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Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo - Juglans nigra / Asimina triloba / Mertensia virginica Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: American Sycamore - Box-elder - Black Walnut / Pawpaw / Virginia Bluebells Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Piedmont-Central Appalachian Rich Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL004073
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association occupies the higher elevations of floodplains, floodplain berms, and low terraces of major Mid-Atlantic rivers (e.g., Potomac, Shenandoah, Monocacy, James) and as the main floodplain vegetation on medium-sized rivers draining areas of nutrient-rich substrates (e.g., Antietam Creek, Bull Run). Soil texture is variable, ranging from silty-clay loams to loams over much of the range, and samples collected from plots had high base status. This vegetation type is a closed forest with mixed overstory dominance by Platanus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Carya cordiformis, Celtis occidentalis, Ulmus americana, and, locally, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus shumardii. Acer saccharinum is codominant in a minority of stands but absent or unimportant in many others. Acer negundo is strongly dominant in the subcanopy. Asimina triloba and/or Lindera benzoin dominate a moderately dense to dense shrub layer. The herb layer is rich in spring ephemerals and other nutrient-demanding species, including Mertensia virginica, Asarum canadense, Chaerophyllum procumbens, Hydrophyllum canadense, Viola striata, Phlox divaricata, Podophyllum peltatum, Erythronium americanum, Dicentra canadensis, Sanicula odorata, Packera aurea (= Senecio aureus), Claytonia virginica, Festuca subverticillata, Carex jamesii, Carex grisea, Floerkea proserpinacoides, Osmorhiza longistylis, and Ranunculus abortivus. Invasive exotics, especially Alliaria petiolata, Veronica hederifolia, Duchesnea indica, Urtica dioica ssp. dioica, Microstegium vimineum, and Glechoma hederacea, are usually abundant.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This type was defined to cover rich large-stream floodplain forests of the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont and Central Appalachians. It was split off from the more broadly defined Platanus occidentalis - Acer saccharinum - Juglans nigra - Ulmus rubra Floodplain Forest (CEGL007334). This type was classified through analysis of 36 plot samples from Virginia and Maryland and through consultation with ecologists from those states and West Virginia. It has also been confirmed for Pennsylvania.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Floodplain Forest
Group Silver Maple - Sugarberry - Sweetgum Floodplain Forest
Alliance Central Appalachian-Piedmont Sycamore - Green Ash - Tuliptree Floodplain Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006217 Acer saccharinum - Acer negundo / Ageratina altissima - Laportea canadensis - (Elymus virginicus) Floodplain Forest
CEGL006458 Platanus occidentalis - Fraxinus pennsylvanica / Carpinus caroliniana / Verbesina alternifolia Floodplain Forest
CEGL006492 Liriodendron tulipifera - Acer negundo - (Platanus occidentalis) / Carpinus caroliniana / Polygonum virginianum Floodplain Forest
CEGL007334 Platanus occidentalis - Acer saccharinum - Juglans nigra - Ulmus rubra Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maryland Platanus occidentalis - Acer saccharinum - Juglans nigra - Ulmus rubra Forest Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011
Pennsylvania Sycamore - Mixed Hardwood Floodplain Forest Intersects Somewhat certain Zimmerman et al. 2012
Pennsylvania Sycamore Floodplain Forest Intersects   Fike 1999
West Virginia Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo - Juglans nigra / Asimina triloba / Mertensia virginica Forest Equivalent Certain WVNHP unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharinum - Acer negundo / Mertensia virginica Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo - Juglans nigra - Celtis occidentalis / Asimina triloba / Mertensia virginica Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo - Juglans nigra / Asimina triloba / Mertensia virginica Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo / Asarum canadense Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Thomson, D., A. M. Gould, and M. A. Berdine. 1999. Identification and protection of reference wetland natural communities in Maryland: Potomac watershed floodplain forests. The Biodiversity Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Division. Annapolis. 119 pp.
Related Concept Name: Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo / Asimina triloba - Lindera benzoin / Mertensia virginica - Asarum canadense Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo / Asimina triloba / Asarum canadense Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. M.S. thesis, George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. 219 pp.
Related Concept Name: Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo / Asimina triloba / Carex jamesii Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. M.S. thesis, George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. 219 pp.
Related Concept Name: Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo / Asimina triloba / Mertensia virginica Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. M.S. thesis, George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. 219 pp.
Related Concept Name: Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo / Hydrophyllum canadense - Laportea canadensis Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. M.S. thesis, George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. 219 pp.
Related Concept Name: Platanus occidentalis - Fraxinus pennsylvanica Floodplain Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2000b. Plant communities of Harper's Ferry National Historical Park: Analysis, characterization, and mapping. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins, WV. 37 pp.
Related Concept Name: Ulmus americana - Acer negundo - (Platanus occidentalis) / Asimina triloba - Lindera benzoin / Asarum canadense Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and J. T. Weber. 2003. Inventory, classification, and map of forested ecological communities at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Natural Heritage Technical Report 03-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 101 pp. plus appendix.
Related Concept Name: Montane - Piedmont Bottomland Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Piedmont / Central Appalachian Rich Floodplain Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]
Related Concept Name: Piedmont / Mountain Floodplain Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.323 Southern Piedmont Small Floodplain and Riparian Forest
CES202.324 Southern Piedmont Large Floodplain Forest
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain
CES202.609 Central Appalachian Stream and Riparian


