Agalinis auriculata - (Michx.) Blake
Earleaf False Foxglove
Other Common Names: earleaf false foxglove
Synonym(s): Aureolaria auriculata (Michx.) Farw. ;Gerardia auriculata Michx. ;Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Agalinis auriculata (Michx.) Blake (TSN 182269)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.148670
Element Code: PDSCR01130
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Agalinis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Agalinis auriculata
Taxonomic Comments: Classified in the genus Tomanthera in many floras; has also been treated as a species of Gerardia or Aureolaria.
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Dec2008
Global Status Last Changed: 12Jul1995
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Widespread distribution but rare and local throughout its range. Its habitat is threatened by development, inappropriate intensive mowing that prevents the plants from flowering, fire suppression/succession to woody vegetation. Conversion to cropland is also a potential threat, although the species can reappear in formerly cultivated areas. Hemiparisite, dependent on a healthy forb community rich in composites.
Nation: United States
National Status: N3

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), Arkansas (S1), District of Columbia (SH), Illinois (S2), Indiana (S1), Iowa (S2), Kansas (S2), Kentucky (S1), Maryland (S1), Michigan (SX), Minnesota (S1), Mississippi (S2), Missouri (S3), New Jersey (SX), Ohio (S1), Oklahoma (S1), Pennsylvania (S1), South Carolina (S1), Tennessee (S2), Texas (SH), Virginia (S1), West Virginia (SH), Wisconsin (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Primarily in the Midwestern and South-central United States, with some outlying populations (or former populations). Presumed extirpated in Michigan and New Jersey. Historical in West Virginia. In Texas, it is known only from a late 19th century specimen and there is some uncertainty about its nativity (Pennell 1921 cited by Poole et al. 2007).

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300
Number of Occurrences Comments: Widspread but uncommon.

Population Size Comments: Number of individuals fluctuates from year to year.

Overall Threat Impact: Very high - medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Management (fire) needed to control succession. Threatened by habitat destruction for use in agriculture and other human development and by natural succession. Another threat is repeated mowing in the summer months, which removes the upper portion of the plant before seeds are formed. Also threatened by the planting of exotic grasses in pastures (OK-NHI 2006). Insect herbivory may also be a factor threatening Agalinis auriculata (Mulvaney et al. 2006).

