NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Quercus alba - Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana / Muhlenbergia sobolifera - Elymus hystrix Forest
Translated Name: White Oak - Pignut Hickory - White Ash / Rock Muhly - Eastern Bottlebrush Grass Forest
Common Name: Northern Hardpan Basic Oak - Hickory Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006216
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: Found in the Culpeper Basin and western Piedmont foothills of Virginia and Maryland, this subxeric to submesic oak-hickory forest occurs in association with soils weathered from fine-grained mafic rocks (diabase and metabasalt). These soils often have a plastic, hardpan subsoil or are shallow over bedrock, and some have pronounced shrink-swell properties. Forest canopies can be open to closed, sometimes stunted, with variable combinations of oaks (especially Quercus alba and Quercus rubra), hickories (Carya glabra, Carya ovalis, Carya alba), and Fraxinus americana. Subcanopy tree layers are usually dominated by young hickories and Fraxinus americana. Characteristic species in the shrub and small-tree layers are Cercis canadensis var. canadensis, Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, Cornus florida, Ulmus rubra, Celtis occidentalis, and Rosa carolina. Less constant, but sometimes locally important, understory species include Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana (on more mesic sites), and Chionanthus virginicus. The herb layer of this community is frequently characterized by patch-dominance of the dry-site forest grasses Muhlenbergia sobolifera, Dichanthelium boscii, Elymus hystrix var. hystrix, and Danthonia spicata. Co-occurring among the dominant grasses are a large number of low-cover forbs and graminoids. In 50 Virginia plot samples, this unit has a mean species richness of 82 taxa per 400 square meters, one of the highest among all classified upland types in Virginia. This community is distinguished from other Mid-Atlantic region oak-hickory forests by its patch-dominance of forest grasses and its strong association with sub-level topography and soils with an impermeable hardpan or shallow bedrock.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: This vegetation type has been well-documented by 50 plot samples in Virginia and has emerged strongly in several large regional analyses of plot data (e.g., the 1250-plot analysis for the NCR parks vegetation mapping project). It has also been qualitatively documented in a large diabase sill near Boyds, Montgomery County, Maryland. The type also occurs very locally on metabasalt at low elevations of Catoctin Mountain, Maryland. It is generally distinguished from other mid-Atlantic region oak-hickory forests by its patch-dominance of forest grasses and its strong association with gentle or sub-level topography and soils with an impermeable hardpan or shallow bedrock. This unit is largely confined to Piedmont soils weathered from fine-grained mafic rocks (diabase and metabasalt). Several plots at low elevations of Shenandoah National Park are intermediate between this type and Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Carya ovalis / (Cercis canadensis) / Solidago caesia Forest (CEGL008514) and could be assigned equally well to either type. For the purposes of vegetation mapping in Shenandoah, these plots were assigned to CEGL008514.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest & Woodland
Alliance Northeastern Oak - Hickory Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL003683 Fraxinus americana - Carya glabra / Muhlenbergia sobolifera - Helianthus divaricatus - Solidago ulmifolia Woodland
CEGL006209 Carya glabra - Quercus (rubra, prinus) - Fraxinus americana / Viburnum rafinesquianum Forest
CEGL008514 Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Carya ovalis / (Cercis canadensis) / Solidago caesia Forest
CEGL008516 Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra - Carya ovalis / Carex pensylvanica - (Calamagrostis porteri) Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maryland Quercus alba - Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana / Cercis canadensis / Muhlenbergia sobolifera - Elymus hystrix Forest Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus alba - Carya glabra - Fraxinus americana / Cercis canadensis / Muhlenbergia sobolifera - Dichanthelium boscii Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and J. T. Weber. 2003. Inventory, classification, and map of forested ecological communities at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Natural Heritage Technical Report 03-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 101 pp. plus appendix.
