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Taxodium ascendens - Nyssa biflora / Carex striata - Rhynchospora (careyana, cephalantha) Stringer Swamp Woodland
Translated Name: Pond-cypress - Swamp Tupelo / Walter's Sedge - (Broad-fruit Horned Beaksedge, Bunched Beaksedge) Stringer Swamp Woodland
Common Name: Atlantic Coastal Plain Pond-cypress Depression (Beaksedge Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL004089
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This stringer woodland association is characterized by Taxodium ascendens and Nyssa biflora with a mixed sedge understory. These stringers occur in seasonally (or semipermanently) flooded flow-ways that include swales, limesinks and other depressional wetlands. The sedges Carex striata, Rhynchospora cephalantha, Rhynchospora careyana, and/or Rhynchospora microcephala tend to form a thick mat in the soggy substrate. Evergreen shrubs, such as Lyonia lucida, Clethra alnifolia, and Cyrilla racemiflora, will often be found growing in raised patches or around the bases of large trees. Periodic droughts allow for the occasional establishment of Acer rubrum, although it is less likely to persist over time given a relatively frequent fire regime. This regime will maintain the open herbaceous layer and remove other hardwood invaders as well.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nb - Southeastern North American Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Pond-cypress Basin Swamp
Group Pond-cypress Basin Swamp
Alliance Pond-cypress / Walter's Sedge Depression Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004087 Taxodium ascendens / Carex striata - Iris tridentata - (Woodwardia virginica) Swamp Woodland
CEGL004090 Taxodium ascendens / Aristida palustris Swamp Woodland
CEGL004441 Taxodium ascendens / Woodwardia virginica Swamp Woodland
CEGL007419 Taxodium ascendens / Ilex myrtifolia / Carex (striata, turgescens) Stringer Swamp Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Taxodium ascendens-Nyssa biflora-Acer rubrum / Carex striata-Rhynchospora spp. (cephalantha, microcephala, careyana) Stringer Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.251 Southern Coastal Plain Nonriverine Cypress Dome
CES203.262 Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain Depression Pond


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (08Jan2007)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This is also a common type in Francis Marion National Forest (Glitzenstein and Streng 2004). The maintenance of this vegetation type depends on frequent low-intensity fires that limit competition from hardwood trees and shrubs.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GApotentially occurs, SC
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is found in coastal South Carolina and possibly in coastal Georgia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Atlantic Coastal Flatwoods Section
Section Code: 232C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Taxodium ascendens and Nyssa biflora dominate the canopy which may be closed or open. Acer rubrum and, less commonly, Liquidambar styraciflua and Prunus serotina may also occur in the canopy or understory. A mixed shrub layer often forms around the bases of tree and in raised areas. Common shrubs include Lyonia lucida, Persea palustris, Magnolia virginiana, Cyrilla racemiflora, Clethra alnifolia, Ilex spp. (Ilex cassine, Ilex glabra, Ilex myrtifolia), and Morella cerifera. Smilax walteri and Smilax laurifolia are common throughout. In the herb layer Carex striata and Rhynchospora spp. (Rhynchospora careyana, Rhynchospora cephalantha, Rhynchospora microcephala) are dominant. Saccharum spp. (Saccharum brevibarbe var. contortum, Saccharum giganteum), Panicum hemitomon, Iris tridentata, and Lachnanthes caroliana may be found in patches. Eriocaulon decangulare, Xyris spp. Rhynchospora spp. (Rhynchospora elliottii, Rhynchospora fascicularis, Rhynchospora filifolia), and other bay species may occur often or infrequently depending on burn frequency or the amount of recent precipitation.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Nyssa biflora G3 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Taxodium ascendens G3 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Carex striata G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Rhynchospora careyana G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Rhynchospora cephalantha G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Rhynchospora cephalantha var. microcephala G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These areas are large planar wooded meadows of non-alluvial depressions or very slow-moving shallows amidst a matrix of frequently burned longleaf pine woodland or wet savanna.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: The maintenance of this vegetation type depends on frequent low-intensity fires that limit competition from hardwood trees and shrubs and help to maintain the high diversity of herbaceous vegetation. Similarly, drought cycles will result in temporary shifts in species composition or temporary absence of otherwise common species.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): J. Gramling after Glitzenstein and Streng
Element Description Edition Date: 21Apr2004
Element Description Author(s): M. Pyne
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 22Feb2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Pyne and C. Nordman

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Glitzenstein, J. S., and D. R. Streng. 2004. Evaluating the NatureServe preliminary plant community classification for Francis Marion National Forest. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL. Plus appendices and data.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.


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