NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana / Rhododendron viscosum - Toxicodendron vernix / Smilax pseudochina Swamp Woodland
Translated Name: Blackgum - Sweetbay / Swamp Azalea - Poison-sumac / Bamboovine Swamp Woodland
Common Name: Fall-line Terrace Gravel Magnolia Bog
Unique Identifier: CEGL006219
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This saturated woodland is known from a limited area at and just east of the Fall Line in Maryland, the District of Columbia, and northern Virginia. It occurs on saturated toeslopes of fluvial-estuarine terraces where sands and gravels of the Cretaceous-aged Potomac Formation are exposed. Irregular microtopography with abundant groundwater seepage forming braided channels, Sphagnum-covered hummocks, and mucky depressions are characteristic. Historic accounts of this vegetation describe these areas as "bogs" with Magnolia virginiana and various shrubs fringing and forming clumps within a more open center dominated by herbaceous plants. Historic vegetation included Nyssa sylvatica, Toxicodendron vernix (abundant), Gaylussacia frondosa Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Pinus rigida, and Eriocaulon decangulare (abundant), Lycopodiella appressa, Carex bullata, Asclepias rubra, Helianthus angustifolius, Rhynchospora gracilenta, Xyris torta, Pogonia ophioglossoides, and Utricularia spp. Today, remaining examples exist mostly as open woodlands with very dense shrubs (averaging 80% cover) and very small, scattered herbaceous patches. Nyssa sylvatica is the most dominant species, followed by Magnolia virginiana, Acer rubrum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Ilex opaca var. opaca. Shrub cover includes Rhododendron viscosum, Vaccinium spp., Smilax rotundifolia, Gaylussacia frondosa, Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Leucothoe racemosa (= Eubotrys racemosa), Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), Ilex verticillata, Amelanchier canadensis, Ilex laevigata, and Toxicodendron vernix. The only herbs that have significant cover are Osmunda cinnamomea and Dichanthelium dichotomum var. dichotomum, while many others have low cover. Regionally uncommon or rare "bog" species persisting at one or a few sites include Solidago uliginosa var. uliginosa, Eurybia radula, Eriocaulon decangulare, Juncus longii, Drosera intermedia, Asclepias rubra, and Kalmia angustifolia. Historically, fire may have been an important factor in maintaining herbaceous patches and limiting the growth of shrubs and trees, but the geohydrologic conditions and effects of permanently saturated soils ("root pruning") that cause blowdowns of large trees (except Pinus rigida and Nyssa sylvatica) have also been observed to be prominent factors. Ice storms, which are frequent over time in the natural range of this community, also maintain an open mosaic in these wetlands. This community has always had a limited distribution in the Mid-Atlantic fall-line zone and has probably always been rare. Today, less than 20 sites remain in very small patches degraded by hydrologic disturbance, non-native invasive plants, woody succession, fire exclusion, and various anthropogenic impacts. This community has similarities with the bog vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barren region, but is likely distinguished by species with southern affinities.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Data have been collected by Rod Simmons et al. from 14 plot samples representing this type. These data were used (in combination with historical data) during the NCR National Capital Parks project (Phase I, regional vegetation analysis and final NCR East Region analysis) to produce this classification.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Laurentian-Acadian-North Atlantic Coastal Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group Laurentian-Acadian-Appalachian Acidic Swamp
Alliance Red Maple - Blackgum Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006195 Pinus rigida / Vaccinium corymbosum - Leucothoe racemosa / Sphagnum spp. Swamp Woodland
CEGL006926 Pinus rigida - Nyssa sylvatica / Clethra alnifolia - Leucothoe racemosa Forest
CEGL007056 Pinus rigida / Osmunda cinnamomea - Carex stricta - Eriophorum virginicum / Sphagnum spp. Swamp Woodland



