Agalinis aphylla - (Nutt.) Raf.
Coastal Plain False Foxglove
Other English Common Names: Scaleleaf False Foxglove
Other Common Names: scaleleaf false foxglove
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Agalinis aphylla (Nutt.) Raf. (TSN 33017)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.144947
Element Code: PDSCR01020
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Figwort Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Scrophulariales Scrophulariaceae Agalinis
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Agalinis aphylla
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G3G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 01Feb2013
Global Status Last Changed: 30Jun1988
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by calculator
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Widespread but infrequent plant limited to the southeastern Coastal Plain. There are numerous stable populations in Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina and Florida, but it is more scarce in the rest of its range.
Nation: United States
National Status: NNR

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S2), Florida (SNR), Georgia (S2), Louisiana (S1), Mississippi (S3), North Carolina (S3), South Carolina (S1)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Southeastern coastal plain, from southeast North Carolina to northern Florida and west to southeastern Louisiana (St. Tammany Parish). The range extent is close to 200,000 sq km (80,000 sq mi).

Area of Occupancy: 26-125 4-km2 grid cells
Area of Occupancy Comments:  

Number of Occurrences: 81 - 300

Population Size Comments: 10,000 - 100,000 individuals, estimated population size only.

Number of Occurrences with Good Viability/Integrity: Some to many (13-125)
Viability/Integrity Comments: Estimated number of occurrences with excellent or good viability, current exact numbers are lacking but there are numerous stable populations in Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina and Florida.

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: Much habitat has been converted to pine plantation and drained or otherwise converted. Additional threats to seepage slope habitat include ATV use and feral hog rooting.

Short-term Trend: Decline of <30% to relatively stable

Long-term Trend: Decline of 30-50%

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Presumed resistant to tough.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Southeastern coastal plain, from southeast North Carolina to northern Florida and west to southeastern Louisiana (St. Tammany Parish). The range extent is close to 200,000 sq km (80,000 sq mi).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, FL, GA, LA, MS, NC, SC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
AL Baldwin (01003), Mobile (01097), Washington (01129)
GA Ben Hill (13017)*, Brooks (13027), Bulloch (13031)*, Charlton (13049), Coffee (13069), Irwin (13155)*, Jeff Davis (13161), Liberty (13179), Lowndes (13185), Pierce (13229), Tattnall (13267), Telfair (13271), Turner (13287)*, Ware (13299)
LA St. Tammany (22103)
MS Forrest (28035), George (28039), Greene (28041), Hancock (28045), Harrison (28047), Jackson (28059), Jones (28067), Perry (28111), Stone (28131), Wayne (28153)
SC Berkeley (45015), Clarendon (45027), Horry (45051)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
03 Little Pee Dee (03040204)+, Black (03040205)+, Waccamaw (03040206)+*, Santee (03050112)+, Lower Ogeechee (03060202)+*, Canoochee (03060203)+, Lower Ocmulgee (03070104)+, Satilla (03070201)+, St. Marys (03070204)+, Upper Suwannee (03110201)+, Alapaha (03110202)+*, withlacoochee (03110203)+, Little (03110204)+*, Perdido (03140106)+, Lower Tambigbee (03160203)+, Mobile - Tensaw (03160204)+, Lower Chickasawhay (03170003)+, Lower Leaf (03170005)+, Pascagoula (03170006)+, Black (03170007)+, Escatawpa (03170008)+, Mississippi Coastal (03170009)+
08 Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta (08090201)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A herbaceous plant with pink flowers, leaves absent or scale-like (to 2 mm long).
General Description: Slender annual, up to 6 dm tall with ribbed stems. Lowest leaves usually opposite, while the upper leaves are mostly alternate. Leaves are scale-like, up to 2 mm long (usually shorter), appressed to the stem, with little to no pubescence. Flowers alternate, on slender racemes 5-20 cm long. Pedicels 1-2 mm long. Corolla is pink, usually with darker dots and yellow lines within, 1.0-1.5 cm in length. Fruit a globose (round) capsule with the calyx covering half of it (Louisiana Natural Heritage Program 2009).
Diagnostic Characteristics: Flower stalks 1-2 mm long, shorter than the calyx, the flowers are pink, usually with darker dots and yellow lines. Leaves are tiny and scalelike, to 2 mm long (Godfrey and Wooten 1981). Seed and stem characteristics are diagnostic, the stems are very slender with ridges (Canne 1979, Canne-Hilliker and Kampny 1991).
Duration: ANNUAL
Ecology Comments: Agalinis are hemiparasitic plants which are green plants which have their own root system and also form haustoria which obtain nutrients from the roots of other plants. The attachment to the host plant is in the vicinity of coralloid mycorrhizal roots (Musselman and Dickison 1975). Host plants of this species include Muhlenbergia expansa and Drosera capillaris, and probably other species (Musselman and Mann 1977). Agalinis aphylla is abundant only in recently burned areas (Musselman and Mann 1978).
Palustrine Habitat(s): Bog/fen, Riparian
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Savanna, Woodland - Conifer
Habitat Comments: Moist to wet pine savannas; disturbed savannas (fields); also flatwoods, depressions in pinelands, bogs, and edges of cypress-gum ponds (Godfrey and Wooten 1981).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Stewardship Overview: Agalinis aphylla is abundant only in recently burned areas (Musselman and Mann 1978). This plant occurs in moist to wet pine savannas, flatwoods, depressions in pinelands, bogs, and edges of cypress-gum ponds (Godfrey and Wooten 1981). These areas can be managed effectively with prescribed fire to maintain an open, grassy understory. Where feral hog rooting is occuring, reducing the feral hog population is warranted. Avoid minor drainage such as ditches, bedding, or even fire plow lines in the wet areas where this plant occurs. Limit ATV and ORV access to depression ponds.
Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 01Feb2013
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Weakley (1994), rev. L. Morse (2000), rev. C. Nordman (2013)
Management Information Edition Date: 13Feb2013
Management Information Edition Author: Nordman, C.
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 06Feb2013
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Nordman, C.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Canne, J.M. 1979. A light scanning electron microscope study of seed morphology in Agalinis (Scrophulariaceae) and its taxonomic significance. Systematic Botany 4(4): 281-296.

  • Canne-Hilliker, J.M. and C.M. Kampny. 1991. Taxonomic significance of leaf and stem anatomy of Agalinis (Scrophulariaceae) from the U.S.A. and Canada. Canadian J. Botany 69: 1935-1950.

  • Godfrey, R.K., and J.W. Wooten. 1981. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United States: Dicotyledons. Univ. Georgia Press, Athens. 933 pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Louisiana Natural Heritage Program. 2009. Rare Plants of Louisiana. Agalinis aphylla (Nutt.) Raf. Scaleleaf False Foxglove, Coastal Plain False Foxglove Rare Plant Fact Sheet, PDSCR0120. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Natural Heritage Program. [http://www.wlf.louisiana.gov/wildlife/rare-plants-fact-sheets]

  • Musselman, L.J., and W.C. Dickison. 1975. The structure and development of the haustorium in parasitic Schrophulariaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 70:183-212.

  • Musselman, L.J., and W.F. Mann Jr. 1978. Root parasites of southern forests. Southern Forest Experiment Station, U.S. Forest Service, General Technical Report SO-20, Alexandria, LA. 76 pp.

  • Musselman, L.J., and W.F. Mann, Jr. 1977a. Host plants of some Rhinanthoidea (Scrophulariaceae) of eastern North America. Plant Systematics Evolution 127: 45-53.

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