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Leersia oryzoides - Sagittaria latifolia Wet Meadow
Translated Name: Rice Cutgrass - Broadleaf Arrowhead Wet Meadow
Common Name: Central Appalachian Cutgrass Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL006461
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community occupies wet alluvial bottomlands and beaver ponds in the Central Appalachians and adjacent ecoregions. Parent materials are alluvium derived mainly from acidic sandstones and shales. Surface soils are poorly drained, acidic clay loams. This small-patch wetland community is dominated by grasses and forbs, with scattered trees and shrubs. The dominant grasses are Leersia oryzoides and Phalaris arundinacea with Leersia strongly dominant at most sites. Sagittaria latifolia has high constancy and cover, except at higher elevations. Scirpus cyperinus has high constancy. Additional characteristic herbs include Boehmeria cylindrica, Carex gynandra, Carex intumescens, Carex baileyi, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Dulichium arundinaceum, Eutrochium fistulosum, Galium tinctorium, Impatiens capensis, Juncus effusus, Lobelia siphilitica, Ludwigia palustris, Lycopus uniflorus, Lycopus virginicus, Lysimachia terrestris, Mimulus ringens, Polygonum sagittatum, Scirpus atrovirens, and Typha latifolia. Areas with longer standing water may have aquatic species, including Callitriche heterophylla and Sparganium spp. Scattered small trees include Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix nigra, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. The exotic shrub Rosa multiflora is sometimes invasive in this community. Cornus amomum is a characteristic native shrub.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This association is based on 19 plots and anecdotal data from West Virginia, but it is likely wider ranging.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Appalachian-Northeast Wet Meadow & Shrub Swamp
Alliance Appalachian-Northeast Graminoid Wet Meadow

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Central Appalachian Cutgrass Marsh Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Ohio Mixed emergent marsh Broader   ONHD unpubl. data
Pennsylvania Wet meadow Intersects   Fike 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Leersia oryzoides - Phalaris arundinacea - Juncus effusus herbaceous wetland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J., and B. P. Streets. 2006. Vegetation classification and mapping of Camp Dawson Army Training Site, West Virginia: Second approximation. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 83 pp.
Related Concept Name: Leersia oryzoides - Sagittaria latifolia Marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Byers, E. A., J. P. Vanderhorst, and B. P. Streets. 2007. Classification and conservation assessment of high elevation wetland communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.
Related Concept Name: Leersia oryzoides community
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Walbridge, M. R. 1982. Vegetation patterning and community distribution in four high-elevation headwater wetlands in West Virginia. M.S. thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown.
Related Concept Name: Leersia oryzoides herbaceous wetland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.
Related Concept Name: Herbaceous wetland
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.
Related Concept Name: Rice cutgrass marsh
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Putnam, N. 1995. Plant communities of the Meadow River wetlands. Final report submitted to the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins, WV.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.069 High Allegheny Wetland
CES202.609 Central Appalachian Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (05Jun2006)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked
Reasons: Need more complete information on range and occurrences before ranking.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DE, MA, MD, NY, OH, PA, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is currently documented from several areas in West Virginia; it is likely in other parts of the Central Appalachians from Pennsylvania to Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Erie and Ontario Lake Plain Section
Section Code: 222I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This small-patch wetland community is dominated by grasses and forbs, with scattered trees and shrubs. The dominant grasses are Leersia oryzoides and Phalaris arundinacea. Both of these are native species, however, introduction of Eurasian ecotypes and cultivars of Phalaris arundinacea and subsequent hybridization with native stock have been blamed for the current invasive capacity of this species. Leersia is strongly dominant at most sites. Sagittaria latifolia has high constancy and cover but drops out at the highest elevations. Scirpus cyperinus has high constancy. Additional characteristic herbs include Boehmeria cylindrica, Carex gynandra, Carex intumescens, Carex baileyi, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Dulichium arundinaceum, Eutrochium fistulosum (= Eupatorium fistulosum), Galium tinctorium, Impatiens capensis, Juncus effusus, Lobelia siphilitica, Ludwigia palustris, Lycopus uniflorus, Lycopus virginicus, Lysimachia terrestris, Mimulus ringens, Polygonum sagittatum, Scirpus atrovirens, and Typha latifolia. Cover by nonvascular plants is generally insignificant. Scattered small trees include Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix nigra, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. The exotic shrub Rosa multiflora may be invasive in this community. Cornus amomum and Cephalanthus occidentalis are characteristic native shrubs. Areas with longer standing water may have aquatic species, including Callitriche heterophylla and Sparganium spp. Mean species richness of vascular plants in 19 WV plots was 16 taxa per 400 m2.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Cephalanthus occidentalis GNR Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Cornus amomum GNR Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Rosa multiflora GNR Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Sagittaria latifolia GNR Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Leersia oryzoides GNR Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Phalaris arundinacea GNR Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Scirpus cyperinus GNR Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community occupies wet alluvial bottomlands, beaver ponds, and disturbed flats in the Central Appalachians and adjacent ecoregions. Parent materials at documented sites are alluvium derived mainly from acidic sandstones and shales. Surface soils described from sampled plots are somewhat to very poorly drained clay, clay loam, muck, sandy clay, sandy loam, or silty clay. Hydric soil indicators include Histosols, histic epipedon, depleted matrix, and redox depressions. Soil pH averages 4.0 (n=2). The unvegetated surface is predominantly litter, with small amounts of downed wood and standing water, and frequent patches of bare soil. Elevations of documented stands range up to 1300 m.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: These wetlands have been highly impacted by developments, including roads, railroads, drainage for agriculture, hay harvests, and industrial use. It is likely that these herbaceous wetlands were forested prior to clearing for agriculture. Some of these wetlands have been influenced by beaver activity; it may also develop on wetland sites disturbed by human activities. It is an early-successional wetland type and patches may be ephemeral, but it is likely to be present on the landscape as long as beaver-influenced and human-caused disturbance regimes persist.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Byers et al. (2007)
Element Description Edition Date: 19Dec2006
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 03Oct2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): S.C. Gawler

