NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Acer saccharinum - Acer negundo / Ageratina altissima - Laportea canadensis - (Elymus virginicus) Floodplain Forest
Translated Name: Silver Maple - Box-elder / White Snakeroot - Canadian Woodnettle - (Virginia Wildrye) Floodplain Forest
Common Name: Piedmont-Central Appalachian Silver Maple Floodplain Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006217
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This is a forested community of large river floodplains in the Mid-Atlantic states of Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. These forests occupy banks and first bottoms of major rivers with nutrient-rich silt loams, sand loams, and sands that are temporarily inundated, annually or less often, in major flood events. Canopies are closed and dominated by Acer saccharinum, with Acer negundo dominating a subcanopy layer. Other minor overstory and understory associates include Populus deltoides, Celtis occidentalis, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Ulmus americana, and Juglans nigra. The shrub layer ranges from sparse to dense but is usually dominated by Lindera benzoin. Characteristic species of the herb layer are Ageratina altissima, Laportea canadensis, Impatiens pallida, Viola sororia, Leersia virginica, Verbesina alternifolia, Urtica dioica ssp. dioica, Elymus virginicus, Elymus riparius, Geum canadense, Pilea pumila, Rudbeckia laciniata, and Cryptotaenia canadensis. Vines of Toxicodendron radicans and Parthenocissus quinquefolia are common. Early-successional stands are usually strongly dominated by even-aged Acer saccharinum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This type was defined through analysis of 41 plot samples from Virginia and Maryland and through consultation with ecologists from those states and West Virginia. It has also been confirmed for Pennsylvania by ecologists in that state. Data analysis supports the decision to split this unit from the more broadly defined USNVC unit Acer saccharinum - Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Ulmus americana Floodplain Forest (CEGL002586).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Floodplain Forest
Group Silver Maple - Sugarberry - Sweetgum Floodplain Forest
Alliance Appalachian-Piedmont Silver Maple Floodplain Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002586 Acer saccharinum - Fraxinus pennsylvanica - Ulmus americana Floodplain Forest
CEGL004073 Platanus occidentalis - Acer negundo - Juglans nigra / Asimina triloba / Mertensia virginica Floodplain Forest
CEGL006147 Acer saccharinum - (Populus deltoides) / Matteuccia struthiopteris - Laportea canadensis Floodplain Forest
CEGL007334 Platanus occidentalis - Acer saccharinum - Juglans nigra - Ulmus rubra Floodplain Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maryland Acer saccharinum - Ulmus americana - (Populus deltoides) Forest Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharinum - Acer negundo - Ulmus americana / Eupatorium rugosum Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. M.S. thesis, George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. 219 pp.
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharinum - Acer negundo / Ageratina altissima - Laportea canadensis - (Elymus virginicus) Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharinum - Acer negundo / Elymus virginicus - Laportea canadensis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharinum - Ulmus americana - (Populus deltoides) Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Thomson, D., A. M. Gould, and M. A. Berdine. 1999. Identification and protection of reference wetland natural communities in Maryland: Potomac watershed floodplain forests. The Biodiversity Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Division. Annapolis. 119 pp.
Related Concept Name: Acer saccharinum Floodplain Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2000b. Plant communities of Harper's Ferry National Historical Park: Analysis, characterization, and mapping. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins, WV. 37 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane - Piedmont Bottomland Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Piedmont / Mountain Floodplain Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Silver Maple Floodplain Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Podniesinski, G., and G. Wagner. 2002. Classification, assessment, and protection of forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna drainage. Report submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, Pittsburgh, PA, and The Nature Conservancy, Middletown, PA. 159 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.324 Southern Piedmont Large Floodplain Forest
CES202.608 Central Appalachian River Floodplain


