Anisota stigma - (Fabricius, 1775)
Spiny Oakworm Moth
Taxonomic Status: Accepted
Unique Identifier: ELEMENT_GLOBAL.2.118197
Element Code: IILEW0K010
Informal Taxonomy: Animals, Invertebrates - Insects - Butterflies and Moths - Giant Silkworm and Royal Moths
 
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Animalia Mandibulata Insecta Lepidoptera Saturniidae Anisota
Genus Size: C - Small genus (6-20 species)
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Concept Reference
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Concept Reference: Tuskes, P. M., J. P. Tuttle, and M. M. Collins. 1996. The Wild Silk Moths of North America: A Natural History of the Saturniidae of the United States and Canada. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 250 pp.
Concept Reference Code: B96TUS01EHUS
Name Used in Concept Reference: Anisota stigma
Conservation Status
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NatureServe Status

Global Status: G5
Global Status Last Reviewed: 31May2002
Global Status Last Changed: 31May2002
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Nation: United States
National Status: N5 (19Oct2000)
Nation: Canada
National Status: N2N3 (24Aug2017)

U.S. & Canada State/Province Status
Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.
United States Arkansas (SNR), Connecticut (SH), Illinois (SNR), Indiana (SNR), Maryland (S4), Massachusetts (S3), Michigan (SNR), New Hampshire (SH), New York (SU), Pennsylvania (S1S2), Virginia (SNR)
Canada Nova Scotia (SU), Ontario (SNR)

Other Statuses

NatureServe Global Conservation Status Factors

Other NatureServe Conservation Status Information

Distribution
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U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

Due to latency between updates made in state, provincial or other NatureServe Network databases and when they appear on NatureServe Explorer, for state or provincial information you may wish to contact the data steward in your jurisdiction to obtain the most current data. Please refer to our Distribution Data Sources to find contact information for your jurisdiction.

Map unavailable!:
Distribution data for U.S. states and Canadian provinces is known to be incomplete or has not been reviewed for this taxon.
Endemism: occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

U.S. & Canada State/Province Distribution
United States AR, CT, IL, IN, MA, MD, MI, NH, NY, PA, VA
Canada NS, ON

Range Map
No map available.


U.S. Distribution by County Help
State County Name (FIPS Code)
CT Tolland (09013)*
MA Barnstable (25001), Dukes (25007), Nantucket (25019), Plymouth (25023)
NH Merrimack (33013)*
NY Suffolk (36103)
OK Pushmataha (40127)
PA Centre (42027), Chester (42029), Lebanon (42075)
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
U.S. Distribution by Watershed Help
Watershed Region Help Watershed Name (Watershed Code)
01 Contoocook (01070003)+*, Merrimack (01070006)+*, Cape Cod (01090002)+, Shetucket (01100002)+*
02 Southern Long Island (02030202)+, Upper Juniata (02050302)+, Lower Susquehanna-Swatara (02050305)+, Lower Susquehanna (02050306)+
11 Upper Little (11140107)+
+ Natural heritage record(s) exist for this watershed
* Extirpated/possibly extirpated
Ecology & Life History
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Habitat Type: Terrestrial
Non-Migrant: N
Locally Migrant: N
Long Distance Migrant: N
Adult Food Habits: Nonfeeding
Food Comments: Caterpillar Hosts: Various oaks (Quercus). Adult Food: Adults do not feed (Lotts and Naberhaus 2017).
Economic Attributes Not yet assessed
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Management Summary Not yet assessed
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Population/Occurrence Delineation
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Group Name: Anisota, Sphingicampa, etc. Moths

