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Quercus prinus - (Quercus coccinea, Quercus rubra) / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
Translated Name: Chestnut Oak - (Scarlet Oak, Northern Red Oak) / Mountain Laurel / Blue Ridge Blueberry Forest
Common Name: Central Appalachian-Northern Piedmont Chestnut Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006299
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This chestnut oak forest occurs at relatively low elevations (mostly <900 m) in the Central Appalachians and adjacent areas (e.g., northern Piedmont), in association with dry, acidic, infertile soils on middle and upper slopes. The canopy, which may be rather short, is strongly dominated by Quercus prinus. The most characteristic canopy associates are Quercus coccinea, which varies from sparse to codominant, and Quercus rubra. Minor associates frequently include Quercus velutina, Quercus alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Sassafras albidum, and/or Robinia pseudoacacia. Root sprouts of Castanea dentata are present in some areas. Acer rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica are often abundant in the understory tree layers. Tall shrubs include Kalmia latifolia (usually dominant), Viburnum acerifolium, and Rhododendron periclymenoides. The short-shrub layer is well-developed and includes Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, and Gaylussacia baccata, any one of which can exhibit patch-dominance. The herb layer generally has sparse cover but sometimes includes scattered individuals of Aureolaria laevigata, Chimaphila maculata, Comandra umbellata, Cypripedium acaule, Danthonia spicata, Epigaea repens, Gaultheria procumbens, Hieracium venosum, Lysimachia quadrifolia, Medeola virginiana, Monotropa uniflora, Pteridium aquilinum, and/or Uvularia puberula. Strong dominance of Quercus prinus in the canopy, strong dominance of Kalmia latifolia in the tall-shrub layer, and Vaccinium pallidum present and often abundant as a short shrub are diagnostics for this type.



