Aconitum uncinatum - L.
Blue Monkshood
Other English Common Names: Southern Blue Monkshood
Other Common Names: southern blue monkshood
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Aconitum uncinatum L. (TSN 18421)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.135272
Element Code: PDRAN010A0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Buttercup Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Ranunculales Ranunculaceae Aconitum
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Aconitum uncinatum
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G4
Global Status Last Reviewed: 22Apr1991
Global Status Last Changed: 09May1991
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: Rare in much of its range, but probably not endangered in VA, NC, WV, or GA.
Nation: United States
National Status: N4

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Alabama (S1), District of Columbia (SX), Georgia (S3S4), Illinois (S1), Indiana (S1), Kentucky (S1S2), Maryland (S1), Missouri (S1), New Hampshire (SNR), North Carolina (S3S4), Ohio (S1), Pennsylvania (S2), South Carolina (S2), Tennessee (S3?), Virginia (S4), West Virginia (S4)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Overall Threat Impact Comments: Highly threatened by forest management practices, and to a lesser extent by land-use conversion and habitat fragmentation (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AL, DCextirpated, GA, IL, IN, KY, MD, MO, NC, NH, OH, PA, SC, TN, VA, WV

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
IN Perry (18123), Washington (18175)
KY Clinton (21053), Knox (21121)*, Laurel (21125)*, Lewis (21135), McCreary (21147), Menifee (21165)*, Pulaski (21199), Rockcastle (21203), Russell (21207), Wayne (21231), Wolfe (21237)*
MD Garrett (24023), Montgomery (24031)
MO Shannon (29203)
OH Scioto (39145)
PA Fayette (42051), Greene (42059), Somerset (42111)*, Westmoreland (42129)
SC Greenville (45045), Oconee (45073), Pickens (45077), Spartanburg (45083)*
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
02 Middle Potomac-Catoctin (02070008)+
03 Upper Broad (03050105)+*, Saluda (03050109)+, Seneca (03060101)+, Tugaloo (03060102)+*
05 Upper Monongahela (05020003)+, Cheat (05020004)+, Lower Monongahela (05020005)+, Youghiogheny (05020006)+, Lower Scioto (05060002)+, Little Scioto-Tygarts (05090103)+, Ohio Brush-Whiteoak (05090201)+, Upper Kentucky (05100204)+*, Lower East Fork White (05120208)+, Upper Cumberland (05130101)+*, Rockcastle (05130102)+, Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland (05130103)+, South Fork Cumberland (05130104)+, Obey (05130105)+, Blue-Sinking (05140104)+
11 Current (11010008)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: A tall, slender stemmed herb with deeply cleft leaves and irregular blue flowers.
Technical Description: Root turnip like, renewed annualy, the new one being well seperated from the old. Stem: erect or leaning, slender, weak, 6-12 dm long, glabrous. Leaves: numerous, firm, deeply 3-5 lobed, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, coarsely toothed. Pedicels: with some pubescence at the summits. Inflorescence: short, few flowered glabrous. Flowers: hypogynous, irregular, perianth zygomorphic, sepal petaloid, unequal, the upper (helmet) largest, strongly arched or hooded it's tip prolonged foreward and downward into a short beak. Upper petals: 2, concealed under the helmet, clawed, nectiferous at the tip. Lower petals: 3, vestigial. Stamens: numerous. Pistils: 3-5. Fruit: a turgid, several seeded follicle.
Diagnostic Characteristics: Flowers deep blue, leaves deeply cleft, but not to the base, hooded sepal higher than long, 1.5-1.8 cm high with a 5.0-7.0 mm beak.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Reproduction Comments: n=8. Some plants have been reported to produce bulbils.
Ecology Comments: This species prefers rich, moist, shaded sites often in floodplain thickets and artificial openings such as railroad right of ways where low air flow and surface temperatures persist. Alteration of drainage, overshading, and digging or picking are the major threats to this species.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Forest - Hardwood, Forest/Woodland
Habitat Comments: Rich shady soil along streams, especially in mountainous areas.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Apr1991
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: Broaddus, Lynn
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 31Jan1992
Element Ecology & Life History Author(s): ISAAC, J.

