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Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Engelmann Spruce / Field Horsetail Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL005927
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This spruce-dominated riparian forest association is widely distributed in the upper montane and subalpine zones of the central and northern Rocky Mountains. It occurs on gently sloping stream terraces, wet benches, flat, poorly drained sites, and sidehill seeps, from 1000 to 2880 m (3300-9440 feet) in elevation. It occurs on sites too cold or too wet for Abies lasiocarpa to be abundant. It can occur adjacent to the wet forest margins of lakes, fens or bogs, and is often associated with the margins of wet basins or subirrigated terraces and toeslopes. Soils are Mollisols, or Histosols, sandy loam to clay in texture, often with a mucky organic surface layer and usually over coarse alluvial or glacial material. The upper canopy is dominated by Picea engelmannii or Picea x albertiana, with 20-70% cover. Other conifers typically present are Pinus contorta and Abies lasiocarpa. Other tree species occasionally present, depending on geographic location, are Picea pungens, Populus tremuloides, Populus angustifolia, and Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa. Shrub cover is generally low (<5%), but has been reported as high as 50%. Typical species include Alnus incana, Lonicera involucrata, Cornus sericea, Vaccinium scoparium, Ribes spp., and Salix spp. Herbaceous species diversity is high and extremely variable between stands. However, herbaceous undergrowth is dominated by Equisetum arvense, which generally is the most abundant species, with average cover 30-40%, although it can have less than 10% cover. Other forbs and grasses present are mesic or hydric. Typical species include Calamagrostis canadensis, Glyceria spp., Caltha leptosepala, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Athyrium filix-femina, Osmorhiza berteroi, Senecio triangularis, Cardamine cordifolia, Streptopus amplexifolius, and Maianthemum stellatum, among many others. Disturbance from flooding is necessary to maintain this community.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This association is defined as a PNV vegetation type. If it were renamed as a dominance type the species would include Picea engelmannii and Abronia latifolia (ABLA2). This association now includes the former Picea (engelmannii x glauca, engelmannii) / Equisetum arvense Forest (CEGL000408), originally identified by Pfister et al. (1977) from throughout western Montana. Picea engelmannii and/or Picea x albertiana (= Picea engelmannii x glauca) (hybrids) are the diagnostic overstory species in this plant association. Stands can include pure Picea engelmannii and PPicea x albertiana hybrid, or both. Hansen et al. (1995) explained that the frequent absence of mature cones, similar morphology, and ecological amplitudes led them to lump Picea engelmannii and Picea glauca (hybrids) into a single type, as did Pfister et al. (1977).