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maryland Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana - (Pinus rigida) / Rhododendron viscosum - Toxicodendron vernix / Smilax pseudochina Woodland Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana - (Pinus rigida) / Rhododendron viscosum - Gaylussacia frondosa / Smilax pseudochina Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Nyssa sylvatica - Magnolia virginiana - (Pinus rigida) / Rhododendron viscosum - Toxicodendron vernix / Smilax pseudochina Woodland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain - Piedmont Acidic Seepage Fen
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Coastal Plain / Piedmont Seepage Bog
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2004. Natural community inventory of selected areas in the Northern Virginia Culpeper Basin, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, Fauquier, and Culpeper counties. Unpublished report submitted to the Virginia Native Plant Society, Potowmack Chapter. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 21 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Magnolia Bog
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McAtee, W. L. 1918. A sketch of the natural history of the District of Columbia together with an indexed edition of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1917 map of Washington and vicinity. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington. 142 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.374 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Pitch Pine Lowland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G1 (08Apr2015)
Rounded Global Status: G1 - Critically Imperiled
Reasons: This association is currently extant at less than 20 sites rangewide and occurs in very small patches subject to multiple disturbances, including hydrologic alterations, grazing, sand mining, and development. This community has always had a limited distribution in the Mid-Atlantic fall-line zone and has probably always been rare. However, many historically documented occurrences have been destroyed by development of the District of Columbia metropolitan area and the few remaining examples have been degraded by hydrologic disturbance, non-native invasive plants, possible fire exclusion, woody succession, and various other anthropogenic impacts.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DC, MD, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community is known from a limited area at and just east of the Fall Line in Howard, Montgomery, Prince George's, and Charles counties, Maryland; the District of Columbia; and the City of Alexandria and Arlington, Fairfax, Prince William, and Stafford counties, Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: McAtee (1918) originally described these "bogs" as having a physiognomic zonation, with Magnolia virginiana and various shrubs fringing and forming clumps within a more open center dominated by herbaceous plants. Exceptionally clear historical photographs taken by McAtee in 1909 show the more open condition of one of the bogs. The following species are clearly identifiable in the photos: Nyssa sylvatica, Toxicodendron vernix (abundant), Gaylussacia cf. frondosa (abundant), Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Pinus rigida, and Eriocaulon decangulare (abundant). Herbaceous species mentioned by McAtee (1918) as characteristic of many historical bogs include Lycopodiella appressa, Carex bullata, Asclepias rubra, Helianthus angustifolius, Rhynchospora gracilenta, Xyris torta, Pogonia ophioglossoides, and Utricularia spp. Except where open conditions have been artificially maintained by powerline rights-of-way, the physiognomy of remnant patches of this community is that of an open woodland with a very dense shrub layer and very small, scattered herbaceous patches. In 11 analyzed plot samples, Nyssa sylvatica has the highest mean tree cover, followed by Magnolia virginiana, Acer rubrum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Ilex opaca var. opaca. Pinus rigida occurs in about half the plots, sometimes with significant cover. Shrub cover usually averages about 80%, most of it contributed by the following species in rough descending order of importance: Rhododendron viscosum, Vaccinium corymbosum, Smilax rotundifolia, Gaylussacia frondosa, Viburnum nudum var. nudum, Leucothoe racemosa (= Eubotrys racemosa), Photinia pyrifolia (= Aronia arbutifolia), Ilex verticillata, Amelanchier canadensis, Ilex laevigata, and Toxicodendron vernix. Rubus hispidus is a creeping shrub common in most occurrences. The only herbs that achieve significant mean cover are Osmunda cinnamomea and Dichanthelium dichotomum var. dichotomum. Low-cover herbs occurring in >50% of the plots are Mitchella repens, Smilax pseudochina, Dioscorea villosa, Solidago rugosa, Dichanthelium dichotomum var. ensifolium, Rhynchospora capitellata, Viola x primulifolia, Medeola virginiana, Lycopus virginicus, Chasmanthium laxum, Glyceria striata, and Leersia virginica. Regionally uncommon or rare "bog" species persisting at one or a few sites include Solidago uliginosa var. uliginosa, Eurybia radula, Eriocaulon decangulare, Juncus longii, Drosera intermedia, Asclepias rubra, and Kalmia angustifolia.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Nyssa sylvatica G1 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Magnolia virginiana G1 Broad-leaved evergreen tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Pinus rigida G1 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Rhododendron viscosum G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Toxicodendron vernix G1 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Kalmia angustifolia G1 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Asclepias rubra G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Drosera intermedia G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Eriocaulon decangulare G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Eurybia radula G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago uliginosa var. uliginosa G1 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Juncus longii G1 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Juncus longii
  (Long's Rush)
G3Q  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This community type usually occurs on saturated toeslopes at bases of highly weathered, highly acidic, fluvial-estuarine terrace gravel deposits of Cretaceous or Tertiary age. Irregular microtopography with abundant groundwater seepage forming braided channels, Sphagnum-covered hummocks, and mucky depressions is characteristic. Soils consist mostly of coarse gravel and sand, with large cobbles often abundantly exposed at the surface. Soil samples collected from plots were extremely acidic, low in organic matter content, and low in base status.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This community occurs in small patches adjacent to dry to mesic, acidic upland forests dominated by oaks and/or pines (McAtee 1918) and was possibly impacted by occasional wildfires. The historical abundance of Pinus rigida in the vicinity of these bogs (McAtee 1918) and its persistence in some of the surviving remnants may also suggest a history of fire. Remnant stands appear to have become more closed and densely shrubby, which could be attributed to a number of factors, including a post-successional period following widespread clearing throughout the region, fire exclusion, and others.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): G.P. Fleming and R. Simmons
Element Description Edition Date: 08Apr2015
Element Description Author(s): G.P. Fleming, K.D. Patterson, J. Harrison
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Apr2015
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): G.P. Fleming, mod. J. Harrison