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (25Jan2005)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: The type is not rare but has a restricted geographic range, is confined to larger rivers in the Mid-Atlantic region, and is subject to continuing degradation by invasive species.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: MD, PA, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs on floodplains of large and medium-sized Mid-Atlantic rivers, including the Potomac, Shenandoah, James, Rappahannock, Monocacy, Clinch, and possibly others northward.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 221E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This vegetation type is a closed forest with mixed overstory dominance by Platanus occidentalis, Juglans nigra, Carya cordiformis, Celtis occidentalis, Ulmus americana, and, locally, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus shumardii. Acer saccharinum is codominant in a minority of stands but absent or unimportant in many others. Acer negundo is strongly dominant in the subcanopy. Asimina triloba (usually on sites with coarser soil textures) and /or Lindera benzoin (on finer-textured substrates) dominate a moderately dense to dense shrub layer. Vines are common, with Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Vitis vulpina, and Toxicodendron radicans most frequent. The herb layer is rich in spring ephemerals and other nutrient-demanding species, including Mertensia virginica, Asarum canadense, Chaerophyllum procumbens, Hydrophyllum canadense, Viola striata, Phlox divaricata, Podophyllum peltatum, Erythronium americanum, Dicentra canadensis, Sanicula odorata (= Sanicula gregaria), Packera aurea (= Senecio aureus), Claytonia virginica, Festuca subverticillata, Carex jamesii, Carex grisea, Floerkea proserpinacoides, Osmorhiza longistylis, and Ranunculus abortivus. Invasive exotics may be abundant and are represented by Alliaria petiolata, Veronica hederifolia, Duchesnea indica, Urtica dioica ssp. dioica, Microstegium vimineum, and Glechoma hederacea.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya cordiformis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Platanus occidentalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Ulmus americana G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Acer negundo G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Celtis occidentalis G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Juglans nigra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Asimina triloba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Lindera benzoin G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Alliaria petiolata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Duchesnea indica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Glechoma hederacea G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Mertensia virginica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Phacelia covillei G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Urtica dioica ssp. dioica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Veronica hederifolia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Microstegium vimineum G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia G4 Liana Herb (field)    
 
 
Toxicodendron radicans G4 Liana Herb (field)    
 
 
Vitis vulpina G4 Liana Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Phacelia covillei
  (Buttercup Scorpionweed)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This association occupies the higher elevations of floodplains, floodplain berms, and low terraces of major Mid-Atlantic rivers (Potomac, Shenandoah, Monocacy) and as main floodplain vegetation on medium-sized rivers draining areas of nutrient-rich substrates (e.g., Antietam Creek, Bull Run). In the Potomac Gorge, average flood-return interval was from about 3 to 15 years. Soil texture is variable, ranging from silty-clay loams to loams over much of the range, but it can be sandy loams or sands along high-gradient reaches. Soil samples collected from plots have a mean pH of 6.1, high calcium content (mean about 2200 ppm), and 80-100% total base saturation.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G. Fleming, C. Lea, J. Vanderhorst
Element Description Edition Date: 02Oct2006
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming and K.D. Patterson
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 25Jan2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Burns, R. M., and B. H. Honkala, technical coordinators. 1990b. Silvics of North America. Volume 2: Hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 877 pp.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: Composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-12. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 341 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and J. T. Weber. 2003. Inventory, classification, and map of forested ecological communities at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Natural Heritage Technical Report 03-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 101 pp. plus appendix.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. M.S. thesis, George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. 219 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2003. Vegetation types in the National Capital Region Parks. Draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. March 2003. 140 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2004. Draft vegetation types in National Capital Region Parks. Edited by S.C. Gawler and J. Teague. Working draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. July 2004. 157 pp.

  • Luken, J. O. 2003. Invasions of forests in the eastern United States. Pages 283-301 in: F. S. Gilliam and M. R. Roberts, editors. The herbaceous layer in forests of eastern North America. Oxford University Press, New York.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. A. Zimmerman, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006b. Vegetation classification and mapping at Friendship Hill National Historic Site. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/041. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 113 pp.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2006c. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Park. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/058. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Pyle, L. L. 1995. Effects of disturbance on herbaceous exotic plant species on floodplain of the Potomac River. American Midland Naturalist 134:244-253.

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Sigafoos, R. S. 1976. Relations among surficial materials, light intensity, and sycamore-seed germination along the Potomac River near Washington, D.C. Journal of Research of the U.S. Geological Survey 4:733-736.

  • Thomson, D., A. M. Gould, and M. A. Berdine. 1999. Identification and protection of reference wetland natural communities in Maryland: Potomac watershed floodplain forests. The Biodiversity Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Division. Annapolis. 119 pp.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2000b. Plant communities of Harper's Ferry National Historical Park: Analysis, characterization, and mapping. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins, WV. 37 pp.

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date (b). Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011l. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Sycamore - Mixed Hardwood Floodplain Forest Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=30019] (accessed January 31, 2012)

  • Zimmerman, E. A. 2011m. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Sycamore Floodplain Forest Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16025] (accessed January 31, 2012)

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