Short-term Trend: Unknown

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%
Long-term Trend Comments: There has been a significant decline in population numbers rangewide, though it is difficult to quantify (Watson, 1989). In Pennsylvania, several populations were destroyed by road construction (PA-NHP 2007). Declines are primarily due to habitat loss from development, succession, fragmentation, and habitat managment practices such as mowing during flowering (Molano-Flores et al. 2007). Biological aspects such as seedling survivorship and availability of hosts may also contribute to its decline (Molano Flores et al. 2007).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
Help
Global Range: Primarily in the Midwestern and South-central United States, with some outlying populations (or former populations). Presumed extirpated in Michigan and New Jersey. Historical in West Virginia. In Texas, it is known only from a late 19th century specimen and there is some uncertainty about its nativity (Pennell 1921 cited by Poole et al. 2007).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, AR, DC, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, MD, MIextirpated, MN, MO, MS, NJextirpated, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Pickens (01107)
AR Carroll (05015), Hempstead (05057), Washington (05143)
IA Appanoose (19007), Black Hawk (19013)*, Boone (19015), Bremer (19017)*, Buchanan (19019)*, Cedar (19031)*, Cerro Gordo (19033), Clarke (19039), Clay (19041)*, Clayton (19043)*, Clinton (19045)*, Davis (19051), Decatur (19053), Delaware (19055)*, Dickinson (19059)*, Emmet (19063)*, Fayette (19065)*, Franklin (19069), Hancock (19081)*, Henry (19087)*, Howard (19089), Iowa (19095), Jasper (19099), Jefferson (19101), Johnson (19103), Jones (19105)*, Keokuk (19107)*, Kossuth (19109)*, Lee (19111)*, Louisa (19115), Lucas (19117), Mahaska (19123), Mills (19129), Monroe (19135), Muscatine (19139), Palo Alto (19147), Pocahontas (19151), Polk (19153), Poweshiek (19157)*, Ringgold (19159), Scott (19163), Story (19169), Taylor (19173), Union (19175), Van Buren (19177), Warren (19181), Washington (19183), Wayne (19185), Webster (19187), Wright (19197)*
IL Adams (17001)*, Bond (17005), Bureau (17011), Champaign (17019)*, Christian (17021)*, Clinton (17027), Cook (17031), DuPage (17043), Fayette (17051), Grundy (17063), Henry (17073), Iroquois (17075), Jackson (17077), Kendall (17093)*, Lake (17097), Lee (17103)*, Logan (17107)*, Macoupin (17117), Mason (17125)*, Montgomery (17135), Ogle (17141)*, Piatt (17147)*, Will (17197)
IN Benton (18007)*, Lake (18089)
KS Allen (20001), Anderson (20003), Bourbon (20011), Brown (20013)*, Coffey (20031)*, Crawford (20037), Doniphan (20043)*, Douglas (20045), Franklin (20059), Jackson (20085), Jefferson (20087), Johnson (20091)*, Miami (20121), Montgomery (20125), Osage (20139), Shawnee (20177), Woodson (20207)
KY Christian (21047), Lewis (21135)
MD Frederick (24021), Montgomery (24031), Prince Georges (24033)
MI St. Joseph (26149)*
MN Big Stone (27011), Blue Earth (27013)*, Brown (27015)*, Chippewa (27023), Cottonwood (27033), Dakota (27037)*, Le Sueur (27079)*, Martin (27091), Mcleod (27085), Nicollet (27103)*, Renville (27129), Sibley (27143)*
MO Adair (29001), Audrain (29007), Boone (29019), Callaway (29027), Carter (29035)*, Cass (29037)*, Cedar (29039), Clark (29045), DeKalb (29063), Dent (29065)*, Gentry (29075), Harrison (29081), Howell (29091)*, Jackson (29095), Jasper (29097)*, Johnson (29101), Lincoln (29113), Livingston (29117), Macon (29121), Mercer (29129), Newton (29145)*, Nodaway (29147), Oregon (29149)*, Ozark (29153), Putnam (29171), Ray (29177), Reynolds (29179)*, Scotland (29199), Shannon (29203)*, Shelby (29205), St. Clair (29185), St. Louis (29189)*, St. Louis (city) (29510)*, Sullivan (29211), Texas (29215)*
MS Chickasaw (28017), Clay (28025), Kemper (28069)*, Lee (28081), Oktibbeha (28105)
NJ Middlesex (34023)*, Union (34039)*
OH Adams (39001), Clark (39023), Greene (39057)
OK Cherokee (40021)*, Choctaw (40023), Cleveland (40027)*, Haskell (40061)*, McClain (40087)*, McIntosh (40091)*, Muskogee (40101)*, Okmulgee (40111)*, Sequoyah (40135)*, Wagoner (40145)*
PA Berks (42011)*, Bucks (42017), Chester (42029)*, Fulton (42057)*, Lancaster (42071)*, Lehigh (42077), Montgomery (42091)*
SC York (45091)
TN Bledsoe (47007)*, Carroll (47017)*, Montgomery (47125), Roane (47145), Tipton (47167)
TX Parker (48367)*, Tarrant (48439)*
VA Fairfax (51059)*, Fairfax (City) (51600)*, Montgomery (51121)*, Prince William (51153)
WI Dane (55025)*, Kenosha (55059)*, Lafayette (55065)*, Racine (55101)*, Rock (55105)*, Walworth (55127), Waukesha (55133)
