Agarodes libalis - Ross and Scott, 1974
Spring-loving Psiloneuran Caddisfly
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Agarodes libalis Ross & Scott, 1974 (TSN 116991)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.120240
Element Code: IITRI1H010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Caddisflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Trichoptera Sericostomatidae Agarodes
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Clemson University Department of Entomology (J.C. Morse, ed.). 2002. Last Updated 5 September 2006. Trichoptera World Checklist. Online. Available: http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm.
Concept Reference Code: N02CLE01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Agarodes libalis
Taxonomic Comments: Described as morphologically distinct from other AGARODES by Ross and Scott. Immature stages remain unknown.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Mar2009
Global Status Last Changed: 08Jun2006
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Known from well over 2 dozen occurrences from a range of states on east coast of United States; dependent upon groundwater. At least two occurrences in Florida are protected.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3 (08Jun2006)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Alabama (S1S2), Delaware (SNR), Florida (S3), Louisiana (S1), Mississippi (SNR), North Carolina (SNR), South Carolina (SNR), Texas (SNR), Virginia (S1S3)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 5000-200,000 square km (about 2000-80,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Known from Alabama, South Carolina, Louisiana and several counties in Florida across the northern part of the state; also, Delaware, Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia, USA.

Area of Occupancy: Unknown 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known as a fairly common species from Alabama, South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida; also, Delaware, Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia, USA (Ross and Scott, 1974). Rasmussen (2004) collected 248 specimens of this species from 6 sites in the Apalachicola ravines area and Gold Head Branch State Park area of the Florida panhandle. Rasmussen et al. (2008) documented 10 new Florida occurrences making Florida distribution the Apalachicola, Blackwater, Choctawhatchee, Ochlockonee, Oklawaha, Perdido, Santa Fe, St. Johns (lower and upper), St. Marks, and St. Marys River basins and the Choctawhatchee Bay in Alachua, Baker, Bay, Clay, Escambia, Gladsden, Jefferson, Leon, Liberty, Marion, Okaloosa, Wakulla, Walton, and Washington Cos. Hicks and Haynes (2000) documented it in the Bankhead National Forest, northwest Alabama in one site in Clear Creek, Winston Co.

Population Size: Unknown

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Very few to few (1-12)
Viability/Integrity Comments: It is likely there are not many occurrences with good viability.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Very susceptible to ground water pollution due to the nature of its microhabitat. Also susceptible to siltation and other forms of environmental degradation.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Based on previous collection records and the occurrence of A. libalis at ten sites sampled by Rasmussen et al. (2008), it appears that populations of this species are faring well in Florida.

Long-term Trend: Decline of <30% to increase of 25%

Intrinsic Vulnerability: Unknown

Environmental Specificity: Narrow to moderate.
Environmental Specificity Comments: Because A. libalis has strict ecological requirements, protection of sensitive spring-fed headwater streams is vital to the species long-term conservation.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Survey for additional EOs and estimate relative abundance and density at known EOs.

Protection Needs: Protect each EO with a substantial terrestrial buffer zone.

Distribution
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Global Range: (5000-200,000 square km (about 2000-80,000 square miles)) Known from Alabama, South Carolina, Louisiana and several counties in Florida across the northern part of the state; also, Delaware, Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia, USA.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: endemic to a single nation

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, DE, FL, LA, MS, NC, SC, TX, VA

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
FL Alachua (12001), Baker (12003), Bay (12005), Clay (12019), Escambia (12033), Gadsden (12039), Leon (12073), Liberty (12077), Marion (12083), Okaloosa (12091), Wakulla (12129), Walton (12131), Washington (12133)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 St. Marys (03070204)+, Upper St. Johns (03080101)+, Oklawaha (03080102)+, Lower St. Johns (03080103)+, Santa Fe (03110206)+, Lower Ochlockonee (03120003)+, Apalachicola (03130011)+, Choctawhatchee Bay (03140102)+, Blackwater (03140104)+, Perdido (03140106)+, Lower Choctawhatchee (03140203)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Freshwater
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, MEDIUM RIVER, SPRING/SPRING BROOK
Habitat Comments: Small, sandy, cool, spring-fed artesian streams. In Florida it occurs in many undisturbed seepage/steephead streams and spring-fed softwater (blackwater) streams across the northern tier of the state (Rasmussen et al., 2008).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: Immature stages remain unknown.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Caddisflies

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical presence or current presence of single or multiple specimens (including larvae or adults) at a given location with potentially recurring existence. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. Sight records and photographs, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences as identification of caddisflies often requires close examination of the genitalia of adult males. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Wiggins and Mackay (1978) found caddisfly distributions separated by trophic category as related to stream resource availability in Eastern streams; and to a lesser degree in Western streams. Shredders predominated in upstream habitats in relation to grazers and collectors, but the proportion of shredders became smaller downstream. Groups have also been separated ecologically into lotic-erosional (running water riffles), lotic-depositional (running water pools and margins), lentic-limnetic (standing water), lentic-littoral (standing water, shallow shore areas), lentic-profundal (standing water, basin), and beach zone (Wallace and Anderson, 1996). For the purpose of occurrence separation, however, the same genera or species often occur across habitats making such habitat classifications impractical.

