Aeronautes saxatalis - (Woodhouse, 1853)
White-throated Swift
Other English Common Names: white-throated swift
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Aeronautes saxatalis (Woodhouse, 1853) (TSN 178014)
French Common Names: Martinet gorge blanche
Spanish Common Names: Vencejo Pecho Blanco
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.106570
Element Code: ABNUA06010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Vertebrates - Birds - Other Birds
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Craniata Aves Apodiformes Apodidae Aeronautes
Genus Size: B - Very small genus (2-5 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.
Concept Reference Code: B98AOU01NAUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Aeronautes saxatalis
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 06Apr2016
Global Status Last Changed: 02Dec1996
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5B,N4N (05Jan1997)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N3N4B,NUM (25Jan2018)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arizona (S5), California (SNR), Colorado (S5B), Idaho (S4B), Montana (S5B), Navajo Nation (S5B), Nebraska (S3), Nevada (S4B), New Mexico (S3B,S4N), Oregon (S4?), South Dakota (S4B), Texas (S4B), Utah (S4S5B), Washington (S3S4B), Wyoming (S5B,S5N)
Canada British Columbia (S3S4B)

Other Statuses

IUCN Red List Category: LC - Least concern

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: BREEDING: southern British Columbia, southern Alberta, to Montana, northwestern South Dakota, northwestern Nebraska, southeastern Wyoming, eastern Colorado, New Mexico, western Texas, west to southern California, central Arizona, south through Mexico to Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. NON-BREEDING: central California, central Arizona (rarely southern New Mexico) south to limits of breeding range (AOU 1983).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: BREEDING: southern British Columbia, southern Alberta, to Montana, northwestern South Dakota, northwestern Nebraska, southeastern Wyoming, eastern Colorado, New Mexico, western Texas, west to southern California, central Arizona, south through Mexico to Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. NON-BREEDING: central California, central Arizona (rarely southern New Mexico) south to limits of breeding range (AOU 1983).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map
NOTE: The maps for birds represent the breeding status by state and province. In some jurisdictions, the subnational statuses for common species have not been assessed and the status is shown as not-assessed (SNR). In some jurisdictions, the subnational status refers to the status as a non-breeder; these errors will be corrected in future versions of these maps. A species is not shown in a jurisdiction if it is not known to breed in the jurisdiction or if it occurs only accidentally or casually in the jurisdiction. Thus, the species may occur in a jurisdiction as a seasonal non-breeding resident or as a migratory transient but this will not be indicated on these maps. See other maps on this web site that depict the Western Hemisphere ranges of these species at all seasons of the year.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NE, NM, NN, NV, OR, SD, TX, UT, WA, WY
Canada BC

Range Map
Note: Range depicted for New World only. The scale of the maps may cause narrow coastal ranges or ranges on small islands not to appear. Not all vagrant or small disjunct occurrences are depicted. For migratory birds, some individuals occur outside of the passage migrant range depicted. For information on how to obtain shapefiles of species ranges see our Species Mapping pages at www.natureserve.org/conservation-tools/data-maps-tools.

Range Map Compilers: NatureServe, 2002; NatureServe, 2003


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
NE Banner (31007), Scotts Bluff (31157)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
10 Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff (10180009)+, Pumpkin (10180013)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A swift.
Reproduction Comments: Copulation occurs in the air. Clutch size 3-6 (usually 4-5).
Non-Migrant: Y
Locally Migrant: Y
Long Distance Migrant: Y
Mobility and Migration Comments: Breeding populations north of central California and central Arizona arrive in nesting areas March-May, move south for winter.
Riverine Habitat(s): Aerial
Lacustrine Habitat(s): Aerial
Palustrine Habitat(s): Aerial
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Aerial, Cliff
Habitat Comments: Primarily mountainous country, especially near cliffs and canyons where breeding occurs; forages over forest and open situations in a variety of habitats (Subtropical and Temperate zones) (AOU 1983). Nests in rock crevices in cliffs and canyons. Sometimes nests in buildings, and on seacliffs.
Adult Food Habits: Invertivore
Immature Food Habits: Invertivore
Food Comments: Insectivorous. Catches flying insects (flies, beetles, bees, winged ants, bugs, etc.).
Adult Phenology: Diurnal
Immature Phenology: Diurnal
Length: 17 centimeters
Weight: 32 grams
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Swifts