WV McDowell (54047)*, Morgan (54065)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Sandy Hook-Staten Island (02030104)+*, Raritan (02030105)+*, Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (02040105)+, Lehigh (02040106)+, Crosswicks-Neshaminy (02040201)+*, Lower Delaware (02040202)+*, Schuylkill (02040203)+*, Brandywine-Christina (02040205)+*, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+*, Conococheague-Opequon (02070004)+*, Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+, Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (02070010)+
03 Upper Roanoke (03010101)+*, Lower Catawba (03050103)+, Town (03160102)+, Tibbee (03160104)+, Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub (03160106)+, Noxubee (03160108)+*
04 Little Calumet-Galien (04040001)+, Pike-Root (04040002)+*, St. Joseph (04050001)+*
05 Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Tug (05070201)+*, Upper Great Miami (05080001)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion (05120108)+*, Red (05130206)+
06 Lower Clinch (06010207)+, Sequatchie (06020004)+*
07 South Fork Crow (07010205)+, Upper Minnesota (07020001)+, Hawk-Yellow Medicine (07020004)+, Middle Minnesota (07020007)+*, Blue Earth (07020009)+, Lower Minnesota (07020012)+*, Coon-Yellow (07060001)+*, Turkey (07060004)+, Maquoketa (07060006)+*, Copperas-Duck (07080101)+, Upper Wapsipinicon (07080102)+*, Lower Wapsipinicon (07080103)+*, Flint-Henderson (07080104)+*, South Skunk (07080105)+, North Skunk (07080106)+, Skunk (07080107)+, Upper Cedar (07080201)+*, Shell Rock (07080202)+*, Winnebago (07080203)+, West Fork Cedar (07080204)+, Middle Cedar (07080205)+*, Lower Cedar (07080206)+, Upper Iowa (07080207)+*, Middle Iowa (07080208)+, Lower Iowa (07080209)+, Crawfish (07090002)+, Pecatonica (07090003)+*, Lower Rock (07090005)+*, Green (07090007)+, Des Moines Headwaters (07100001)+, Upper Des Moines (07100002)+, East Fork Des Moines (07100003)+*, Middle Des Moines (07100004)+, North Raccoon (07100006)+, Lake Red Rock (07100008)+, Lower Des Moines (07100009)+, Bear-Wyaconda (07110001)+*, North Fabius (07110002)+, The Sny (07110004)+*, North Fork Salt (07110005)+, South Fork Salt (07110006)+, Cuivre (07110008)+, Kankakee (07120001)+, Iroquois (07120002)+, Chicago (07120003)+, Des Plaines (07120004)+, Upper Illinois (07120005)+, Upper Fox (07120006)+, Lower Fox (07120007)+*, Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua (07130003)+*, Upper Sangamon (07130006)+*, Salt (07130009)+*, Macoupin (07130012)+, Cahokia-Joachim (07140101)+, Meramec (07140102)+*, Big Muddy (07140106)+, Upper Kaskaskia (07140201)+*, Middle Kaskaskia (07140202)+, Shoal (07140203)+
08 South Fork Obion (08010203)+*, Lower Hatchie (08010208)+, Little Missouri (08040103)+
10 Little Sioux (10230003)+*, West Nishnabotna (10240002)+, Tarkio-Wolf (10240005)+*, Big Nemaha (10240008)+*, Platte (10240012)+, One Hundred and Two (10240013)+, Middle Kansas (10270102)+, Delaware (10270103)+, Lower Kansas (10270104)+, Upper Grand (10280101)+, Thompson (10280102)+, Lower Grand (10280103)+, Upper Chariton (10280201)+, Lower Chariton (10280202)+, Little Chariton (10280203)+, Upper Marais Des Cygnes (10290101)+, Lower Marais Des Cygnes (10290102)+, Marmaton (10290104)+, Harry S. Missouri (10290105)+, Sac (10290106)+, South Grand (10290108)+, Lower Missouri-Crooked (10300101)+, Lower Missouri-Moreau (10300102)+, Blackwater (10300104)+, Lower Missouri (10300200)+
11 Beaver Reservoir (11010001)+, Bull Shoals Lake (11010003)+, Upper Black (11010007)+*, Current (11010008)+*, Eleven Point (11010011)+*, Upper Verdigris (11070101)+, Elk (11070104)+*, Caney (11070106)+, Upper Neosho (11070204)+, Spring (11070207)+*, Lower Neosho (11070209)+*, Lower Canadian-Walnut (11090202)+*, Little (11090203)+*, Lower Canadian (11090204)+*, Deep Fork (11100303)+*, Polecat-Snake (11110101)+*, Dirty-Greenleaf (11110102)+*, Robert S. Kerr Reservoir (11110104)+, Muddy Boggy (11140103)+, Lower Little (11140109)+
12 Lower West Fork Trinity (12030102)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
Help
Basic Description: A hemiparasitic, annual herb with a stiff stem, up to 9 dm tall, and with rough hairs covering the entire plant. Flowers (July-September) are pink with purple spots.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Grassland/herbaceous
Habitat Comments: Mesic to dry prairies, fallow fields, borders of upland sterile woods and thickets, marl/calcareous prairies, tallgrass prairies, blackland prairies, prairie-like glades, barrens, and openings.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: rev. A. Tomaino (2008)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 21May2001
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): KLC

