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Eragrostis hypnoides - Ludwigia palustris - Lindernia dubia - Cyperus squarrosus Riverbar Wet Meadow
Translated Name: Teal Lovegrass - Marsh Seedbox - Yellowseed False Pimpernel - Bearded Flatsedge Riverbar Wet Meadow
Common Name: Appalachian-Atlantic Riverbar Drawdown Shore
Unique Identifier: CEGL006483
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association occurs along major rivers in the Piedmont and mountains of Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. It occupies the lowest parts of riverbanks or very low rivershore depositional bars in areas that receive essentially full sunlight. These habitats are inundated for most of the winter and spring and are generally consistently exposed only from early summer to early autumn (i.e., the "drawdown" zone). During wet years they may be nearly continuously inundated. The type usually occurs as a narrow strip (frequently <2 m wide) along the shoreline. This association may also develop, sometimes as very large (>1 ha) patches, on the drawdown shores and seasonally exposed islands of impounded rivers. Vegetation of stands varies from sparse to dense (10-80% cover) and is characterized by low-growing mats of predominantly annual species, with some low, fast-growing perennials also present. Eragrostis hypnoides, Ludwigia palustris, Lindernia dubia var. dubia, and Cyperus squarrosus are constant and often abundant. Other characteristic annuals (and biennials) are Acalypha rhomboidea, Ammannia coccinea, Artemisia annua, Bidens frondosa, Chamaesyce humistrata, Chamaesyce maculata, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cyperus bipartitus, Cyperus odoratus, Diodia virginiana, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eclipta prostrata, Elsholtzia ciliata, Eragrostis frankii, Fimbristylis autumnalis, Hypericum mutilum, Lindernia dubia var. anagallidea, Lindernia dubia var. dubia, Lipocarpha micrantha, Mollugo verticillata, Panicum dichotomiflorum var. dichotomiflorum, Panicum gattingeri (= Panicum philadelphicum ssp. gattingeri), Paspalum fluitans, Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum, Rorippa palustris ssp. fernaldiana, Rotala ramosior, Solanum ptychanthum, and Xanthium strumarium. Frequent perennials include Boehmeria cylindrica, Cyperus strigosus, Leersia virginica, Justicia americana, Lycopus americanus, Mimulus alatus, Penthorum sedoides, Phyla lanceolata, Rorippa sylvestris, and Samolus valerandi ssp. parviflorus. Stranded mats of Heteranthera dubia (= Zosterella dubia) are also frequent. Seedlings of taller annuals and perennials such as Hibiscus laevis, Eupatorium spp., and Polygonum spp. are also frequent but rarely reach full stature. Overhanging trees of Platanus occidentalis and Acer saccharinum may be present, as well as saplings of Betula nigra.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: The classification is supported by analysis of data from 25 plots collected for the National Capital Region Parks project, three plots collected along the Roanoke River in southern Virginia, and one plot from the New River in West Virginia. Many of the annual species which characterize this association are also common in Salix nigra - Betula nigra / Schoenoplectus pungens Riverscour Shrubland (CEGL006463) and Peltandra virginica - Saururus cernuus - Boehmeria cylindrica / Climacium americanum Marsh (CEGL007696), and distinction between these types may depend on the size of the sampled patch.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Wet Shoreline Vegetation
Group Eastern North American Riverine Wetland Vegetation
Alliance Mid-Atlantic Piedmont & Mountain Riverscour Annual Vegetation

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004341 Eragrostis hypnoides - Micranthemum umbrosum - Lipocarpha micrantha - (Juncus repens) Wet Meadow