Regardless of habitat, caddisfly adults tend to remain somewhat near the emergence site (LaFontaine, 1981; Collier and Smith, 1998) where oviposition occurs. Dispersal away from emergence sites tends to be negatively correlated with density of vegetation along the dispersal corridor; caddisflies tend to disperse shorter distances in dense forest compared with more open vegetation (Collier and Smith, 1998). Although dispersal flights are common especially from temporary habitats, such flights are relatively short and only occur immediately following emergence (unlike some Coleoptera and Hemiptera that also disperse additionally in autumn to overwinter) (Cummins and Merritt, 1996). Kovats et al. (1996) estimated that 85% of all adult Hydropsychidae were collected within 100 m of the water's edge with most of the remainder collected within 250 m, although significant, though small, numbers were collected up to 1845 m inland (esp. for Hexagenia). It is worth noting that in some instances, large river caddisflies may disperse a distance greater than five km from the river, suggesting long distance dispersal (Huryn and Harris, 2000; Kovats et al., 1996). Kovats et al. (1996) suggested this longer distance dispersal is likely accidental. Separation distances (unsuitable and suitable) have therefore been set at five km.

Date: 18Oct2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 06Mar2009
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Cordeiro, J. (2009); Almquist, D.T. (2006); Cordeiro, J. (2006); Golden, W. C. III, and D. R. Jackson (1998)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Mar2009
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Cordeiro, J.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Clemson University Department of Entomology (J.C. Morse, ed.). 2002. Last Updated 5 September 2006. Trichoptera World Checklist. Online. Available: http://entweb.clemson.edu/database/trichopt/index.htm.

  • Florida Natural Areas Inventory. No date. Natural Heritage Database. Florida Natural Areas Inventory. Tallahassee, FL.

  • Franz, R. (ed.) 1982. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida: Volume Six: Invertebrates. University Press of Florida: Gainesville, Florida. 131 pp.

  • Hicks, M.B. and C.G. Haynes. 2000a. An annotated list of Trichoptera along several streams in the Bankhead National Forest in northwest Alabama. Entomological News 111(3):206-214.

  • Holzenthal, R.W., S.C. Harris, and P.K. Lago. 1982. An annotated checklist of the caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Mississippi and southeastern Louisiana. Part III: Limnephiloidea and conclusions. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 84(3): 513-520.

  • Lenat, D.R., D.E. Ruiter, C.R. Parker, J.L. Robinson, S.R. Beaty, and O.S. Flint, Jr. 2010. Caddisfly (Trichoptera) records for North Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist 9(2):201-236.

  • Morse, J.C. and C.B. Barr. 1990. Unusual caddisfly (Trichoptera) fauna of Schoolhouse Springs, Louisiana, with description of a new species of Diplectrona (Hydropsychidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 92(1): 58-65.

  • Pescador, M. L., A. K. Rasmussen, and S. C. Harris. 1995. Identification manual for the caddisfly (Trichoptera) larvae of Florida. Final Report prepared for Florida Dept. Env. Prot., Tallahassee.

  • Rasmussen, A. K. 2004. Species diversity and ecology of Trichoptera (caddisflies) and Plecoptera (stoneflies) in ravine ecosystems of northern Florida. PhD dissertation. University of Florida. 130 pp.

  • Rasmussen, A. K. 2006. Caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) records from the Florida A&M University database.

  • Rasmussen, A. K., D. R. Denson and S. C. Harris. 2008. Status of caddisflies in greatest conservation need in Florida. Final report. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Agreement # 06009. 56 pp.

  • Rasmussen, A.K. 2004. Species diversity and ecology of Trichoptera (caddisflies) and Plecoptera (stoneflies) in ravine ecosystems of northern Florida. Unpublished PhD. Dissertation, University of Florida. 130 pp.

  • Rasmussen, A.K., D.R. Denson, and S.C. Harris. 2008. Status of caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) in greatest conservation need in Florida. Final report to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida, Agreement 06009, June 1, 2008. 56 pp.

  • Ross, H.H. and D.C. Scott. 1974. A review of the caddisfly genus Agarodes, with descriptions of new species (Trichoptera: Sericatomatidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 9(3): 147-155.

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