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Nc - Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Riparian & Swamp Forest
Group Rocky Mountain-Great Basin Montane Riparian & Swamp Forest
Alliance Subalpine Fir - Engelmann Spruce Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL000389 Picea pungens / Equisetum arvense Riparian Woodland
CEGL000405 Picea (x albertiana, engelmannii) / Carex disperma Swamp Forest
CEGL000894 Picea pungens / Alnus incana Riparian Woodland
CEGL005907 Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa - Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Riparian Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Forest Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Forest Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
Oregon Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004
Wyoming Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Forest Equivalent Certain WNDD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Abies lasiocarpa - Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Abies lasiocarpa - Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.
Related Concept Name: Picea / Equisetum arvense Community Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985b. Riparian community type classification of northern Utah and adjacent Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 104 pp.
Related Concept Name: Picea / Equisetum arvense Habitat Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense - Streptopus
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Huckaby, L. S., and W. H. Moir 1998. Forest communities at Fraser Experimental Forest. Southwestern Naturalist 43(2):204-218.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Habitat Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Mauk, R. L., and J. A. Henderson. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah. General Technical Report INT-170. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 89 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Steele, R., R. D. Pfister, R. A. Ryker, and J. A. Kittams. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. General Technical Report INT-114. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 138 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Steele, R., S. V. Cooper, D. M. Ondov, D. W. Roberts, and R. D. Pfister. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming. General Technical Report INT-144. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 122 pp.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Williams, C. K., B. F. Kelly, B. G. Smith, and T. R. Lillybridge. 1995. Forest plant associations of the Colville National Forest. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-360. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 140 pp.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Williams, C. K., and T. R. Lillybridge. 1983. Forested plant associations of the Okanogan National Forest. R6-Ecol-132b-1983. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 140 pp.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum spp. Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.
Related Concept Name: Picea engelmannii/Equisetum arvense Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crawford, R. C., C. B. Chappell, C. C. Thompson, and F. J. Rocchio. 2009. Vegetation classification of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic national parks. Plant association descriptions and identification keys: Appendices A-G. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR--2009/D-586. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 586 pp.
Related Concept Name: Picea pungens - Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Plant Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Johnston, B. C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. R2-ECOL-87-2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Lakewood, CO. 429 pp.
Related Concept Name: C78: Picea engelmannii / Equisetum arvense Vegetation Type
Relationship: I - Intersecting
Reference: Achuff, P. L., R. L. McNeil, M. L. Coleman, C. Wallis and C. Wershler. 2002. Ecological land classification of Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Volume I: Integrated resource description. Parks Canada, Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. 226 pp.
Related Concept Name: Conifer / Equisetum arvense Community Type
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES306.803 Northern Rocky Mountain Conifer Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4 (01Feb1996)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CO, ID, MT, OR, UT, WA, WY
Canadian Province Distribution: AB
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This association occurs in the mountains of southeastern Oregon, eastern Washington, central and eastern Idaho, eastern Montana, western Wyoming, south into the Wasatch Range in Utah and into northern Colorado. It also is found in Alberta, Canada, and may occur in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Division
Province Name: Intermountain Semi-Desert Province
Province Code: 342 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northwestern Basin and Range Section
Section Code: 342B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Overthrust Mountains Section
Section Code: M331D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: South-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331G Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: North-Central Highlands Section
Section Code: M331H Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Parks and Ranges Section
Section Code: M331I Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Wind River Mountain Section
Section Code: M331J Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Middle Rocky Mountain Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M332 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Valley Section
Section Code: M332B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Rocky Mountain Front Section
Section Code: M332C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Belt Mountains Section
Section Code: M332D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Beaverhead Mountains Section
Section Code: M332E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Challis Volcanics Section
Section Code: M332F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Okanogan Highlands Section
Section Code: M333A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Flathead Valley Section
Section Code: M333B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Rockies Section
Section Code: M333C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Bitterroot Mountains Section
Section Code: M333D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Temperate Desert Regime Mountains
Province Name: Nevada-Utah Mountains Semi-Desert - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M341 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Utah High Plateaus and Mountains Section
Section Code: M341C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This forested association is dominated by Picea engelmannii or Picea x albertiana (= Picea engelmannii x glauca) hybrids, with 20-70% cover. Other conifers typically present are Pinus contorta and Abies lasiocarpa. Other tree species occasionally present, depending on geographic location are Picea pungens, Populus tremuloides, Populus angustifolia, and Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa. Picea engelmannii is typically successfully reproducing in the understory, with shrub-sized trees well-represented. Tall-shrub cover is highly variable and quite diverse, as is the short-shrub layer. Total shrub cover is generally low (<5%), but has been reported as high as 50%. Typical species include Alnus incana, Cornus sericea, Lonicera involucrata, Vaccinium scoparium, Ribes spp., Rubus spp., and Salix spp. The herbaceous undergrowth is dominated by Equisetum arvense, which generally is the most abundant species, with average cover 30-40%, although it can have less than 10% cover. Other forbs and grasses present are mesic or hydric. Typical species include Calamagrostis canadensis, Glyceria spp., Caltha leptosepala, Gymnocarpium dryopteris, Athyrium filix-femina, Osmorhiza berteroi (= Osmorhiza chilensis), Senecio triangularis, Cardamine cordifolia, Streptopus amplexifolius, and Maianthemum stellatum (= Smilacina stellata), among many others. Occasionally stands may support Viola glabella, Tiarella trifoliata, or Gymnocarpium dryopteris with canopy cover of 20-25%.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Picea engelmannii G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Maianthemum stellatum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Streptopus amplexifolius G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Equisetum arvense G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This forested association occurs on gently sloping stream terraces, wet benches, flat, poorly drained sites, and sidehill seeps, from 1000 to 2880 m (3300-9440 feet) in elevation. It occurs in sites too cold or too wet for Abies lasiocarpa to be abundant. It can occur adjacent to the wet forest margins of lakes, fens or bogs, and is often associated with the margins of wet basins or subirrigated terraces and toeslopes. Soils are Mollisols, or Histosols, sandy loam to clay textures, often with a mucky organic surface layer and usually occur over coarse alluvial or glacial material.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Hop et al. (2007)
Element Description Edition Date: 14Jul2005
Element Description Author(s): G. Kittel and S.L. Neid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • ANHIC [Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre]. 2018. Community database files. Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, Parks and Protected Areas Division, Alberta Community Development, Edmonton.