Use Class: Breeding
Subtype(s): Nest Site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Evidence of historical breeding, or current and likely recurring breeding, at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of one or more breeding pairs in appropriate habitat. Be cautious about creating element occurrences for observations that may represent single breeding events outside the normal breeding distribution.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 5 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance is an arbitrary value intended to balance the high mobility of these birds against the need for occurrences that are not impractically large for conservation purposes.

Foraging ranges from breeding site cover at least several square kilometers, often much larger. White-throated Swifts: at one site not observed more than 2 kilometers from breeding cliffs, but at another site seen up to 15 kilometers away (Ryan and Collins 2000).

Breeding site fidelity often strong. White-throated Swift: few data, but individuals often faithful to traditional nest sites; high degree of site tenacity by flocks to breeding sites (Dobkin et al. 1986).

Date: 10Sep2004
Author: Cannings, S., and G. Hammerson

Use Class: Migratory stopover
Subtype(s): Roost site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any traditional roosting site and associated feeding area used during migration. Evidence of recurring presence of individuals (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating element occurrences for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; occurrences defined primarily by large congregations of individuals, rather than distinct populations.
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.

Use Class: Staging
Subtype(s): Roost site
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: Any traditional roosting site and associated feeding area used after the breeding season and before migration. Evidence of recurring presence of individuals (including historical); and potential recurring presence at a given location, minimally a reliable observation of 25 birds in appropriate habitat. Occurrences should be locations where the species is resident for some time during the appropriate season; it is preferable to have observations documenting presence over at least 7 days annually. Be cautious about creating EOs for observations that may represent single events.
Separation Barriers: None.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Separation Justification: Separation distance somewhat arbitrary; occurrences defined primarily by large congregations of individuals; e.g. roosting concentrations of up to 500 or more Vaux's Swifts (Bull and Blumton 1997).
Date: 15Apr2002
Author: Cannings, S.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 03Mar1994
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): Hammerson, G.

Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Allen, C. R., S. Demarais, and R. S. Lutz. 1994. Red imported fire ant impact on wildlife: an overview. The Texas Journal of Science 46(1):51-59.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Check-list of North American Birds, 6th edition. Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1983. Checklist of North American birds. 6th ed. American Ornithologists' Union, Allen Press, Inc., Lawrence, Kansas. 877 pp.

  • American Ornithologists' Union (AOU). 1998. Check-list of North American birds. Seventh edition. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C. [as modified by subsequent supplements and corrections published in The Auk]. Also available online: http://www.aou.org/.

  • Andrews, R. R. and R. R. Righter. 1992. Colorado Birds. Denver Museum of Natural History, Denver. 442 pp.

  • BirdLife International. 2004b. Threatened birds of the world 2004. CD ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.

  • Bull, E. L., & A. K. Blumton. 1997. Roosting behavior of postfledging Vaux's Swifts in northeastern Oregon. Journal of Field Ornithology 68:302--305.

  • Bureau of Land Management. Life History Summaries.

  • Campbell, R. W., N. K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J. M. Cooper, G. W. Kaiser, and M. C. McNall. 1990b. The birds of British Columbia. Volume 2. Nonpasserines: diurnal birds of prey through woodpeckers. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, B.C. 636 pp.

  • Campbell, R.W., N.K. Dawe, I. McTaggart-Cowan, J.M. Cooper, G.W. Kaiser, and M.C.E. McNall. 1990. The Birds of British Columbia Vol. 2: Nonpasserines: Diurnal Birds of Prey through Woodpeckers. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, BC.

  • Cannings, R.A., R.J. Cannings, and S.G. Cannings. 1987. Birds of the Okanagan Valley, B.C. Royal B.C. Mus., Victoria, BC. 420pp.

