Actaea elata - (Nutt.) Prantl
Tall Bugbane
Synonym(s): Cimicifuga elata Nutt.
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Cimicifuga elata Nutt. (TSN 18755)
French Common Names: cimicaire élevée
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.134578
Element Code: PDRAN07030
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Buttercup Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ranunculales Ranunculaceae Actaea
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Cimicifuga elata
Taxonomic Comments: Treated by Kartesz (1999) as Actaea elata; also known as Cimicifuga elata (e.g., in Kartesz (1994)).
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 14Sep2015
Global Status Last Changed: 14Sep2015
Ranking Methodology Used: Ranked by inspection
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This species is limited to the Pacific Northwest. There are some very large populations in southern Oregon with other smaller populations scattered throughout western Oregon and Washington. Timber harvest practices continue to be a threat although plants have been found in second growth and in semi-disturbed areas, e.g. along roads and clear cut edges. Collecting by herbalists is also a threat.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4
Nation: Canada
National Status: N1 (25Oct2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Oregon (S4), Washington (S3)
Canada British Columbia (S1)

Other Statuses

Canadian Species at Risk Act (SARA) Schedule 1/Annexe 1 Status: E (05Jun2003)
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC): Endangered (01May2001)
Comments on COSEWIC: A perennial herb of mature forests occurring naturally as very small populations at scattered sites throughout a single river valley and adjoining mountain slopes where logging continues to impact populations and to reduce its preferred forest habitats.

Designated Endangered in May 2001.

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: This species range is the Pacific Northwest, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, Canada. In Oregon, it occurs in the western Cascades and Willamette Valley of western Oregon from Jackson County in the south to the Washington/Oregon border.

Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300
Number of Occurrences Comments: About 200 occurrences known in Oregon; unknown how many populations have been found in Washington and British Columbia.

Population Size Comments: Over 50,000 plants in Oregon, of which 5 sites have over 5000+ plants.

Overall Threat Impact: Unknown
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The foreseeable threat with the greatest impact is habitat degradation/loss. The primary threat is habitat degradation/loss due to timber management practices (WNHP 2003). Although the initial effect of clearcuts on tall bugbane is positive, the long-term results may be devastating due to the growth of closely-spaced trees which exclude tall bugbane from direct light (Kaye and Cramer 2003). Other threats include competition from invasive weedy species, residential development, collecting by herbalists and recreational use of some sites resulting in trampling of plants (WNHP 2003).

Short-term Trend: Relatively Stable (<=10% change)
Short-term Trend Comments: Of three populations monitored in southern Oregon from 1997-2002 two were fairly stable or increasing from one year to the next and one fluctuated and declined over the study period(Kaye and Cramer 2002).

Intrinsic Vulnerability Comments: This is a rather sturdy plant.

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: This species range is the Pacific Northwest, Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, Canada. In Oregon, it occurs in the western Cascades and Willamette Valley of western Oregon from Jackson County in the south to the Washington/Oregon border.

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States OR, WA
Canada BC

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
OR Benton (41003), Clackamas (41005), Columbia (41009)*, Douglas (41019), Jackson (41029), Josephine (41033), Lane (41039), Linn (41043), Marion (41047), Multnomah (41051), Polk (41053), Washington (41067), Yamhill (41071)
WA Clallam (53009), Clark (53011), Cowlitz (53015)*, Grays Harbor (53027)*, King (53033)*, Lewis (53041), Pierce (53053)*, Skamania (53059), Thurston (53067), Wahkiakum (53069)*, Whatcom (53073)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
17 Middle Columbia-Hood (17070105)+, Lower Columbia-Sandy (17080001)+, Lewis (17080002)+, Lower Columbia-Clatskanie (17080003)+*, Upper Cowlitz (17080004)+, Lower Cowlitz (17080005)+, Middle Fork Willamette (17090001)+, Coast Fork Willamette (17090002)+, Upper Willamette (17090003)+, Mckenzie (17090004)+, North Santiam (17090005)+, South Santiam (17090006)+, Middle Willamette (17090007)+, Yamhill (17090008)+, Molalla-Pudding (17090009)+, Tualatin (17090010)+, Clackamas (17090011)+, Lower Willamette (17090012)+, Upper Chehalis (17100103)+, Lower Chehalis (17100104)+*, Willapa Bay (17100106)+*, Siuslaw (17100206)+, North Umpqua (17100301)+, South Umpqua (17100302)+, Umpqua (17100303)+, Upper Rogue (17100307)+, Middle Rogue (17100308)+, Applegate (17100309)+, Fraser (17110001)+, Nooksack (17110004)+, Snoqualmie (17110010)+*, Lake Washington (17110012)+*, Duwamish (17110013)+*, Nisqually (17110015)+*, Deschutes (17110016)+*, Puget Sound (17110019)+*, Dungeness-Elwha (17110020)+
18 Upper Klamath (18010206)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A coarse perennial herb, 1-2 m tall, that produces white petalless flowers in the summer.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Habitat Comments: Moist, shady woods, mostly at lower elevations, especially north-facing slopes in mature Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) forests.
Economic Attributes
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Economically Important Genus: Y
Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 27Sep1996
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Gamon, J. & K. Maybury, rev. A. Olivero (2003)

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Alverson, E. 1986. Status report on Cimicifuga elata. Washington Natural Heritage Program. (Unpublished).

  • Brayshaw, T.C. 1989. Buttercups, Waterlilies and their Relatives in British Columbia. Royal B.C. Mus. Mem. No. 1. 262pp.