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Baskin, J. M., C. C. Baskin, P. D. Parr, and M. Cunningham. 1991. Seed germination ecology of the rare hemiparasite Tomanthera auriculata (Scrophulariaceae). Castanea 56:51-58.

  • Baskin, J.M., Baskin, C.C., Parr, P.D., and Cunningham, M. 1991. Seed Germination and Ecology of the Rare Hemiparasite Tomanthera Auriculata (Scrophulariaceae). Castania 56(1):51-58. A91BAS01PAUS.

  • Baskin, J.M., C.C. Baskin, P.D. Parr, and M. Cunningham. 1991. Seed germination and ecology of the rare hemiparasite Tomanthera auriculata (Scrophulariaceae). Castania 56(1):51-58.

  • CUNNINGHAM, M. AND P.D. PARR. 1990. SUCCESSFUL CULTURE OF THE RARE ANNUAL HEMIPARASITE TOMANTHERA AURICULATA (MICHX.) RAF. (SCROPHULARIACEAE). CASTANEA 55(4):266-271.

  • Canne, J.M. 1981. Chromosome counts in Agalinis and related taxa (Scrophulariaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 59:1111-1116.

  • Canne, J.M. 1981. Chromosome counts in Agalinis and related Taxa (Scrophularaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 59:1111-1116. A81CAN01PAUS

  • Center for Plant Conservation. 2008. September 25 last update. National Collection Plant Profile: Agalinis auriculata. Online. Available: http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/ASP/CPC_ViewProfile.asp?CPCNum=6601 (accessed 20 December 2008).

  • Cunningham, M. and P.D. Parr. 1990. Successful culture of the rare annual hemiparasite TOMANTHERA AURICULATA (Michx.) Raf. (Scrophulariaceaea). Castanea 55:266-271.

  • Cunningham, M.C. and Parr, P.D. 1990. Successful Culture of the Rare Annual Hemiparasite Tomanthera auriculata (Michx) Raf. (Scrophulariacese). Castanea 55:266-271. A90CUN01PAUS

  • Cunningham, M.C., and P.D. Parr. 1990. Successful culture of the rare annual hemiparasite Tomanthera auriculata (Michx) Raf. (Scrophulariacese). Castanea 55:266-271.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed., Corr. Printing, 1970. Van Nostrand, New York. LXIV+1632 pp.

  • Freeman, C.C. 1994. Earleaf foxglove: Tomanthera auriculata (Michx.) Raf. (Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family).

  • GLEASON, H.A. AND A. CRONQUIST. 1963. MANUAL OF VASCULAR PLANTS OF NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES AND ADJACENT CANADA. D. VAN NOSTRAND CO., NEW YORK. 810 PAGES.

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. New Britton & Brown. Illustrated Flora. Lancaster Press Inc. Lancaster, Pa. B52GLE01PAUS

  • Gleason, H.A. 1952. The new Britton and Brown illustrated flora of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 3 volumes. Hafner Press, New York. 1732 pp.

