Rhionaeschna dugesi - (Calvert, 1905)
Arroyo Darner
Synonym(s): Aeshna dugesi Calvert, 1905
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Rhionaeschna dugesi (Calvert, 1905) (TSN 722024)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.109255
Element Code: IIODO14050
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Dragonflies and Damselflies
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Odonata Aeshnidae Rhionaeschna
Genus Size: D - Medium to large genus (21+ species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.
Concept Reference Code: A99PAU01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Aeshna dugesi
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 15Jun1998
Global Status Last Changed: 15Jun1998
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Perhaps approaching G3, as streams in such arid areas susceptible to flood scouring and little consideration of the species likely in Mexico, but U. S. populations seem secure at this time and Mexican populations merely poorly known.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2N3 (15Jun1998)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
United States Arizona (S1), New Mexico (SNR), Texas (SNR)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent: 20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)
Range Extent Comments: Davis Mts., Texas, and Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, south to Oaxaca, Mexico, including Baja California Sur; known from at least six Mexican states at this time. Probably occurs throughout the Mexican Plateau in appropriate habitats, range thus encompassing in the neighborhood of 200,000 square miles.

Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80
Number of Occurrences Comments: Known from at least eight localities in six counties in the U.S., probably many more in Mexico. Most of range in northern Mexico lacking surveys for Odonata. Nothing known about historic changes, except not seen on Cave Creek near Portal, Arizona, one of best-known sites, after floods filled in pools with rocks. It is uncommon in southern New Mexico and more uncommon in western Texas south to the lower Rio Grande Valley (Abbott, 2005).

Population Size: 10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals
Population Size Comments: Probably occurs in most if not all appropriate streams (dozens to more likely hundreds of streams), with hundreds of individuals on each stream.

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Fires, lumbering, and grazing, especially removal of grass along streams, increase flash floods that may wash away larvae. Streams may also be degraded by human use, for example, polluted by toxic chemicals, human sewage, and silt. Virtually no protection in Mexico.

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: One population known to have disappeared because of natural habitat change; nothing known about any others.

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: Without human-caused habitat degradation, populations should persist indefinitely.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Inventory Needs: Search for more EOs; knowledge of distribution in U. S. is spotty, in Mexico quite inadequate.

Distribution
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Global Range: (20,000-2,500,000 square km (about 8000-1,000,000 square miles)) Davis Mts., Texas, and Chiricahua Mts., Arizona, south to Oaxaca, Mexico, including Baja California Sur; known from at least six Mexican states at this time. Probably occurs throughout the Mexican Plateau in appropriate habitats, range thus encompassing in the neighborhood of 200,000 square miles.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces
Color legend for Distribution Map
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, NM, TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NM Eddy (35015)*, Grant (35017)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
13 Upper Pecos-Black (13060011)+*
15 Upper Gila (15040001)+*
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A large blue-spotted darner dragonfly.
General Description: Adult male black marked with bright blue, including pure blue eyes in life, 2 lateral blue thoracic stripes, and blue abdominal spots. Adult female marked with blue or green. (Needham & Westfall, 1955). Larva undescribed.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Adults have a hairy bump on underside of abdominal segment 1, no black face lines, male cerci distinctively shaped. Female cerci 6.0-6.5 mm long, often straight on outer edge.
Ecology Comments: Habitat is streams in oak/pine zone of mountains.
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Mobility and Migration Comments: Adults probably range for many miles.
Riverine Habitat(s): CREEK, High gradient, Moderate gradient
Habitat Comments: Eggs laid in aquatic plants, larvae cling to bottom of pools of streams, adults forage widely in pools in streams, from desert up to pine-oak zone.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Phenology Comments: Larvae overwinter, flight season late June to early September in the US.
Length: 7 centimeters
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary
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Biological Research Needs: (1) Larval habitat preference; (2) formal description of larva.
Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: River-breeding Dragonfly Odonates

