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Carex trichocarpa Rivershore Wet Meadow
Translated Name: Hairy-fruit Sedge Rivershore Wet Meadow
Common Name: Hairy-fruit Sedge Wetland
Unique Identifier: CEGL006447
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association occurs in small patches on floodplain edges, deposition bars, and islands where tree canopy is lacking, on medium- to large-sized rivers in the mid-Atlantic region and on third- or fourth-order streams above 800 m elevation in the Central Appalachians. This community is routinely flooded during most high-water events and commonly occurs on low flats associated with the active floodplain, either directly adjacent to the channel or in association with backwater depressions and sloughs. Ice-scour during high winter flows contributes to the open physiognomy of this community. Carex trichocarpa is the dominant species in this association. Shrubs may be present but at less than 25% cover, including Rosa multiflora, Cornus amomum, and Rubus allegheniensis. This type is susceptible to invasion by Phalaris arundinacea. Other common herbaceous species include Solidago gigantea, Boehmeria cylindrica, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Urtica dioica, Polygonum spp., Scirpus cyperinus, Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia, Verbena hastata var. hastata, Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata, Asclepias syriaca, Arisaema triphyllum, Onoclea sensibilis, and Lilium superbum. Vines may be present at low cover, including Polygonum convolvulus and Clematis virginiana.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This community is described from the Delaware Water Gap, where it is distinct although often narrow and linear, and from the Central Appalachians of West Virginia. In West Virginia, it is represented by 4 plots (2 occurrences), which cluster consistently and ordinate closely, near the high-elevation riverscour and tall-herb floodplain types. Occurrence elsewhere in the northeastern U.S. needs to be documented.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Wet Shoreline Vegetation
Group Eastern North American Riverine Wetland Vegetation
Alliance Hairy-fruit Sedge Graminoid Rivershore

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
New York Shallow emergent marsh Broader Certain Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Hairy-fruited Sedge (Carex trichocarpa) Floodplain Wetland Broader   Zimmerman et al. 2012
West Virginia Carex trichocarpa floodplain prairie Equivalent Certain Byers et al. 2007


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Riverside Prairie
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain
CES202.609 Central Appalachian Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4? (23May2011)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This community occurs on the upper Delaware River but not on the Susquehanna River (G. Podniesinski pers. comm.). It is critically imperiled (two occurrences, slightly threatened by Phalaris arundinacea invasion) in West Virginia. Its status north and east of Pennsylvania is unknown, however, it appears to be relatively common and expanding in the mountainous areas of Virginia. Additional information is needed to determine the global rank with more confidence.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: NJ, NY, PA, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs in northern New Jersey, northeastern Pennsylvania, southeastern New York, and the Allegheny Mountains region of West Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This herbaceous floodplain prairie occurs in the mid-Atlantic region and Central Appalachians. The community is dominated by dense rhizomatous stands of Carex trichocarpa, which can tolerate annual sediment deposition and occasional high-energy ice-scour. Shrubs may be present but at less than 25% cover, including Rosa multiflora, Cornus amomum, and Rubus allegheniensis. This type is susceptible to invasion by Phalaris arundinacea. Other common herbaceous species include Solidago gigantea, Boehmeria cylindrica, Dichanthelium clandestinum, Urtica dioica, Polygonum spp., Scirpus cyperinus, Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia, Verbena hastata var. hastata, Doellingeria umbellata var. umbellata, Asclepias syriaca, Arisaema triphyllum, Onoclea sensibilis, Lilium superbum, Carex projecta, Thalictrum pubescens, Veratrum viride, Elymus riparius, and Solidago rugosa. Vines may be present at low cover, including Polygonum convolvulus and Clematis virginiana. Cover by nonvascular plants is insignificant. Mean species richness of vascular plants is 27 taxa per 400 square meters for 4 plots in West Virginia (Byers et al. 2007).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Cornus amomum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Boehmeria cylindrica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Solidago gigantea G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex trichocarpa G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Dichanthelium clandestinum G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association is found occasionally in small patches on floodplain edges, deposition bars, and islands where tree canopy is lacking. It occurs along medium- to large-sized rivers in the mid-Atlantic region and on third- or fourth-order streams above 800 m elevation in the Central Appalachians. This community is routinely flooded during most high-water events and commonly occurs on low flats associated with the active floodplain, either directly adjacent to the channel or in association with backwater depressions and sloughs. Ice-scour during high winter flows contributes to the open physiognomy of this community. In New Jersey and Pennsylvania, typical soils include coarse loamy to sandy, somewhat poorly to very poorly drained glacio-fluvial deposits. In West Virginia, the community occurs on moderately poorly to well-drained sandy loam or silt loam with pH averaging 4.8 (n=4), underlain by fluvial deposits including stratified sediments, cobbles, and organic inclusions. Hydric soil indicators include alluvial depleted matrix and iron/manganese masses (Byers et al. 2007).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community is routinely flooded during most high-water events.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.S. Podniesinski, mod. E.A. Byers
Element Description Edition Date: 15May2007
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler and E.A. Byers
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 23May2011
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): E.A. Byers, mod. L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Byers, E. A., J. P. Vanderhorst, and B. P. Streets. 2007. Classification and conservation assessment of high elevation wetland communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., A. L. Feldmann, T. G. Howard, J. J. Schmid, F. C. Sechler, E. Eastman, E. Largay, and L. A. Sneddon. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of vegetation at Saratoga National Historical Park. Draft Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--XXXX/XXX. National Park Service, Northeast Region, Coastal Institute in Kingston, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2002. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. (Draft for review). New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • NRCS [Natural Resources Conservation Service]. 2004a. Soil survey of Saratoga County, New York. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. 590 pp.

  • PNHP [Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program]. 2004. Classification, assessment and protection of non-forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna Drainage. U.S. EPA Wetlands Protection State Development Grant no. CD-98337501. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Forestry, Ecological Services Section, Harrisburg, PA.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, M. Furedi, B. A. Eichelberger, A. Feldmann, G. Edinger, E. Eastman, and L. A. Sneddon. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/133. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 370 pp.

  • Podniesinski, Greg. Personal communication. Community Ecologist, Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program (PNHP-East), Harrisburg.

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011d. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Hairy-fruit Sedge (Carex trichocarpa) Floodplain Wetland Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=30009] (accessed February 09, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]

  • Zimmerman, E., and G. Podniesinski. 2008. Classification, assessment and protection of floodplain wetlands of the Ohio Drainage. U.S. EPA Wetlands Protection State Development Grant no. CD-973081-01-0. Report submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Office of Conservation Science. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, Pittsburgh, PA.


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