  • British Columbia Conservation Data Centre. Botany Program. 2000. Database containing records of rare plant collections and observations in the province of British Columbia.

  • British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection. 2004. Tall Bugbane in Accounts and measures for managing Identified Wildlife. British Columbia Minist. of Water, Land and Air Prot., Victoria, BC. 52pp.

  • COSEWIC. 2001c. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the tall bugbane Cimicifuga elata in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa. vi + 15 pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Penny. 2002. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia, 2nd ed. B.C. Conserv. Data Centre, Terrestrial Inf. Branch, Victoria. 358pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., D. Meidinger, and J. Pojar, eds. 1999. Illustrated Flora of British Columbia, Vol. 4, Dicotyledons (Orobanchaceae through Rubiaceae). B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria. 427pp.

  • Douglas, G.W., F. Lomer, and H. Roemer. 1998. New or Rediscovered Native Vascular Plant Species in British Columbia. Can. Field-Nat. 112(2):276-279.

  • Douglas, G.W., G.B. Straley, and D. Meidinger, eds. 1998. Rare Native Vascular Plants of British Columbia. Conserv. Data Centre, Resour. Inventory Branch, B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Victoria, and B.C. Minist. For., Victoria.

  • Evans, M.E.K. 1992. Breeding system of tall bugbane CIMICIFUGA ELATA (Ranunculaceae). Reed College Biology Department, Sandy River Research Report, Portland, OR. 26 pp.

  • Fontaine, M., and G.W. Douglas. 1999. Rare Forest Plants. B.C. Minist. Environ., Lands and Parks, Wildl. Branch. 6pp.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1999. A synonymized checklist and atlas with biological attributes for the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. First edition. In: Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0. North Carolina Botanical Garden, Chapel Hill, N.C.

  • Kaye, T. 1995. Cimicifuga elata: some comments on its ecology and distribution. Botanical Electronic News 121. December 9, 1995. Online. Available: http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/ben/ben121.html (Accessed May 23, 2003).

  • Kaye, T. and M. Kirkland. 1994. Cimicifuga elata: Status, habitat analysis, monitoring, inventory, and effects of timber management. Oregon Department of Agriculture - Plant Conservation Biology Program. Eugene, Oregon. 49 pp.

  • Kaye, T.N. and J.R. Cramer. 2002. Cimicifuga elata population monitoring Medford District, BLM. Progress Report (December 2002). Institute for Applied Ecology, Corvallis, Oregon. 22 pp.

  • Kaye, T.N. and J.R. Cramer. 2002. Cimicifuga elata population monitoring Medford District, BLM. Progress Report (December 2002). Institute for Applied Ecology, Corvallis, Oregon. 22 pp.

  • Kaye, T.N. and J.R. Cramer. 2003. Effects of forest management on tall bugbane in McDonald-Dunn Forest Oregon State University Corvallis, Oregon. Final Report (March 2003). Institute for Applied Ecology, Corvallis, Oregon. 23 pp.

  • Kaye, Thomas N. 2001. Propogation and population re-establishment for tall bugbane (Cimicifuga elata) on the Salem District, BLM. Second year report. Bureau of Land Management and Institute for Applied Ecology.

  • Kaye, Thomas N. 2000. Population Dynamics of tall bugbane and effects of forest management. U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, U.S.D.A. Forest Service and Oregon Department of Agriculture, Plant Conservation Biology Program.

  • Klinkenberg, B. and R. Klnkenberg.  2002.  National Recovery Strategy for Tall Bugbane (Actaea elata).  Tall Bugbane Recovery Team and Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Surrey.

  • Klinkenberg, B., and R. Klinkenberg. 2003. A Recovery Strategy for Tall Bugbane (Actaea elata(Nutt.) Prantl.) in Canada. B.C. Minist. Water, Land, Air Prot. 46pp.

  • Klinkenberg, Brian. 2005. Landscape Modeling in Conservation Biology: Predictive Mapping of Potential Habitat for Tall Bugbane (Actaea elata) in British Columbia. Minist. of Water, Land and Air Prot., Surrey, BC.

  • Knopp, D.H. 2003.Tall Bugbane. Produced for B.C. Minist. Water, Land and Air Prot. 2pp.

  • Pellmyr, O. 1986. Pollination ecology of two nectarless Cimicifuga sp. (Ranunculaceae) in North America. Nordic Journal of Botany 6: 713-723.

  • Penny, J.L., and G.W. Douglas. 1999. Status of Tall Bugbane, Cimicifuga elata (Ranunculaceae), in Canada. Can. Field-Nat. 113(3):461-465.

  • Penny, J.L., and G.W. Douglas. 2000. Status Report on Tall Bugbane, Cimicifuga elata, in Canada. Unpubl. rep. submitted to the Comm. on the Status of Endangered Wildl. in Can. Ottawa. 22pp.

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program and USDI Bureau of Land Management (BLM). 2003. Field guide to selected rare plants of Washington. Online. Available: http://www.dnr.wa.gov/nhp/refdesk/fguide/htm/fsfgabc.htm. Accessed 2003, May 9.

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1981. An illustrated guide to the endangered, threatened and sensitive vascular plants of Washington. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Olympia. 328 pp.

  • Washington Natural Heritage Program. 1994. Endangered, threatened and sensitive vascular plants of Washington. Dept. of Natural Resources, Olympia, Washington. 52 pp.

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