophyllaceae) and Pteridophytes. Forest Science Reserach Branch, Ministry of Forests. Victoria, B.C. 177

  • Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. 8th edition. Corrected printing (1970). D. Van Nostrand Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2014. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 9. Magnoliophyta: Picramniaceae to Rosaceae. Oxford University Press, New York. xxiv + 713 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Haines, A. and T.F. Vining. 1998. Flora of Maine, A Manual for Identification of Native and Naturalized Vascular Plants of Maine. V.F.Thomas Co., Bar Harbor, Maine.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Martin, W.C., and C.R. Hutchins. 1980-1981. A flora of New Mexico. 1980, Vol. 1; 1981, Vol. 2. J. Cramer, in der A.R. Gantner Verlag, K.G., Vaduz, Liechtenstein. 2591 pp.

  • Mason, H.G., and H.H. Iltis. 1958. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin. No. 42 - Rosaceae I. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 47: 65-97.

  • McDougall, W.B. 1973. Seed plants of northern Arizona. The Museum of Northern Arizona, Flagstaff, Arizona. 594 pp.

  • Moerman, D.E. Native American ethnobotany database. Online. Available: http://www.umd.umich.edu/cgi-bin/herb. Accessed 2000, January 7.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Rousseau, C. 1974. Georgraphical floristics of Quebec-Labrador. Univ. of Laval Press, Quebec, Canada. 799 pp.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1957. Flora of Manitoba. National Museum of Canada Bulletin No. 140. Canada Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, Ottowa.

  • Scoggan, H.J. 1978-1979. The flora of Canada: Parts 1-4. National Museums Canada, Ottawa. 1711 pp.

  • Small, E., and P.M. Catling. 1999. Canadian medicinal crops. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario. 240 pp.

  • Smith, E.B. 1988b. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas. Second edition. Univ. Arkansas, Fayetteville. 489 pp.

  • U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 1999. November 3-last update. The PLANTS database. Online. Available: http://plants.usda.gov/plants. Accessed 2000-Jan.

  • U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1997. July 16-last update. Western wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. Online. Available: http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/othrdata/westflor/westflor.htm. Accessed 2000, January 7.

  • U.S. Forest Service (USFS). 1999. Matrix of "listed" species in the Great Plains of North America and their occurrence on National Grasslands. Online. Available: http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/nebraska/gpng/matrix/plantac.html. Accessed 2000, January 7.

  • Voss, E.G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicotyledons. Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, Michigan. 1212 pp.

  • Voss, E.G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61 and Univ. Michigan Herbarium. Ann Arbor, Michigan. 622 pp.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, L.C. Higgins, and S. Goodrich, eds. 1987. A Utah Flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir 9, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 894 pp.

  • Welsh, S.L., N.D. Atwood, S. Goodrich, and L.C. Higgins (eds.) 1993. A Utah flora. 2nd edition. Brigham Young Univ., Provo, Utah. 986 pp.

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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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