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Pinus taeda - Quercus (alba, falcata, stellata) Piedmont Forest
Translated Name: Loblolly Pine - (White Oak, Southern Red Oak, Post Oak) Piedmont Forest
Common Name: Piedmont Loblolly Pine - Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004232
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association represents mixed loblolly pine - oak forests for the eastern and interior portions of the alliance's range, particularly the southern Piedmont from the Carolinas to Georgia, as well as the adjacent Cumberlands / Southern Ridge and Valley of southern Tennessee where Pinus taeda is native. In parts of the prescribed range, this association could represent semi-natural stands of Pinus taeda mixed with Quercus spp. that develop from Pinus taeda plantations that have aged sufficiently to lose the pure pine character and developed more of a hardwood component. Stands of this mixed oak-pine upland forest association are dominated by a combination of various oaks and other hardwoods with Pinus spp. Pinus taeda or Pinus virginiana are usually present or codominant, being generally less abundant in more mature stands. Quercus falcata is characteristic, but other oaks are also present including Quercus alba, Quercus stellata, Quercus velutina, Quercus coccinea, Quercus marilandica, and Quercus phellos, along with Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Nyssa sylvatica, Pinus echinata, and Quercus nigra. The subcanopy may include Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Carya glabra, Cornus florida, Oxydendrum arboreum, and Prunus serotina, as well as smaller oaks, particularly Quercus velutina. The shrub layers may include Fagus grandifolia and Vaccinium spp. with Asimina parviflora, Cercis canadensis, Cornus florida, Diospyros virginiana, Euonymus americanus, Sassafras albidum, Toxicodendron radicans, Vaccinium pallidum, and Viburnum acerifolium.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southern & South-Central Oak - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Piedmont-Central Atlantic Coastal Plain Oak Forest
Alliance Piedmont Oak - Hickory Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications


Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.339 Southern Piedmont Dry Oak-(Pine) Forest and Woodland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (11Sep1997)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, NCpotentially occurs, SCpotentially occurs, TNpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association could occur in the southern Piedmont from the Carolinas to Georgia, as well as the adjacent Cumberlands / Southern Ridge and Valley, possibly extending into southern Tennessee at the northern end of the native range of Pinus taeda.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Central Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: 221J Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Stands of this mixed oak-pine upland forest association are dominated by a combination of various oaks and other hardwoods with Pinus spp. Pinus taeda or Pinus virginiana are usually present or codominant, being generally less abundant in more mature stands. Quercus falcata is characteristic, but other oaks are also present, including Quercus alba, Quercus stellata, Quercus velutina, Quercus coccinea, Quercus marilandica, and Quercus phellos, along with Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera, Nyssa sylvatica, Pinus echinata, and Quercus nigra. The subcanopy may include Acer rubrum, Carya alba, Carya glabra, Cornus florida, Oxydendrum arboreum, Prunus serotina, and Ulmus alata, as well as smaller oaks, particularly Quercus velutina. The shrub layers may include Fagus grandifolia, Vaccinium arboreum, and Vaccinium pallidum, with Asimina parviflora, Cercis canadensis, Cornus florida, Diospyros virginiana, Euonymus americanus, Sassafras albidum, Toxicodendron radicans, Vaccinium pallidum, and Viburnum acerifolium. The herbaceous layer may include Andropogon virginicus, Asplenium platyneuron, Chimaphila maculata, Coreopsis major, Dichanthelium spp., Gaultheria procumbens, Mitchella repens, and Polystichum acrostichoides. Typical vines include Bignonia capreolata, Decumaria barbara, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Smilax spp., Toxicodendron radicans, Vitis aestivalis, and Vitis rotundifolia. The presence of invasive exotics such as Lonicera japonica and Ligustrum sinense may be common.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus alba GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus falcata GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus stellata GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Pinus taeda GNR Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus virginiana GNR Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Ligustrum sinense GNR Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Lonicera japonica GNR Liana Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: Throughout the range, associations of this alliance occur on dry sand or sandy loam, clay loam, or silty clay loams. Soils are often coarse textured, shallow and droughty. This vegetation occurs on mid to lower slopes on broad flats or in sheltered ravines.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: In parts of the prescribed range, this association could represent semi-natural stands of Pinus taeda mixed with Quercus spp. that developed from Pinus taeda plantations that have aged sufficiently to lose the pure pine character and developed more of a hardwood component. This community could also potentially develop after the cessation of agriculture. At Ocmulgee State Park in the outer Piedmont of Georgia, several plots attributable to this type were noted to have many large dying Pinus taeda canopy individuals with low to no regeneration of this species in the understory. This gradual transition to a hardwood-dominated community should be expected over time in the absence of significant disturbance regimes.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): R.E. Evans and M. Pyne
Element Description Edition Date: 13Feb2009
Element Description Author(s): R.E. Evans and M. Pyne

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Central Databases. NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.


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