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (24Jan2005)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: The type is not rare but has a restricted geographic range, is confined to larger rivers in the Mid-Atlantic region, and is subject to continuing degradation by invasive species.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DC, MA, MD, NJ, NY, PA, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs on floodplains of major Mid-Atlantic rivers, including the Potomac, Shenandoah, James, Rappahannock, Monocacy, and Susquehanna, extending north to Massachusetts.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Shawnee Hills Section
Section Code: 222D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This community is a closed forest typically dominated by Acer saccharinum, with Acer negundo dominating a subcanopy layer. Along the Potomac, particularly on sandier sites, Platanus occidentalis may codominate the canopy layer. Minor overstory and understory associates include Populus deltoides, Celtis occidentalis, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Ulmus americana, and Juglans nigra. At topographically lower sites, the shrub layer is often sparse; on higher surfaces, it may be moderately dense, with Lindera benzoin usually the dominant species. Characteristic species of the herb layer are Ageratina altissima, Laportea canadensis, Impatiens pallida, Viola sororia, Leersia virginica, Verbesina alternifolia, Urtica dioica ssp. dioica, Elymus virginicus, Elymus riparius, Geum canadense, Pilea pumila, Rudbeckia laciniata, and Cryptotaenia canadensis. Vines of Toxicodendron radicans and Parthenocissus quinquefolia are common. Invasive introduced species such as Alliaria petiolata, Stellaria media, Microstegium vimineum, Glechoma hederacea, Urtica dioica ssp. dioica, and Humulus japonicus are often rampant in this vegetation type. Early-successional stands are assigned to the same type and are usually strongly dominated by even-aged Acer saccharinum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer saccharinum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Acer negundo G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Lindera benzoin G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia G4 Liana Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Toxicodendron radicans G4 Liana Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Ageratina altissima G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Cryptotaenia canadensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Geum canadense G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Impatiens pallida G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Laportea canadensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Pilea pumila G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Rudbeckia laciniata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Urtica dioica G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Verbesina alternifolia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Viola sororia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Elymus riparius G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Elymus virginicus G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Leersia virginica G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community is restricted to large river floodplains, where it occurs on first bottoms and banks immediately adjacent to the river. Sites are usually well-drained to moderately well-drained. Soils are nutrient-rich with textures ranging from silt loams to sandy loams and occasionally sands. Habitats are temporarily inundated, annually or less often, in major flood events. In the Potomac Gorge, the average flood-return interval was from about 0.5 to 2.5 years (Lea 2000).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Early-successional stands are usually strongly dominated by even-aged Acer saccharinum.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G. Fleming, C. Lea, J. Vanderhorst
Element Description Edition Date: 02Oct2006
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming and K.D. Patterson
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 24Jan2005
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming and K.D. Patterson

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: Composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-12. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 341 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, Gary P. Personal communication. Ecologist, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA.

  • Fowells, H. A, compiler. 1965. Silvics of the forest trees of the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 271. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. 762 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2000. Plant communities of the Potomac Gorge and their relationship to fluvial factors. M.S. thesis, George Mason University. Fairfax, VA. 219 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2004. Draft vegetation types in National Capital Region Parks. Edited by S.C. Gawler and J. Teague. Working draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. July 2004. 157 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 2008e. Vegetation classification and mapping at Petersburg National Battlefield, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/127. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 235 pp.

  • Podniesinski, G., and G. Wagner. 2002. Classification, assessment, and protection of forested floodplain wetlands of the Susquehanna drainage. Report submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy, Pittsburgh, PA, and The Nature Conservancy, Middletown, PA. 159 pp.

  • Taverna, K. and K. D. Patterson. 2008. Vegetation classification and mapping at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2008/126. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 277 pp.

  • Thomson, D., A. M. Gould, and M. A. Berdine. 1999. Identification and protection of reference wetland natural communities in Maryland: Potomac watershed floodplain forests. The Biodiversity Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Division. Annapolis. 119 pp.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2000b. Plant communities of Harper's Ferry National Historical Park: Analysis, characterization, and mapping. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins, WV. 37 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016