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Byers, E. A., J. P. Vanderhorst, and B. P. Streets. 2007. Classification and conservation assessment of high elevation wetland communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Eichelberger, B. 2011h. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Mixed Forb - Graminoid Wet Meadow Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16016] (accessed February 10, 2012)

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Grafton, W. N., and O. L. Eye. 1982. Vascular flora of eight selected West Virginia wetlands with special reference to rare species. Pages 107-115 in: Proceedings of the Symposium on Wetlands of the Unglaciated Appalachian Region. West Virginia University, Morgantown.

  • Hop, K., J. Drake, A. Strassman, E. Hoy, J. Jakusz, S. Menard, and J. Dieck. 2013. National Park Service Vegetation Inventory Program: Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/HTLN/NRT--2013/792. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 302 pp.

  • Putnam, N. 1995. Plant communities of the Meadow River wetlands. Final report submitted to the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins, WV.

  • Sechler, F. C., G. J. Edinger, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, E. Eastman, E. Largay, L. A. Sneddon, C. Lea, and J. Von Loh. 2014. Vegetation classification and mapping at Roosevelt-Vanderbilt National Historic Sites, New York. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NETN/NRTR--2014/873, National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 392 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J., and B. P. Streets. 2006. Vegetation classification and mapping of Camp Dawson Army Training Site, West Virginia: Second approximation. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 83 pp.

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.

  • Walbridge, M. R. 1982. Vegetation patterning and community distribution in four high-elevation headwater wetlands in West Virginia. M.S. thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown.

  • Walbridge, M. R., and G. E. Lang. 1982. Major plant communities and patterns of community distribution in four wetlands of the unglaciated Appalachian region. In: R. B. MacDonald, editor. Proceedings of the Symposium on Wetlands of the Unglaciated Appalachian Region. West Virginia University, Morgantown.

  • Walton, D. P., C. M. Jesse, and N. J. Putnam. 1996. Plant communities of the Ohio River riparian zone. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


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