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Peltandra virginica - Polygonum amphibium var. emersum - Carex stricta - Impatiens capensis Marsh
Translated Name: Green Arrow-arum - Longroot Smartweed - Upright Sedge - Jewelweed Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL006244
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is an herbaceous wetland of calcareous, groundwater-saturated sloughs, abandoned meanders, depressions, and toeslope spring overflows on large stream or river floodplain terraces in carbonate rock districts of the Ridge and Valley region. Soils typically have a surface horizon of organic muck (about 10 cm), or occasionally fibric peat, below which is a deep, gleyed or reduced clay with some organic matter. Soil samples collected from plots are strongly acidic but have high calcium, very high magnesium, and moderate total base saturation levels. Sites are more-or-less permanently saturated or flooded by perched groundwater or seepage inputs. The vegetation is marsh-like and characterized by a combination of coarse emergent forbs and sedges. Peltandra virginica, Polygonum amphibium var. emersum, Carex stricta, and Impatiens capensis are constant, high-cover species. More local patch-dominants include Sparganium eurycarpum, Carex trichocarpa, Juncus balticus var. littoralis, and Equisetum fluviatile. Other characteristic species are Nuphar advena, Boehmeria cylindrica, Symplocarpus foetidus, Polygonum sagittatum, Galium tinctorium, Leersia virginica, and Iris versicolor. Examples of this vegetation heavily disturbed by cattle grazing are frequently characterized by large, invasive clones of Phalaris arundinacea. In the absence of fires, prolonged flooding, and other natural disturbances, habitats supporting this community may also be invaded by woody swamp plants.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Data have been collected from five plots representing this vegetation type. Alliance placement is somewhat problematic since the habitats have been assessed as seasonally flooded, varying to more semipermanently flooded in wet years.

Carex emoryi, formerly a nominal species, was misidentified in the plots defining this community type. Specimens collected in May 2013 from Cowbane were determined to be Carex stricta and the name has been changed to reflect that.


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Eastern North American Freshwater Marsh
Alliance Rivershore & Lakeshore Green Arrow-arum - Pickerelweed Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006245 Typha latifolia - Caltha palustris Marsh
CEGL007696 Peltandra virginica - Saururus cernuus - Boehmeria cylindrica / Climacium americanum Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Peltandra virginica - Polygonum amphibium var. emersum - Carex emoryi - Impatiens capensis Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Calcareous Spring Marsh / Muck Fen
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Ridge and Valley Calcareous Spring Marsh (Arrow-Arum - Water Smartweed Type)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (25Jan2005)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This type appears to be endemic to a few sites in the central Ridge and Valley region of Virginia (Augusta County) where it occurs in several discrete patches totaling less than 20 acres in aggregate.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is known only from a few sites in the central Ridge and Valley region of Virginia (Augusta County). Further investigation is needed to determine whether this type occurs in West Virginia marl wetlands (Bartgis and Lang 1984).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation is marshlike and characterized by a combination of coarse emergent forbs and sedges. Peltandra virginica, Polygonum amphibium var. emersum, Carex stricta, and Impatiens capensis are constant, high-cover species. More local patch-dominants include Sparganium eurycarpum, Carex trichocarpa, Juncus balticus var. littoralis, and Equisetum fluviatile. Other characteristic species are Nuphar advena, Boehmeria cylindrica, Symplocarpus foetidus, Polygonum sagittatum, Galium tinctorium, Leersia virginica, and Iris versicolor. Mean species richness of five plot samples was 17 taxa per 100 square meters. Examples of this vegetation heavily disturbed by cattle grazing are frequently characterized by large, invasive clones of Phalaris arundinacea. In the absence of fires, prolonged flooding, and other natural disturbances, habitats supporting this community may also be invaded by woody swamp plants such as Acer rubrum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Rosa palustris, and Salix nigra.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Impatiens capensis G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)
 
 
Peltandra virginica G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)
 
 
Polygonum amphibium var. emersum G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)
 
 
Carex stricta G1 Graminoid Herb (field)
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community is an herbaceous wetland of calcareous, groundwater-saturated sloughs, abandoned meanders, depressions, and toeslope spring overflows on large stream or river floodplain terraces in carbonate rock districts of the Ridge and Valley region. Soils typically have a surface horizon of organic muck (about 10 cm), or occasionally fibric peat, below which is a deep, gleyed or reduced clay with some organic matter. Soil samples collected from plots are strongly acidic (perhaps the result of a rather high percent of organic matter) but have high calcium, very high magnesium, and moderate total base saturation levels. Sites are more-or-less permanently saturated or flooded by perched groundwater or seepage inputs. However, the amount of surface water usually fluctuates greatly during the growing season, so that the habitats are probably best considered seasonally flooded. During dry periods, the habitats were probably susceptible to occasional wildfires, at least historically.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This very rare vegetation type is highly threatened by impoundments and hydrological alterations, grazing, agricultural pollution, fire exclusion, and woody succession. One occurrence is protected on a state natural area preserve (Cowbane Natural Area Preserve).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.P. Fleming and P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 25Jan2005
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Jan2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bartgis, R. L., and G. E. Lang. 1984. Marl wetlands in eastern West Virginia: Distribution, rare plant species, and recent history. Castanea 49:17-25.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.


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