  • Achuff, P. L., R. L. McNeil, M. L. Coleman, C. Wallis and C. Wershler. 2002. Ecological land classification of Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Volume I: Integrated resource description. Parks Canada, Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. 226 pp.

  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • CNHP [Colorado Natural Heritage Program]. 2006-2017. Tracked natural plant communities. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins. [https://cnhp.colostate.edu/ourdata/trackinglist/plant_communities/]

  • Carsey, K., G. Kittel, K. Decker, D. J. Cooper, and D. Culver. 2003a. Field guide to the wetland and riparian plant associations of Colorado. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Cogan, D., K. Varga, and G. Kittel. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway. Final Project Report 2002-2005 Vegetation Mapping Project. Technical Memorandum 8260-06-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 87 pp. plus Appendixes A-F.

  • Cooper, D. J. 1986a. Ecological studies of wetland vegetation, Cross Creek Valley, Holy Cross Wilderness Area, Sawatch Range, Colorado. Holy Cross Wilderness Defense Fund, Technical Report No. 2. 24 pp.

  • Cooper, D. J., and T. R. Cottrell. 1990. Classification of riparian vegetation in the northern Colorado Front Range. Unpublished report prepared for The Nature Conservancy, Colorado Field Office, Boulder. 115 pp.

  • Cooper, S. V. 1975. Forest habitat types of northwestern Wyoming and contiguous portion of Montana and Idaho. Unpublished dissertation, Washington State University, Pullman. 190 pp.

  • Crawford, R. C., C. B. Chappell, C. C. Thompson, and F. J. Rocchio. 2009. Vegetation classification of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic national parks. Plant association descriptions and identification keys: Appendices A-G. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR--2009/D-586. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 586 pp.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Crowe, E. A., and R. R. Clausnitzer. 1997. Mid-montane wetland plant associations of the Malheur, Umatilla, and Wallowa-Whitman national forests. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-22-97. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR.

  • Hansen, P. L., R. D. Pfister, K. Boggs, B. J. Cook, J. Joy, and D. K. Hinckley. 1995. Classification and management of Montana's riparian and wetland sites. Miscellaneous Publication No. 54. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, School of Forestry, University of Montana. 646 pp. plus posters.

  • Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • Huckaby, L. S., and W. H. Moir 1998. Forest communities at Fraser Experimental Forest. Southwestern Naturalist 43(2):204-218.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Jensen, S. E. 1990. Wetlands delineation, Moose Meadow Ranch, Fremont County, Idaho. White Horse Associates, Smithfield, UT. 17 pp.

  • Johnston, B. C. 1987. Plant associations of Region Two: Potential plant communities of Wyoming, South Dakota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Kansas. R2-ECOL-87-2. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. Lakewood, CO. 429 pp.

  • Jones, G., and S. Ogle. 2000. Characterization abstracts for vegetation types on the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, and Shoshone national forests. Prepared for USDA Forest Service, Region 2 by the Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kettler, S., and A. McMullen. 1996. Routt National Forest riparian vegetation classification. Report prepared for Routt National Forest by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, A. McMullen, and J. Sanderson. 1999b. A classification of riparian and wetland plant associations of Colorado: A user's guide to the classification project. Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO. 70 pp. plus appendices.