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, A. H. 2009. Hydrogeologic setting of a floristically distinctive ground-water slope wetland along the fall zone in northern Virginia. PowerPoint Presentation. The Flora Project, Horticulture and Natural Resources Section, Department of Recreation, Parks and Cultural Activities, City of Alexandria, VA. [http://alexandriava.gov/22560]

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. M. McCoy. 2004. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-01. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/dnh/ncintro.htm]

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2004. Natural community inventory of selected areas in the Northern Virginia Culpeper Basin, Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William, Fauquier, and Culpeper counties. Unpublished report submitted to the Virginia Native Plant Society, Potowmack Chapter. Natural Heritage Technical Report 04-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 21 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Harshberger, J. W. 1916. The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Reprinted 1970. Dover Publications, Inc., New York. 329 pp.

  • Hitchcock, A. S., and P. Standley. 1919. Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. Contributions to the U.S. National Herbarium 21:1-329.

  • McAtee, W. L. 1918. A sketch of the natural history of the District of Columbia together with an indexed edition of the U.S. Geological Survey's 1917 map of Washington and vicinity. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington. 142 pp.

  • Simmons, R. H. 2013a. Beatley Bog. Pages 23-25 in: Remnant natural areas in parks, waterways, and undeveloped sites in the City of Alexandria, Virginia: Seminary Hill area. Department Recreation, Parks, and Cultural Activities, City of Alexandria, VA. [http://alexandriava.gov/48838]

  • Simmons, R. H. 2013b. Magnolia bogs of the fall line: Three centuries of botanical exploration and diversity. PowerPoint Presentation.

  • Simmons, R. H., J. M. Parrish, M. D. Tice, and M. T. Strong. 2008. Conservation priorities and selected natural communities of the upper Anacostia watershed. Marilandica 12:1-22.

  • Simmons, R. H., and M. T. Strong. 2001. Araby Bog: A globally rare Magnolia bog in Charles County, Maryland. Marilandica 9:6-9.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of November 2016.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2017 NatureServe, 4600 N. Fairfax Dr., 7th Floor, Arlington Virginia 22203, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2017
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: November 2016