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Typha latifolia - Caltha palustris Marsh
Translated Name: Broadleaf Cattail - Yellow Marsh-marigold Marsh
Common Name: Virginia Ridge and Valley Calcareous Marsh
Unique Identifier: CEGL006245
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is a tall herbaceous wetland of calcareous, groundwater-saturated sloughs, abandoned meanders, depressions, and toeslope spring overflows on large stream or river floodplain terraces in carbonate rock districts of the Ridge and Valley region. Soils typically have a surface horizon of organic muck (about 10 cm), or occasionally fibric peat, below which is a deep, gleyed or reduced clay with some organic matter. Soil samples collected from plots are slightly acidic to moderately alkaline, with very high calcium, magnesium, and total base saturation levels. Sites are more-or-less permanently saturated or flooded by perched groundwater or seepage inputs. The vegetation resembles a stratified, tall marsh and is usually dominated by Typha latifolia and Caltha palustris. More locally, Acorus americanus and Menyanthes trifoliata are dominant or codominant in stands. Other characteristic species include Carex emoryi, Impatiens capensis, Leersia virginica, Lysimachia terrestris, Peltandra virginica, Carex tetanica, Sagittaria latifolia (= var. latifolia), Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus tabernaemontani), and Scirpus atrovirens. In the absence of active disturbance regimes, habitats supporting this community appear susceptible to invasion by Salix spp. and other woody swamp plants. The ecological dynamics of this very rare vegetation type are poorly understood. Although it may have originated from some form of disturbance, its restriction to two very unusual wetland habitats located miles apart, as well as the lack of invasive introduced species in its composition, suggests that the type is natural.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Data have been collected from three plots representing this vegetation type. Alliance placement is somewhat problematic since the habitats have been assessed as seasonally flooded, varying to more semipermanently flooded in wet years. The type appears to have affinities to midwestern marshes.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Eastern North American Freshwater Marsh
Alliance Cattail - Bulrush Mixed Deep Marsh

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002229 Typha spp. - Schoenoplectus acutus - Mixed Herbs Midwest Marsh
CEGL002233 Typha spp. Midwest Marsh
CEGL006244 Peltandra virginica - Polygonum amphibium var. emersum - Carex stricta - Impatiens capensis Marsh



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Typha latifolia - Caltha palustris Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Calcareous Spring Marsh / Muck Fen
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Ridge and Valley Calcareous Spring Marsh (Broad-Leaved Cattail - Marsh Marigold Type)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.582 Laurentian-Acadian Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (25Jan2005)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This type appears to be endemic to a few sites in the central Ridge and Valley region of Virginia, where it occurs in several discrete patches totaling less than 20 acres in aggregate.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is known only from a few sites in the central Ridge and Valley region of Virginia (Augusta County). Further investigation is needed to determine whether this type occurs in West Virginia marl wetlands (Bartgis and Lang 1984).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The vegetation resembles a stratified, tall marsh and is usually dominated by Typha latifolia and Caltha palustris. More locally, Acorus americanus and Menyanthes trifoliata are dominant or codominant in stands. Other characteristic species include Carex emoryi, Impatiens capensis, Leersia virginica, Lysimachia terrestris, Peltandra virginica, Carex tetanica, Sagittaria latifolia (= var. latifolia), Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (= Scirpus tabernaemontani), and Scirpus atrovirens. Mean species richness of five plot samples was 19 taxa per 100 square meters. In the absence of active disturbance regimes, habitats supporting this community appear susceptible to invasion by Salix spp. and other woody swamp plants.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Caltha palustris G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Typha latifolia G1 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community is a tall herbaceous wetland of calcareous, groundwater-saturated sloughs, abandoned meanders, depressions, and toeslope spring overflows on large stream or river floodplain terraces in carbonate rock districts of the Ridge and Valley region. Soils typically have a surface horizon of organic muck (about 10 cm), or occasionally fibric peat, below which is a deep, gleyed or reduced clay with some organic matter. Soil samples collected from plots are slightly acidic to moderately alkaline, with very high calcium, magnesium, and total base saturation levels. Sites are more-or-less permanently saturated or flooded by perched groundwater or seepage inputs. However, the amount of surface water usually fluctuates greatly during the growing season, so that the habitats are probably best considered seasonally flooded. During dry periods, the habitats were probably susceptible to occasional wildfires, at least historically.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The ecological dynamics of this very rare vegetation type are poorly understood. Although it may have originated from some form of disturbance, its restriction to two very unusual wetland habitats located miles apart, as well as the lack of invasive introduced species in its composition, suggests that the type is natural. Both of the known occurrences are protected on a state natural area preserves (Cowbane Natural Area Preserve and Folly Mills Stream Natural Area Preserve).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G. Fleming and P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 25Jan2005
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Jan2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bartgis, R. L., and G. E. Lang. 1984. Marl wetlands in eastern West Virginia: Distribution, rare plant species, and recent history. Castanea 49:17-25.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.


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