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Occurrences are based on some evidence of historical or current presence of single or multiple specimens ideally with evidence of on-site breeding (teneral adults, mating pairs, territorial males, ovipositing females, larvae, or exuviae) at a given location with potential breeding habitat. Although oviposition may not necessarily yield progeny that survive to adulthood (Fincke, 1992) and movements resembling oviposition may not necessarily result in egg deposition (Okazawa and Ubukata, 1978; Martens, 1992; 1994), presence of on-site oviposition is here accepted as an indicator of a minimum element occurrence because the time and effort involved in determining success of emergence is beyond the scope of the general survey. As adults of some species might disperse moderate distances (see below), only sites with available larval habitat can be considered appropriate for a minimum occurrence. Single, non-breeding adults captured away from potential suitable breeding habitat should not be treated as element occurrences. Evidence is derived from reliable published observation or collection data; unpublished, though documented (i.e. government or agency reports, web sites, etc.) observation or collection data; or museum specimen information. A photograph may be accepted as documentation of an element occurrence for adults only (nymphs and subimagos are too difficult to identify in this manner) provided that the photograph shows diagnostic features that clearly delineate the species from other species with similar features. Sight records, though valuable, should not be accepted as the basis for new element occurrences. Instead, such records should be utilized to further study an area to verify the element occurrence in that area.
Separation Barriers: Within catchments there are likely no significant barriers to movement of sexually mature adults between microhabitats, with even extensive sections of inappropriate waterway or major obstructions to flow being readily traversed by adults within the flight season. Dams large enough to cause extensive pooling may serve as separation barriers.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: None
Separation Justification: Odonate dispersal capability has been poorly documented with long-range movements inferred from observations in transit and analogy with other insects (Conrad et al., 1999; Corbet, 1999). Adults are known to wander, some over great distances (not so for damselflies). Mass migration over great distances is not herein considered when drafting separation distances as such behavior is limited to few species (e.g. Anax junius, Libellula quadrimaculata and other Libellula spp., Sympetrum spp.), occurs unpredictably and infrequently (10 year cycles for L. quadrimaculata), are unidirectional or intergenerational (Freeland et al., 2003), or occurs under unusual circumstances such as irritation by trematode parasites (Dumont and Hinnekint, 1973) or during major weather events (Moskowitz et al., 2001; Russell et al., 1998).

Corbet (1999) estimated the average distance traveled for a commuting flight (between reproductive and roosting or foraging sites) to be less than 200 m but sometimes greater than one km. Distance traveled is generally greatest for river-breeding odonates, but can vary considerably between taxa (Corbet, 1999). Both D. Paulson and S. Valley (personal communication, 1998) suggest a population should be defined by the river drainage in which it is found, but drainages or catchments vary by orders of magnitude in size and isolation so it is not obvious how to effect this recommendation.

The combination of breeding dispersal in the range of a few km with the potential for periodic long distance dispersal providing landscapes are not fragmented has led to the somewhat arbitrary assignment of separation distances at 10 km (unsuitable and suitable).

Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): .5 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: The few studies determining area of adult foraging habitat surrounding breeding sites have indicated a range of 30 meters to 300 meters [see Briggs (1993) for Enallagma laterale; Corbet (1999) for Nesciothemis nigeriensis and Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; Beukeman (2002) for Calopteryx haemorrhoidalis; and Samways and Steytler (1996) for Chorolestes tessalatus]. As a result, an element occurrence should include the breeding site and surrounding pond or upland habitat extending 500 m in a radius from the breeding site.
Date: 02Jun2004
Author: Cordeiro, J.
Notes: River breeding dragonflies:
ANISOPTERA: Aeshnidae: Aeshna dugesi, A. persephone, A. walkeri, Anax strenuus, A. walsinghami, Basiaeschna, Boyeria, Oplonaeschna; Cordulegastridae: Cordulegaster diadema, C. dorsalis, C. maculata; Corduliidae: Helocordulia, Somatochlora elongata, S. ensigera, S. filosa, S. forcipata, S. georgiana, S. linearis, S. margarita, S. minor, S. ozarkensis, S. tenebrosa, S. walshii; Gomphidae: Dromogomphus, Erpetogomphus, Gomphus (Gomphurus): all species, Gomphus (Gomphus): all species, Gomphus (Hylogomphus): all species, Gomphus (Stenogomphus): all species, Gomphus (Phanogomphus) borealis, G. descriptus, G. hodgesi, G. lividus, G. minutus, G. quadricolor, Hagenius, Lanthus, Neurocordulia, Octogomphus, Ophiogomphus, Phyllogomphoides albrighti, Progomphus borealis, P. obscurus, Remartina, Stylogomphus, Stylurus; Libellulidae: Brechmorhoga, Dythemis, Macrothemis, Nesogonia, Paltothemis, Pseudoleon; Macromiidae: Macromia

Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Jun1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Dunkle, S.W.; Paulson, Dennis R. [1998]
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 14Jan1991

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Abbott, J.C. 2005. Dragonflies and Damselflies of Texas and the South-Central United States. Princeton University Press: Princeton, New York. 344 pp.

  • Needham, J.G. and M.J. Westfall, Jr. 1954. A Manual of the Dragonflies of North America (Anisoptera). University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 615 pp.

  • Paulson, D.R. and S.W. Dunkle. 1999. A Checklist of North American Odonata. Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound Occasional Paper, 56: 86 pp. Available: http://www.ups.edu/x7015.xml.

  • Paulson, D.R., and S.W. Dunkle. 2009. A checklist of North American Odonata including English name, etymology, type locality, and distribution. Originally published as Occasional Paper No. 56, Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, June 1999; completely revised March 2009. Online. Available: http://www.odonatacentral.org/docs/NA_Odonata_Checklist_2009.pdf.

  • von Ellenrieder, N. 2003. A synopsis of the Neotropical species of Aeshna Fabricius: Genus Rhionaeschna Förster (Odonata: Aeshnidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie (Leiden) 146:67-207.

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