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Thuja plicata - Acer macrophyllum - Abies grandis / (Oemleria cerasiformis) / Polystichum munitum Forest
Translated Name: Western Red-cedar - Bigleaf Maple - Grand Fir / (Indian-plum) / Western Swordfern Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL002846
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This small-patch forest community occurs on sites with strongly fluctuating water tables within the Georgia Basin of coastal British Columbia at elevations from 0 to 150 m and similar sites in pockets of Oregon and Washington. This community has a closed mixed deciduous and coniferous overstory, moderately shrubby understory dominated by Oemleria cerasiformis, well-developed herb layer characterized by Polystichum munitum, and a moderately well-developed moss layer dominated by Eurhynchium praelongum. Moderate to high cover of Thuja plicata, Acer macrophyllum, Abies grandis, and Alnus rubra comprise the closed overstory. The moderately well-developed shrub layer is characterized by high cover of Oemleria cerasiformis with low cover of Symphoricarpos albus. High cover of Polystichum munitum characterizes the herb layer which also includes low cover of Tiarella trifoliata, Rubus ursinus, and Trillium ovatum. The moderately well-developed moss layer is characterized by high cover of Eurhynchium praelongum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Nd - Vancouverian Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Vancouverian Coastal Rainforest
Group North-Central Pacific Western Hemlock - Sitka Spruce Rainforest
Alliance Grand Fir - Sitka Spruce - Western Red-cedar Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL007322 Tsuga heterophylla - (Thuja plicata, Alnus rubra) / Lysichiton americanus - Athyrium filix-femina Swamp Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Thuja plicata-Acer macrophyllum-Abies grandis/Oemleria cerasiformis/Polystichum munitum
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Meidinger, D., C. Chappell, C. Cadrin, G. Kittel, C. McCain, K. Boggs, J. Kagan, G. Cushon, A. Banner, and T. DeMeo. 2005. International Vegetation Classification of the Pacific Northwest: International correlation of temperate coastal forest plant associations of Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and Alaska. Contributors: B.C. Ministry of Forests, USDA Forest Service, B.C. Conservation Data Centre, Alaska Natural Heritage Program, Washington Natural Heritage Program, and Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center.
Related Concept Name: CDF mm /13
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Green, R. N., and K. Klinka. 1994. A field guide to site interpretation for the Vancouver Forest Region. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. ISSN 0229-1622 Land Management Handbook 28. 285 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (11Apr2006)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This forested wetland is extremely rare within its range (confirmed to occur only in southern British Columbia coastal mainland and islands and Puget Trough islands of Washington) and has undergone a very large decline since European settlement as a result of harvesting, agricultural conversion and urban development. Its entire range has been mapped, and very few locations have been confirmed within its range, most of these in poor to fair condition. The few known occurrences in Washington and Oregon are also in poor to fair condition.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: OR, WA
Canadian Province Distribution: BC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This community occurs in British Columbia within the Coastal Douglas-fir zone (CDF), which occupies a total of 2593 square km. It occurs within the Georgia Depression Ecoregion of British Columbia, specifically in the rainshadow of the Olympic and Vancouver Island mountains, from the Saanich Peninsula (Victoria) northward along the southeast coast of Vancouver Island to Bowser, from Cortes Island southward through the Gulf Islands, and along a narrow strip of the mainland Sunshine Coast near Halfmoon Bay and Powell River and adjacent islands, including southwest Texada Island. It occurs rarely in the San Juan Islands and possibly elsewhere in the northern Puget Trough of Washington.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Division
Province Name: Pacific Lowland Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Willamette Valley and Puget Trough Section
Section Code: 242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Moderate to high cover of Thuja plicata, Acer macrophyllum, Abies grandis, and Alnus rubra comprise the closed overstory of this small-patch community. Moderate cover of Pseudotsuga menziesii also sometimes occurs in the overstory. High cover of Oemleria cerasiformis typically characterizes the moderately well-developed shrub layer (British Columbia only), along with low cover of Symphoricarpos albus, sometimes with low to moderate cover of Rubus spectabilis, Ribes divaricatum, Frangula purshiana (= Rhamnus purshiana), and Sambucus racemosa. The well-developed herb layer is dominated by high cover of Polystichum munitum with low cover of Tiarella trifoliata, Rubus ursinus, Trillium ovatum, and sometimes with low to moderate cover of Trientalis borealis, Galium triflorum, Tellima grandiflora, Mycelis muralis (= Lactuca muralis), and Dryopteris expansa. High cover of Eurhynchium praelongum dominates the moss layer along with low cover of Mnium sp., Leucolepis acanthoneuron, and Eurhynchium oreganum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer macrophyllum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Abies grandis G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Thuja plicata G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Oemleria cerasiformis G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Polystichum munitum G1 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Myotis keenii
  (Keen's Myotis)
G3  
Ursus arctos horribilis
  (Grizzly Bear)
G4T3T4  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This small-patch forest community occurs on sites with strongly fluctuating water tables in coastal British Columbia, on Vancouver Island, Gulf Islands and pockets along the south coast of mainland British Columbia, Washington and Oregon. This community occurs on level sites with subhygric to hygric soil moisture regimes and rich soil-nutrient regimes. Groundwater is at or above the soil surface during the winter months, gradually lowering to well below the surface in the driest months of the year. Soils are variably textured with variable amounts of clay, silt and sand and are typically classified as Sombric Brunisols or Gleysols.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This is a late-successional (mature and climax) edaphic forest community. Stand-replacing events were likely infrequent. Within mature and old forests, small gaps result from the death of single trees or small groups of trees due to windthrow, root-rots, bark beetles, or other insect and disease pests. Too few occurrences remain to determine more specifically the stand dynamics of this type.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Meidinger et al. (2005)
Element Description Edition Date: 26Sep2005
Element Description Author(s): K. Iverson
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 11Apr2006
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): C.M. Cadrin and C. Chappell