  • Cannings, R.J. 1998. The Birds of British Columbia - a taxonomic catalogue. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch, Victoria, Wildl. Bull. B-86. 266pp.

  • Dobkin, D. S., J. A. Holmes, and B. A. Wilcox. 1986. Traditional nest-site use by White-throated Swifts. Condor 88:252-253.

  • Fraser, D. F., W. L. Harper, S. G. Cannings, and J. M. Cooper. 1999. Rare birds of British Columbia. Wildlife Branch and Resources Inventory Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC. 244pp.

  • Godfrey, W. E. 1986. The birds of Canada. Revised edition. National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa. 596 pp. + plates.

  • Godfrey, W.E. 1986. The Birds of Canada, rev. ed. Natl. Mus. Can., Ottawa, ON. 595pp.

  • Harrison, C. 1978. A Field Guide to the Nests, Eggs and Nestlings of North American Birds. Collins, Cleveland, Ohio.

  • Hooper, T.D., and M.D. Pitt. 1995. Problem analysis for Chilcotin-Cariboo grassland biodiversity. Wildl. Bull. No. B-82, B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC. 116pp.

  • Howell, S. N. G., and S. Webb. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

  • LaRue, C.T. 1994. Birds of northern Black Mesa, Navajo County, Arizona. Great Basin Naturalist 54(1):1-63.

  • Maxwell, R.E., W.L. Harper, E.C. Lea, and C. Sinnemann. 1992. Cliff evaluation for animal habitat in the South Okanagan. B.C. Minist. Environ. Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC. 5 maps at 1:50,000 scale.

  • Parker III, T. A., D. F. Stotz, and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

  • Partners in Flight (PIF) Population Estimates Database. 2007. Available on line at : http://www.rmbo.org/pif_db/laped/query.aspx

  • Peterjohn, B. J., J. R. Sauer, and S. Orsillo. 1995. Breeding bird survey: population trends 1966-1992. Pages 14-21 in E. T. LaRoe, G. S. Farris, C. E. Puckett, P. D. Doran, and M. J. Mac, editors. Our Living Resources. National Biological Service, Washington, D.C.

  • Pitmann, R. L. and L. T. Ballance. 2002. The changing status of marine birds breeding at San Benedicto Island, Mexico. Wilson Bulletin 114:11-19.

  • Resource Inventory Committee. 1995. Standards for terrestrial ecosystem mapping in British Columbia: review draft. Ecosystems Working Group, B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC. 222pp.

  • Richardson, H. 2000. Threats Posed by Rock-Climbers to Birds Nesting on Cliffs in the South Okanagan. Pp. 429-433 in L.M. Darling, ed. 2000. Proc. Conf. on the Biology and Manage. Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B.C., 15-19 Feb., 1999. Vol. 1; B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, BC, and Univ. College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC. 490pp.

  • Ryan, T. P., and C. T. Collins. 2000. White-throated Swift (AERONAUTES SAXATALIS). No. 526 IN A. Poole and F. Gill, editors, The birds of North America. The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA. 20 pp.

  • Sauer, J.R., et al. 1997. The North American breeding bird survey results and analysis. Version 96.4. Patuxent Wildl. Res. Center, Laurel, MD. Online. Available: http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/bbs.html

  • Sauer, J.R., J.E. Hines, I. Thomas, J. Fallon, and G. Gough. 1999. The North American Breeding Bird Survey: Results and Analysis 1966 - 1998. Version 98.1. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD. December 3-last update. Online. Available: http://www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/bbs/bbs.html.

  • Sibley, D. A. 2000a. The Sibley guide to birds. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

  • St. John, D. 1992. Breeding distribution of the White-throated Swift, Aeronautes saxatalis, in the Okanagan Sub-region. Unpubl. rep. submitted to Fish and Wildl., B.C. Environ., Penticton, BC. 3pp.

  • Summers, K. 1995. Status of the White-throated Swift in British Columbia. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. Working rep. WR-68. 24pp.

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