  • Kartesz, J. T. 1991. Synonym names from 1991 checklist, as extracted by Larry Morse, TNC, June 1991.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T., and R. Kartesz. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada and Greenland. Vol. 2. The biota of North America. Univ. of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 500 pp.

  • Knoop, J.D. 1988. Tomanthera auriculata (Michx) Raf. Extant in Ohio. In Ohio Journal of Science 88:120-121.

  • Knoop, J.D. 1988. Tomanthera auriculata (Michx) Raf. Extant in Ohio. In Ohio Journal of Science 88:120-121. A88KNO01PAUS

  • McCance, R.M. and Burns, J.F. eds 1984. Ohio Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants: Abstracts of State-Listed Taxa, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves. Department of Natural Resources, Columbus, Ohio 635p. B84MCC01PAUS.

  • McCance, R.M., Jr., and J.F. Burns, eds. 1984. Ohio endangered and threatened vascular plants: Abstracts of state-listed taxa. Division Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Dept. Natural Resources, Columbus. 635 pp.

  • Molano-Flores, B., J. A. Koontz, and M. A. Feist. 2007a. Seed germination of the Illinois-threatened Agalinis auriculata (Michx.) Blake (Orobanchaceae). Castanea 72(2): 116-118.

  • Molano-Flores, B., J. A. Koontz, and M. A. Feist. 2007b. Genetic diversity of the Illinois-threatened Agalinis auriculata (Orobanchaceae) and two common congeners. American Midland Naturalist 158(2): 279-291.

  • Mulvaney, C.R., B. Molano-Flores, and D. W. Whitman. 2006. Is insect herbivory contributing to the threatened status of Agalinis auriculata (Orobanchaceae) in Illinois? Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 133(4): 560-565.

  • NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 5.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. . Accessed 19 July 2006.

  • Oklahoma Natural Heritage Inventory. 2006. February 15 last update. Agalinis auriculata species account. Rare and vulnerable plant species of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Biological Survey, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma. Online. Available: http://www.oknaturalheritage.ou.edu/plants_rare_vulnerable.htm (accessed 20 December 2008).

  • Orzell, S.L. and B.W. Summers. 1983. AGALINIS AURICULATA. (Michx.) Blake (Scrophulariaceae) in southeastern St. Louis County, Missouri. Castanea 48:272-276.

  • PENNELL, F.W. 1935. THE SCROPHULARIACEAE OF EASTERN TEMPERATE NORTH AMERICA. MONOGRAPHS - ACAD. NAT. SCI. PHILA. 1:415-419. [COMPLETE CITATION IS UNKNOWN - THIS IS A SMALL PORTION OF A LARGE ARTICLE.]

  • Pennell, F. W. 1935. The Scrophulariaceae of eastern temperate North America. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Monograph 1. 650 pp.

  • Pennell, F.W. 1935. The scrophulariaceae of eastern temperate North America. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadephia Monographs, No. 1.

  • Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. 2007. Eared false-foxglove (Agalinis auriculata) species fact sheet. Online. Available: http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/factsheets/14729.pdf (accessed 22 December 2008).

  • Poole, J. M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A & M University Press. College Station, Texas. 640 pp.

  • Poole, Jackie M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price, and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 640 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. J. 1990. Final status survey report: The distribution and abundance of eared false foxglove (Tomanthera auriculata). Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 5, Newton Corner, Massachusetts. 4 pp.

  • Sather, N. P. 2000. Interim status survey report for Agalinis auriculata in Minnesota. Unpublished report submitted to the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Twin Cities Field Office, Bloomington, Minnesota.

  • Steinauer, R. F. 1989. TNC Element Stewardship Abstract for Tomanthera auriculata. Arkansas Natural Heritage Program, unpublished report.

  • U.S. Forest Service (USFS). 2003. Community conservation assessment for earleaf foxglove (Agalinis auriculata). Draft undergoing peer review. Prepared for the Eastern Region of the U.S. Forest Service Threatened and Endangered Species Program. [http://www.fs.fed.us/r9/wildlife/tes/ca-overview/plants.html]

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