Related Concept Name: Quercus alba - Fraxinus americana - Carya (glabra, ovalis) / Cercis canadensis / Muhlenbergia sobolifera - Elymus hystrix Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Basic Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.268 Piedmont Hardpan Woodland and Forest
CES202.592 Northeastern Interior Dry-Mesic Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (05Aug2004)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: The known distribution of this type is confined to a six-county area in northern Virginia and adjacent Maryland. Moreover, the environmental conditions under which it occurs are naturally uncommon to rare in the Mid-Atlantic region. Although it may locally form sizeable patches in the northern Virginia Culpeper Basin, many stands have been destroyed by suburban development and virtually all stands have been impacted by timber removal and other anthropogenic disturbances.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: MD, PApotentially occurs, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is widespread in the northern Virginia Mesozoic (Culpeper) Basin and locally in the extension of that basin in Montgomery County, Maryland. Small patches also occur on western Piedmont foothills and low elevations of the Blue Ridge in Virginia and Maryland. The global range of this community needs further investigation and may include parts of the Frederick Basin in Maryland, local areas around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, and possibly other Mesozoic basins north to New Jersey or lower New England.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Vegetation of this type is an open- to closed-canopy, mixed hardwood forest dominated by oaks, hickories, and white ash. Stands over hardpans or shallow soils over bedrock have a somewhat stunted canopy. Quercus alba, Quercus rubra, Carya glabra, Carya ovalis, Carya alba, and Fraxinus americana are the leading overstory dominants in variable combinations. In the more western, submontane habitats, Quercus prinus is often codominant. Quercus velutina, Quercus stellata, Quercus prinus, Ulmus rubra, and Juglans nigra are occasional overstory associates. Subcanopy tree layers are usually dominated by young hickories and Fraxinus americana. Characteristic species in the shrub and small-tree layers are Cercis canadensis var. canadensis (dominant with up to 850 stems/ha in some areas), Juniperus virginiana var. virginiana, Cornus florida, Ulmus rubra, Celtis occidentalis, and Rosa carolina. Less constant, but sometimes locally important, understory species include Ostrya virginiana, Carpinus caroliniana (on more mesic sites), and Chionanthus virginicus. The herb layer of this community is frequently characterized by patch-dominance of the dry-site forest grasses Muhlenbergia sobolifera, Dichanthelium boscii, Elymus hystrix var. hystrix, and Danthonia spicata. Co-occurring among the dominant grasses are a large number of low-cover forbs and graminoids, among the most characteristic of which are Agrimonia rostellata, Amphicarpaea bracteata, Aristolochia serpentaria, Bromus pubescens, Carex digitalis, Carex hirsutella (= Carex complanata var. hirsuta), Desmodium nudiflorum, Festuca subverticillata, Galium circaezans, Geum virginianum, Houstonia purpurea var. purpurea, Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum, Phryma leptostachya, Polygonatum biflorum, Sanicula canadensis, Scutellaria elliptica, Solidago caesia, Solidago ulmifolia var. ulmifolia, Thalictrum thalictroides, Uvularia perfoliata, and Viola triloba var. triloba (all of these with >50% constancy in 50 plots). Less constant species that are nevertheless locally abundant or characteristic include Antennaria plantaginifolia (2 vars.), Brachyelytrum erectum, Carex albicans var. australis, Carex pensylvanica, Carex planispicata, Clematis ochroleuca, Dichanthelium linearifolium, Galium concinnum, Helianthus divaricatus, Melica mutica, Piptochaetium avenaceum, and Pycnanthemum incanum. Patches of exposed mineral soil around tree bases are frequently occupied by a suite of diminutive annuals including Acalypha virginica, Hedeoma pulegioides, and Paronychia canadensis. Many additional species occur at low cover and/or constancy. In 50 Virginia plot samples, this unit has a mean species richness of 82 taxa per 400 square meters, one of the highest among all classified upland types in Virginia. Additionally, a plot of this vegetation containing 125 taxa represents one of the most species-rich upland sample among >3300 plots in the VDNH database (VDNH unpubl. data).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Carya ovalis G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Fraxinus americana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Carya alba G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Carya glabra G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus alba G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Quercus prinus G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus rubra G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Cercis canadensis var. canadensis G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy  
 
 
Ostrya virginiana G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Ulmus rubra G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Danthonia spicata G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Dichanthelium boscii G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Elymus hystrix var. hystrix G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Muhlenbergia sobolifera G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: In the main, Piedmont portion of its range, this oak-hickory forest community occurs primarily on soils weathered from Triassic diabase but occasionally on soils weathered from siltstone. Outlying occurrences on western Piedmont foothills and the Blue Ridge are associated with metabasalt of the Catoctin Formation. Large stands occupy low, gentle ridges and rolling to flat uplands (mean slope = 4) of the Mesozoic Basin. In submontane, foothill settings, stands are usually confined to relatively gentle slope benches with shallow underlying bedrock. Fifty plot-sampled sites in Virginia ranged from subxeric to submesic. Surface substrate of most sites consisted of thin leaf litter, with small patches of bare mineral soil exposed in places. Many plots had at least 1% surface cover of spheroidal diabase or metabasalt boulders or stones, and a few were extremely rocky. Soils collected from plots are very strongly to moderately acidic clay loams with moderately high calcium and magnesium, and very high manganese levels. Most soils occupied by this community have a plastic, hardpan subsoil or are shallow over bedrock, and some have pronounced shrink-swell properties.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Historically, this association had a more extensive distribution in northern Virginia, but many stands have been destroyed by development sprawling from the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Most of the remaining stands have been subject to various anthropogenic disturbances, including cutting, conversion to pine silviculture, and grazing. Excessive deer browse, resulting in reduced tree recruitment and dwarfing of repeatedly grazed herbaceous species, is a serious problem in almost all stands. The rather dry soils occupied by this community keep many exotic plants in check, but the drought-tolerant Lonicera japonica, Poa compressa, and Symphoricarpos orbiculatus (a shrub naturalized from the western U.S.) are problematic invaders. Stands on the most mesic sites are vulnerable to invasion by Microstegium vimineum and Alliaria petiolata. The fungal pathogen Discula destructiva (dogwood anthracnose) is now rampant in virtually all stands of this type and has caused extensive mortality of the former understory codominant Cornus florida.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.P. Fleming
Element Description Edition Date: 01Oct2006
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 05Aug2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2001b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont and Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., and J. T. Weber. 2003. Inventory, classification, and map of forested ecological communities at Manassas National Battlefield Park, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Natural Heritage Technical Report 03-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 101 pp. plus appendix.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2004. Natural community inventory of selected areas in the Northern Virginia Culpeper Basin, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, Fauquier, and Culpeper counties. Unpublished report submitted to the Virginia Native Plant Society, Potowmack Chapter. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 21 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016