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • BCCDC [British Columbia Conservation Data Centre]. 2018. Unpublished data on file at British Columbia Conservation Data Center. Ministry of Environment, Victoria.

  • BCMFRB [British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Branch]. 2003a. Vegetation classification hierarchy: BECMaster May 2003. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.

  • BCMFRB [British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Branch]. 2005a. Vegetation classification hierarchy: BECMaster 2005. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.

  • BCMFRB [British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Branch]. 2005b. Vegetation and environment plot data: BECMaster January 2005. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC.

  • BCMWLAP [British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection]. 2004a. Grizzly Bear. In: Accounts and measures for managing identified wildlife. British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC. 52 pp.

  • BCMWLAP [British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection]. 2004e. Keen's Long-eared Myotis. In: Accounts and measures for managing identified wildlife. British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, BC. 52 pp.

  • Brown, K. J., and R. J. Hebda. 1999. Long-term fire incidence in coastal forests of British Columbia. Northwest Science 73:41-43.

  • COSEWIC [Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada]. 2002. COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Western Screech-owl Otus kennicottii in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa. vi + 31 pp.

  • Cadrin, C. M., and M. Wolowicz. 2005. Application of terrestrial ecosystem mapping on coastal British Columbia to conservation status assessments of ecological communities. British Columbia Conservation Data Centre, Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, Victoria, BC.

  • Green, R. N., and K. Klinka. 1994. A field guide to site interpretation for the Vancouver Forest Region. British Columbia Ministry of Forests. ISSN 0229-1622 Land Management Handbook 28. 285 pp.

  • Meidinger, D., C. Chappell, C. Cadrin, G. Kittel, C. McCain, K. Boggs, J. Kagan, G. Cushon, A. Banner, and T. DeMeo. 2005. International Vegetation Classification of the Pacific Northwest: International correlation of temperate coastal forest plant associations of Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and Alaska. Contributors: B.C. Ministry of Forests, USDA Forest Service, B.C. Conservation Data Centre, Alaska Natural Heritage Program, Washington Natural Heritage Program, and Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center.

  • Ward, P., G. Radcliffe, J. Kirkby, J. Illingworth, and C. Cadrin. 1998. Sensitive Ecosystems Inventory: East Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands 1993-1997. Volume 1: Methodology, Ecological Descriptions and Results. Technical Report Series No. 320, Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, Victoria, BC. [http://a100.gov.bc.ca/appsdata/acat/documents/r2124/SEI_4206_rpt1_1111625239116_8be42252200c4f0283b18cac66eed366.pdf]

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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