Use Class: Not applicable
Minimum Criteria for an Occurrence: A location where the species occurs, or recently has occurred, where there is potential for persistence or continued recurrence. Minimally a place where an adult or larva has been reliably verified based on a photograph or preferably a specimen in association with suitable forest, woodland or scrub sufficient to maintain a population. An occurrence ranked better than D must support a persistent viable population or metapopulation.
Mapping Guidance: For Anisota, habitat features usually will define boundaries very well, but these features may be more specific than just presence of foodplant and some local knowledge of the habitat may be needed to get them right. See habitat and food comments fields for the species being mapped. For example A. virginiensis in much of its range prefers forests and tree oak woodlands but avoids pine barrens or scrub. A. stigma southward is very generalized, even occurring in mixed hardwoods but northward becomes increasingly a barrens or scrub specialist. For Dryocampa, the boundaries would reflect the distribution of maples as the species is otherwise a habitat generalist. There is little information for Sphingicampa, etc., but try to map the distribution of the apparent legume foodplant or the community in which it is occurring.
Separation Distance for Unsuitable Habitat: 2 km
Separation Distance for Suitable Habitat: 10 km
Alternate Separation Procedure: Multiple habitat patches within the same large community complex or in a generally wooded area will generally be treated as one metapopulation occurrence except in rare cases where the foodplant, generally a common to dominant oak or woody legume, really is absent over at least half the suitable habitat distance.
Separation Justification: These moths usually occur widely throughout large (rarely under 500 hectares) to enormous (>>100,000 hectares) more or less contiguous habitats, usually several to many kilometers in at least one dimension. Males are extremely powerful fast fliers (diurnal species nearly or quite too fast for the human eye to follow) and so must often travel large distances within their habitats. ANISOTA are difficult to lure in with calling females outside of their habitats though. Females apparently seldom move far from their preferred habitats but may oviposit on isolated oaks up to a few hundred meters away. Most Anisota species usually lay most or all of their eggs soon after mating. Probably those that lay more than one egg mass commonly disperse them over several hundred meters. While fluctuations and local, sometimes shifting, hotspots and conversely patchy absences often occur, contiguous habitats are clearly typically fully occupied over time and usually in all years. This argues for large distances within more or less suitable habitats, while observations that adults seem to more or less stay in often sharply defined habitats suggest small distances across unsuitable habitat. Marginal habitat between patches of good habitat should be treated as suitable. It does seem likely these moths are typically more localized and patchy than other Saturniidae, hence the 10 km recommendation. Often though further collecting would show occurrences to extend more than that distance. Anisota occurrences in southern New Jersey are commonly in the range of 1,000 to 10,000 hectares. They may be smaller though in places where these moths are commonly tracked. Some (for example one of Anisota stigma in Chester County, Pennsylvania) are only a hundred hectares or so.
Inferred Minimum Extent of Habitat Use (when actual extent is unknown): 1 km
Inferred Minimum Extent Justification: Inferred extent will usually be simply all available more or less contiguous habitat but to be conservative when dealing with single point observations cap it at 1kilometer. Habitats for these moths are normally far larger, but a few are known that are less than 1000 hectares. The smallest occurrence known to or even suspected by Schweitzer for an ANISOTA is about 100-200 hectares for A. STIGMA at Goat Hill barrens, Pennsylvania and that species persists as isolated colonies in a few (but not most) other small (500-1000 hectare) pine barrens remnants in the northeastern USA, suggesting it can tolerate smaller habitats than most of the group. He notes though that otherwise the genus had been virtually eradicated from small forest fragments in southeastern Pennsylvania before 1970. However, A. SENATORIA is still present (larvae in September 2001, T. McCabe) on the Albany Pine Bush in roughly 800 hectares of good habitat. Of species in this group only DRYOCAMPA RUBICUNDA seems to routinely do well in small forest scraps probably because it uses intervening planted maples in yards as well. However, no information on habitat size for SPHIGICAMPA are available.
Date: 20Sep2001
Author: Schweitzer, Dale F.
Population/Occurrence Viability
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U.S. Invasive Species Impact Rank (I-Rank) Not yet assessed
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Authors/Contributors
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Zoological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).

References
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  • Covell, Charles V. 1984. A field guide to the moths of eastern North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.

  • Covell, Charles V., PhD. 1996. Final Report on Results of 1995 RJ/KOSE Grant to Inventory Macro-Lepidoptera at Three Indiana Bald Cypress Swamps. Submitted to Indiana Field Office The Nature Conservancy. 10 pages.

  • Jordan, M. J., W. A. Patterson III, A. G. Windisch. 2003. Conceptual ecological models for the Long Island pitch pine barrens: implications for managing rare plant communities. Forest Ecology and Management 185, 151-168.

  • Little, S. 1979. Fire and plant succession in the New Jersey pine barrens. P. 297-313 in R. T. T. Forman, ed. Pine Barrens: Ecosystem and Landscape. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando, FL.

  • Lotts, K., and T. Naberhaus, coordinators. 2017. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Available online: http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/ (Version December 2018).

  • NatureServe. 2010. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://www.natureserve.org/explorer. (Data last updated August 2010)

  • North American Moth Photographers Group at the Mississippi Entomological Museum. No date. Mississippi State University, Mississippi. http://mothphotographersgroup.msstate.edu/MainMenu.shtml

  • Opler, Paul A., Kelly Lotts, and Thomas Naberhaus, coordinators. 2010. Butterflies and Moths of North America. Bozeman, MT: Big Sky Institute. (accessed May 2010).

  • Pohl, G.R.  J-F. Landry, B.C. Schmidt, J.D. Lafontaine, J.T. Troubridge, A.D. Macaulay, E.van Nieukerken, J.R. deWaard, J.J. Dombroskie, J. Klymko, V. Nazari and K. Stead. 2018. Annotated checklist of the moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera) of Canada and Alaska. Pensoft Publishers. 580 pp.

  • Schweitzer, D. 1997. Memorandum of 11 February to Jim Thorne and Barb Barton regarding MD status for serpentine barren moths. 2 pp.

  • Schweitzer, Dale F. 1996. Memorandum to Orland Blanchard of December 26, 1996 regarding Long Island moths.

  • Tuskes, P. M., J. P. Tuttle, and M. M. Collins. 1996. The Wild Silk Moths of North America: A Natural History of the Saturniidae of the United States and Canada. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 250 pp.

  • Wagner, D.L. 2005. Caterpillars of eastern North America. Princeton University Press. Princeton, New Jersey. 512 pp.

  • Wagner, David L., Nelson, Michael W., and Schweitzer, Dale F. 2003. Shrubland Lepidoptera of southern New England and southeastern New York: ecology, conservation, and management. Forest Ecology and Management 185: 95-112.

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