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Brink, D. 1982. Tuberous Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) of the continental United States: Morphological variation, taxonomy and disjunction. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 109(1):13-23.

  • Brink, Don. 1982. Tuberous Aconitum (Ranunculaceae) of the Continental United States: Morphological variation, taxonomy, and disjunction. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 109:13-23. A82BRI01PAUS.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. B. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British Possessions. 2nd Edition in 3 Volumes. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. B13BRI01PAUS.

  • Britton, N. L. and A. Brown. 1913. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada. 3 vol. Dover Publications, Inc., N. Y. 2052 pp.

  • Cusick, A. 1983. Aconitum uncinatum L. (Ranunculaceae) Discovered in Ohio. Castanea 48:209-211. A83CUS01PAUS.

  • Cusick, A. W. 1983. Aconitum uncinatum L. (Ranunculaceae) discovered in Ohio. Castanea 48(3):209-211.

  • Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Division of Forestry, Dept. of Conservation, Indianapolis, Indiana. 1236 pp.

  • Fernald, M.L. 1949. Gray's Manual of Botany, Eighth edition. American Book Co. New York. B49FER01PAUS

  • Fernald, M.L. 1950 Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. 1632 pp.

  • Gleason, H.A. & Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. Second Edition. The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, NY 10458. U.S.A. B91GLE01PAUS.

  • Gleason, H.A., and A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 910 pp.

  • Hardin, J.W. 1964. Variation in Aconitum of eastern United States. Brittonia 16:80-94.

  • Hardin, J.W. 1964. Variation in Aconitum of Eastern United States. Brittonia 16:80-94. A64HAR01PAUS

  • Henry, L.K. and Buker, W.E. 1958. The Ranunculaceae in Western Pennsylvania. Castanea 23:33-46. A58HEN01PAUS

  • Henry, L.K. and W.E. Buker. 1958. The Ranunculaceae in western Pennsylvania. Castanea 23(2):33-45.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Keener, C.S. 1976. Studies in the Ranunculaceae of the southeastern United States. IV. Genera with zygomorphic flowers. Castanea 41:12-20.

  • Keener, C.S. 1976. Studies in the ranunculacea of the Southeastern United States IV Genera with Zygomorphic Flowers. Castanea 41:12-20. A76KEE01PAUS

  • Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. A fascimile of the first edition printed by Adlard & Son, Bartholomew Press, Dorking, Great Britain. 2 vol. B53LIN01PAUS.

  • Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. First edition printed by Adlard & Son, Bartholomew Press, Dorking, Great Britain. 2 vol.

  • McCance, R.M. and Burns, J.F. eds 1984. Ohio Endangered and Threatened Vascular Plants: Abstracts of State-Listed Taxa, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves. Department of Natural Resources, Columbus, Ohio 635p. B84MCC01PAUS.

  • McCance, R.M., Jr., and J.F. Burns, eds. 1984. Ohio endangered and threatened vascular plants: Abstracts of state-listed taxa. Division Natural Areas and Preserves, Ohio Dept. Natural Resources, Columbus. 635 pp.

  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 1183 pp.

  • Radford, A.E., Ahles, H.E., and Bell, C.R. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. The Univ. of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. B68RAD01PAUS.

  • Radford, A.E., Ahles, H.E., and Bell, C.R. 1978. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. The Univ. of North Carolina Press. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. B78RAD01PAUS.

  • Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 1183 pp.

  • Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project. 2002. A partnership between the U.S. Forest Service-Region 8, Natural Heritage Programs in the Southeast, NatureServe, and independent scientists to develop and review data on 1300+ regionally and locally rare species in the Southern Appalachian and Alabama region. Database (Access 97) provided to the U.S. Forest Service by NatureServe, Durham, North Carolina.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D. and Core, E.L. 1964. Flora of West Virginia, Series 65, No 3-2. West Virginia University Bulletin. B64STR01PAUS.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D. and E.L. Core. 1964. Flora of West Virginia, Series 65, No 3-2. West Virginia University Bulletin.

  • Strausbaugh, P.D. and E.L. Core. 1978. Flora of West Virginia. Second ed. Seneca Books, Inc., Grantsville, WV. 1079 pp.

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