Abronia macrocarpa - L.A. Gal.
Large-fruit Sand-verbena
Other Common Names: largefruit sand-verbena
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Related ITIS Name(s): Abronia macrocarpa L.A. Gal. (TSN 19561)
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.159233
Element Code: PDNYC010D0
Informal Taxonomy: Plants, Vascular - Flowering Plants - Four-O'clock Family
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Plantae Anthophyta Dicotyledoneae Caryophyllales Nyctaginaceae Abronia
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.
Concept Reference Code: B94KAR01HQUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Abronia macrocarpa
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G2
Global Status Last Reviewed: 04Jan2007
Global Status Last Changed: 18Dec1998
Rounded Global Status: G2 - Imperiled
Reasons: The few known occurrences of Abronia macrocarpa all occur within a 3-county area in eastern Texas. Habitat is sandy soils in openings in post oak savannah (USFWS 1992). Abronia macrocarpa is threatened by residential development, oil field development, fire suppression, recreational use, and non-native pasture grasses.
Nation: United States
National Status: N2

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Texas (S2)

Other Statuses

U.S. Endangered Species Act (USESA): LE: Listed endangered (28Sep1988)
Comments on USESA: Abronia macrocarpa was proposed endangered on June 16, 1987 and determined endangered on September 28, 1988.
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Lead Region: R2 - Southwest

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Range Extent Comments: Known only from a 3-county area in eastern Texas (USFWS 1992).

Number of Occurrences:  
Number of Occurrences Comments: As of 1998 there are a few known occurrences in east Texas. As of 1986, bronia macrocarpa was known only from the type locality in a small localized sand dune area of approximately 30 acres. In 1971 the population consisted on fewer than 200 plants, in 1978 & 1979 500 plants were observed at the site, in 1984 15 plants were found and the area was reported to have received much "abuse from the human population" (A84POO01HQUS), particularly from off-road vehicles. In 1986, the last year for which population size was reported, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service estimated that the population contained about 250 plants (N87RUT03HQUS).

Population Size Comments: Total population in three locations estimated at several thousand (USFWS 1992).

Overall Threat Impact: Medium
Overall Threat Impact Comments: The foreseeable threat with the greatest impact is habitat degradation/loss. Abronia macrocarpa is threatened by residential development, oil field development, introduction of pasture grasses including coastal bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and weeping love grass (Eragrostis curvula), fire suppression, off-road vehicles, and horseback riding (USFWS 1992). Other threats may include browsing by native and non-native herbivores, insect predation, and overcollection (USFWS 1992).

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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Global Range: Known only from a 3-county area in eastern Texas (USFWS 1992).

U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
Color legend for Distribution Map

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States TX

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
TX Freestone (48161), Leon (48289), Robertson (48395)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
12 Lower Trinity-Tehuacana (12030201)+, Navasota (12070103)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Basic Description: An herbaceous perennial, 5 dm tall, with showy, pink-purple, spherical flower clusters in the spring.
Technical Description: Somewhat erect, herbaceous perennial with stems to 50 cm long, viscid, glandular-pubescent; petioles 0.5-4 cm long; leaf blades ovate, elliptic to suborbicular, 2-5 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm wide, glandular-puberulent; bracts ovate to elliptic, 7-13 mm long, 4-6 mm wide, glandular-pubescent; flowers 20-75 per inflorescence; perianth tube 18-32 mm long; perianth limbs 8-10 mm wide, magenta; anthocarps papery, turbinate, 8-15 mm long, 5-12 mm wide, 5-winged with wings often somewhat twisted; achenes 2.2-3.5 mm long, brown. 18-30 mm long, magenta; anthocarps scarious, papery, turbinate, five-winged, 8-15 mm long, 5-12 mm wide.
Diagnostic Characteristics: This species is characterized by its large, thin-walled anthocarps; texture is thinner and more papery than in any other species of Abronia; anthocarps are among the largest in the genus, anthocarps of Abronia fragrans and A. ameliae are shorter, much narrower, and much more indurate than those of A. macrocarpa.
Duration: PERENNIAL
Ecology Comments: Plants are psammophilic and grow best under at least mildly alkaline conditions.
Terrestrial Habitat(s): Sand/dune, Savanna
Habitat Comments: Deep, well-drained sands, sometimes on actively blowing sand dunes, within a post oak-grassland mosaic vegetation type. The species is one of many herbaceous plants that temporarily dominate these bare sands during spring.
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 18Dec1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author: J. Poole/K. Maybury, rev. A. Olivero (2003)
Element Ecology & Life History Edition Date: 27Dec1989

Botanical data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs), The North Carolina Botanical Garden, and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
Help
  • Corlies, G.K. 1991. Reproductive biology and leaf structure of Abronia macrocarpa Galloway (Nyctaginaceae), and endangered east Texas endemic. M.A. thesis, Southwest Texas State University, San Marcos.

  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2003b. Flora of North America North of Mexico. Vol. 4, Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllidae, part 1. Oxford University Press, New York. 559 pp.

  • Galloway, L.A. 1972. Abronia macrocarpa (Nyctaginaceae): A new species from Texas. Brittonia 24: 148-149.

  • Galloway, L.A. 1975. Systematics of the North American desert species of Abronia and Tripterocalyx (Nyctaginaceae). Brittonia 27: 328-347.

  • Kartesz, J.T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. 2nd edition. 2 vols. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

  • Kennedy, K., J.M. Poole, and S. Orzell. 1990. Revised status report on Abronia macrocarpa. Report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  • Poole, J.M., and D.H. Riskind. 1987. Endangered, threatened, or protected native plants of Texas. Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, Austin. Unpaginated.

  • Poole, Jackie M., W. R. Carr, D. M. Price, and J. R. Singhurst. 2007. Rare plants of Texas. Texas A&M University Press, College Station. 640 pp.

  • Rutman, S. 1987. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; Proposed endangered status for Abronia macrocarpa (large fruited sand verbena). Federal Register 52(115): 22944-22946.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Large-fruited sand-verbena (Abronia macrocarpa) recovery plan. Report prepared for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  • U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1992. Large-fruited sand-verbena (Abronia macrocarpa) recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 37 pp.

  • Williamson, P.S., L. Muliana, and G.K. Janssen. 1994. Pollination biology of Abronia macrocarpa (Nyctaginaceae), an endangered Texas species. Southwest Naturalist 39: 336-341.

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