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Eragrostis hypnoides - Lindernia dubia - Ludwigia palustris - Cyperus squarrosus Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]
Related Concept Name: Eragrostis hypnoides - Lindernia dubia - Ludwigia palustris Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. M.S. thesis, George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. 219 pp.
Related Concept Name: Eragrostis hypnoides - Ludwigia palustris - Cyperus squarrosus Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lea, C. 2003. Vegetation types in the National Capital Region Parks. Draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. March 2003. 140 pp.
Related Concept Name: Eragrostis hypnoides - Ludwigia palustris - Lindernia dubia - Cyperus squarrosus Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Panicum rigidulum - Eleocharis tenuis - Phyla lanceolata Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lea, C. 2003. Vegetation types in the National Capital Region Parks. Draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. March 2003. 140 pp.
Related Concept Name: Depositional Bars and Shore
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Sand / Gravel / Mud Bar/Shore
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.324 Southern Piedmont Large Floodplain Forest
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain
CES202.609 Central Appalachian Stream and Riparian
CES202.706 South-Central Interior Small Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (29Sep2006)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: Although natural stands occur in very small, somewhat ephemeral patches, this type is widely distributed along major rivers in the greater Mid-Atlantic Piedmont and mountain region and is adaptable to artificial drawdown shores, where it sometimes occurs in extensive patches.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DC, MD, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs along major rivers in the Piedmont and mountains of Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia. It is definitely known from the Potomac, Shenandoah, Monocacy, New, James, and Roanoke rivers, and likely occurs in other drainages of the region.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: With the exception of several semi-aquatic perennial species, the short periods of exposure and heavy disturbance regime select for opportunistic, non-competitive annual species and low, short-lived, fast-growing perennials, all of which can grow and reproduce quickly. It would be expected that many species in this community type have relatively long-lived seedbanks and, possibly, specialized germination requirements. Vegetation of stands varies from sparse to dense (10-80% cover) and is characterized by low-growing mats of predominantly annual species. Eragrostis hypnoides, Ludwigia palustris, Lindernia dubia var. dubia, and Cyperus squarrosus are constant and often abundant. Other characteristic annuals (and biennials) are Acalypha rhomboidea, Ammannia coccinea, Artemisia annua, Bidens frondosa, Chamaesyce humistrata, Chamaesyce maculata, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Cyperus bipartitus, Cyperus odoratus, Diodia virginiana, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eclipta prostrata, Elsholtzia ciliata, Eragrostis frankii, Fimbristylis autumnalis, Hypericum mutilum, Lindernia dubia var. anagallidea, Lindernia dubia var. dubia, Lipocarpha micrantha, Mollugo verticillata, Panicum dichotomiflorum var. dichotomiflorum, Panicum gattingeri (= Panicum philadelphicum ssp. gattingeri), Paspalum fluitans, Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum, Rorippa palustris ssp. fernaldiana, Rotala ramosior, Solanum ptychanthum, and Xanthium strumarium. Frequent perennials include Boehmeria cylindrica, Cyperus strigosus, Leersia virginica, Justicia americana, Lycopus americanus, Mimulus alatus, Penthorum sedoides, Phyla lanceolata, Rorippa sylvestris, and Samolus valerandi ssp. parviflorus. Stranded mats of Heteranthera dubia (= Zosterella dubia) are also frequent. Seedlings of taller annuals and perennials such as Hibiscus laevis, Eupatorium spp., and Polygonum spp. are also frequent but rarely reach full stature. A variant of this community in the Potomac River drainage is characterized primarily by low, rhizomatous colonies of Eleocharis tenuis. Species that are more characteristic of the James River and Roanoke River occurrences in central and southern Virginia include Cyperus flavicomus, Cyperus erythrorhizos, Ludwigia decurrens, Paspalum dissectum, Rorippa sessiliflora, and Sagittaria calycina var. calycina. Overhanging trees of Platanus occidentalis and Acer saccharinum may be present, as well as saplings of Betula nigra.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acalypha rhomboidea G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Artemisia annua G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Chamaesyce humistrata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Chenopodium ambrosioides G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Diodia virginiana G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Eclipta prostrata G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Hypericum mutilum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Lindernia dubia G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)
 
 
Ludwigia palustris G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)
 
 
Mimulus alatus G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Oxalis stricta G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Polygonum caespitosum var. longisetum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rorippa sessiliflora G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Rotala ramosior G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Sagittaria calycina var. calycina G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solanum ptychanthum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Verbascum thapsus G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Verbena urticifolia G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Echinochloa crus-galli G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Eragrostis frankii G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Eragrostis hypnoides G3 Graminoid Herb (field)
 
 
Fimbristylis autumnalis G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Leersia virginica G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Lipocarpha micrantha G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Panicum dichotomiflorum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Panicum gattingeri G3 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Paspalum dissectum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Natural occurrences of this community occupy the lowest parts of riverbanks or very low rivershore depositional bars in areas that receive essentially full sunlight. It occurs on eroded riverbanks and wet beaches and may also occur in back channels and sloughs. These habitats are inundated for most of the winter and spring and are generally consistently exposed only from early summer to early autumn (i.e., the "drawdown" zone). During wet years they may be nearly continuously inundated. The type usually occurs as a narrow strip (frequently <2 m wide) along the shoreline. Though more frequently flooded than higher depositional bars that support tall annual or perennial herbaceous vegetation, the habitats of this type probably experience lesser amounts of sediment turnover (erosion and deposition) during a flood of a given magnitude (i.e., are less stochastically disturbed). Soils are usually deep to somewhat shallow sandy loams, loamy sands, or silt loams that are likely saturated to near the surface throughout the growing season. They would likely be classified as Entisols and generally have high pH (7.0), high calcium levels, and are 100% base-saturated. Mean particle size (phi) of samples collected from several Potomac River sites is 2.7 to 1.9. This association may also develop, sometimes as very large (>1 ha) patches, on the drawdown shores and seasonally exposed islands of impounded rivers, e.g., at the upper end of the John H. Kerr Reservoir on the Roanoke River in Halifax, Mecklenburg, and Charlotte counties, Virginia.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Patches may be highly ephemeral, but this association will likely persist on the landscape under natural or altered flooding regimes.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): C. Lea
Element Description Edition Date: 20Dec2006
Element Description Author(s): C. Lea, G.P. Fleming, S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Sep2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: Composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-12. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 341 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. M.S. thesis, George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. 219 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2003. Vegetation types in the National Capital Region Parks. Draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. March 2003. 140 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2004. Draft vegetation types in National Capital Region Parks. Edited by S.C. Gawler and J. Teague. Working draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. July 2004. 157 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.


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