  • Kittel, G., E. Van Wie, M. Damm, R. Rondeau, S. Kettler, and J. Sanderson. 1999a. A classification of the riparian plant associations of the Rio Grande and Closed Basin watersheds, Colorado. Unpublished report prepared by the Colorado Natural Heritage Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 1987. Riparian zone associations - Deschutes, Ochoco, Fremont, and Winema national forests. Technical Paper 279-87. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 171 pp.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 1993. Riparian plant associations on the national forests of eastern Washington - Draft version 1. USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 203 pp.

  • Kovalchik, B. L. 2001. Classification and management of aquatic, riparian and wetland sites on the national forests of eastern Washington. Part 1: The series descriptions. 429 pp. plus appendix. [http://www.reo.gov/col/wetland_classification/wetland_classification.pdf]

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • Manning, M. E., and W. G. Padgett. 1995. Riparian community type classification for Humboldt and Toiyabe national forests, Nevada and eastern California. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 306 pp.

  • Mauk, R. L., and J. A. Henderson. 1984. Coniferous forest habitat types of northern Utah. General Technical Report INT-170. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 89 pp.

  • Moseley, R. K., R. J. Bursik, and M. Manusco. 1991. Floristic inventory of wetlands in Fremont and Teton counties, Idaho. Unpublished report on file IDCDC Department of Fish & Game, Boise, ID. 60 pp.

  • Padgett, W. G., A. P. Youngblood, and A. H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. Research Paper R4-ECOL-89-0. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

  • Peet, R. K. 1975. Forest vegetation of the east slope of the northern Colorado Front Range. Unpublished dissertation, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

  • Pfister, R. D., B. L. Kovalchik, S. F. Arno, and R. C. Presby. 1977. Forest habitat types of Montana. General Technical Report INT-34. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 174 pp.

  • Reid, M. S., S. V. Cooper, and G. Kittel. 2004. Vegetation classification of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. Final report for USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, International Peace Park Mapping Project. NatureServe, Arlington VA.

  • Salas, D., J. Stevens, and K. Schulz. 2005. USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program: Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Technical Memorandum No. 8260-05-02. USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO. 161 pp. plus Appendices A-L (733 pp.).

  • Steele, R., R. D. Pfister, R. A. Ryker, and J. A. Kittams. 1981. Forest habitat types of central Idaho. General Technical Report INT-114. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 138 pp.

  • Steele, R., S. V. Cooper, D. M. Ondov, D. W. Roberts, and R. D. Pfister. 1983. Forest habitat types of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming. General Technical Report INT-144. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 122 pp.

  • Tendick, A., B. Friesen, G. Kittel, P. Williams, J. Coles, A. Wight, G. Wakefield, and A. Evenden. 2011a. Vegetation classification and mapping project report, Cedar Breaks National Monument. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCPN/NRTR--2011/470. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • WNDD [Wyoming Natural Diversity Database]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.

  • Williams, C. K., B. F. Kelly, B. G. Smith, and T. R. Lillybridge. 1995. Forest plant associations of the Colville National Forest. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-360. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 140 pp.

  • Williams, C. K., T. R. Lillybridge, and B. G. Smith. 1990b. Forested plant associations of the Colville National Forest. Report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Colville National Forest, Colville, WA. 133 pp.

  • Williams, C. K., and B. G. Smith. 1990. Forested plant associations of the Wenatchee National Forest. Unpublished draft prepared by the USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 217 pp.

  • Williams, C. K., and T. R. Lillybridge. 1983. Forested plant associations of the Okanogan National Forest. R6-Ecol-132b-1983. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 140 pp.

  • Williams, C. K., and T. R. Lillybridge. 1985. Forested plant associations of the Colville National Forest. Draft. Unpublished field guide prepared for USDA Forest Service.

  • Youngblood, A. P., W. G. Padgett, and A. H. Winward. 1985b. Riparian community type classification of northern Utah and adjacent Idaho. Unpublished report prepared for USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Region, Ogden, UT. 104 pp.

  • Youngblood, A. P., and W. F. Mueggler. 1981. Aspen community types on the Bridger-Teton National Forest in western Wyoming. Research Paper INT-272. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Ogden, UT. 34 pp.


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Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

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Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019