Classification

Classification Confidence: High
Classification Comments: This community can be readily identified by its dry, infertile sites and quite species-poor vegetation overwhelmingly dominated by Quercus prinus and Kalmia latifolia (each averaging 25 to 50% cover in more than 80 Virginia and Maryland plot samples), with Acer rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica abundant in the subcanopy. Two variants of the type have been detected in quantitative analyses: (1) a variant with Quercus rubra as the principal associate of Quercus prinus, with Betula lenta and Hamamelis virginiana often important in the subcanopy and shrub layers, typically occurring on sheltered slopes, often with northerly aspects; and (2) a variant with Quercus coccinea as the principal associate of Quercus prinus, occurring with Gaylussacia baccata and Rhododendron periclymenoides, typically on warmer, more open and exposed sites, especially those with a more discernible history of heavy cutting and fire within the last 100 years. However, these variants and their habitats are fully intergradational and have few other floristic attributes that could be considered reliably "diagnostic." This association is the Central Appalachian analogue of Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest (CEGL006271). It is compositionally similar but generally lacks Southern Appalachian species such as Galax urceolata, Oxydendrum arboreum, and Leucothoe recurva. At the southern end of its range, there is a transition zone and many stands could be assigned equally well to either type.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest
Alliance Chestnut Oak - Scarlet Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006057 Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Hamamelis virginiana Forest
CEGL006271 Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest
CEGL006282 Quercus prinus - Quercus (rubra, velutina) / Vaccinium (angustifolium, pallidum) Forest
CEGL008521 Quercus alba - Quercus (coccinea, velutina, prinus) / Gaylussacia baccata Forest
CEGL008523 Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Vaccinium pallidum - (Rhododendron periclymenoides) Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Central Appalachian/Northern Piedmont Chestnut Oak Forest Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Pennsylvania Dry Oak - Heath Forest Intersects   Fike 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - (Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina) / Kalmia latifolia - Vaccinium pallidum Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - (Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina) / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana / Kalmia latifolia / Gaultheria procumbens Association
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., G. P. Fleming, and F. V. Judge. 1994. Forest vegetation of the Ramsey's Draft and Little Laurel Run Research Natural Areas, Virginia: Baseline ecological monitoring and classification. Natural Heritage Technical Report 94-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 45 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana / Kalmia latifolia / Gaylussacia baccata Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium pallidum Association, pro parte
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - (Quercus coccinea, Quercus rubra) / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: Composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-12. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 341 pp. plus appendices.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J., and B. P. Streets. 2006. Vegetation classification and mapping of Camp Dawson Army Training Site, West Virginia: Second approximation. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 83 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus / Kalmia latifolia - Rhododendron periclymenoides Forest
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus / Kalmia latifolia / Vaccinium pallidum Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus / Smilax rotundifolia - Polypodium virginianum Subassociation
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Mixed Oak - Heath Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Oak / Heath Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Xeric oak - evergreen heath forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.591 Central Appalachian Dry Oak-Pine Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G5 (29Jan2004)
Rounded Global Status: G5 - Secure
Reasons: Extensive examples occur in Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: DC, DE, MD, PA, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This association is currently described from the Central Appalachians and northern part of the Piedmont in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, and West Virginia. In northern Virginia, the District of Columbia, and Maryland, it occasionally occurs at the extreme western edge of the Coastal Plain on steep ravine slopes of the fall zone. It also occurs at the northern periphery of the Southern Blue Ridge near Roanoke, Virginia.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The canopy is strongly dominated by Quercus prinus or, less frequently, by combinations of Quercus prinus and other oaks. The most frequent canopy associates are Quercus coccinea, which varies from sparse to codominant, and Quercus rubra. Minor associates frequently include Quercus velutina, Quercus alba, Nyssa sylvatica, Betula lenta, and Sassafras albidum. Acer rubrum and Nyssa sylvatica are usually abundant in the understory tree layers. Tall shrubs Kalmia latifolia (usually dominant), Viburnum acerifolium, and Rhododendron periclymenoides are often associated, sometimes at low cover. The short-shrub layer is well-developed and includes Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum, and Gaylussacia baccata, any one of which can exhibit patch-dominance. Occasional stands lack Kalmia latifolia and have an entirely deciduous, ericaceous shrub layer. The herb layer generally has sparse cover but sometimes includes Aureolaria laevigata, Chimaphila maculata, Comandra umbellata, Cypripedium acaule, Danthonia spicata, Epigaea repens, Gaultheria procumbens, Hieracium venosum, Lysimachia quadrifolia, Medeola virginiana, Monotropa uniflora, Pteridium aquilinum, and Uvularia puberula. Strong dominance of Quercus prinus in the canopy, strong dominance of Kalmia latifolia in the tall-shrub layer, and Vaccinium pallidum present and often abundant as a short shrub are diagnostics for this type.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Quercus coccinea G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy    
 
 
Quercus prinus G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Tsuga caroliniana G5 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Acer rubrum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Nyssa sylvatica G5 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Kalmia latifolia G5 Broad-leaved evergreen shrub Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Gaylussacia baccata G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling      
 
 
Vaccinium pallidum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling  
 
 
Vaccinium stamineum G5 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Short shrub/sapling    
 
 
Heuchera caroliniana G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Monotropsis odorata G5 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex polymorpha G5 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Carex polymorpha
  (Variable Sedge)
G3  
Heuchera caroliniana
  (Carolina Alumroot)
G3  
Monotropsis odorata
  (Sweet Pinesap)
G3  
Tsuga caroliniana
  (Carolina Hemlock)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This association is found on acidic, infertile soils on low-elevation (mostly <900 m), middle and upper slopes (occasionally on lower slopes). Sites are often exposed, or at least on convex slopes, and moisture potential is typically subxeric to xeric. Sandy loam soils, often stony, are typical. Some exposed bedrock is often present. Many sites have a history of occasional or frequent fires.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Windthrow, fire, and ice storms are common natural disturbances in these habitats. Evidence of past fires is present at many sites, and periodic fire appears to be an important ecological factor in oak regeneration. Development of Acer rubrum-dominated understories in these forests is widely considered to be the result of drastic reductions of fire frequencies or exclusion of fire altogether. Castanea dentata was formerly an important canopy species in these forests prior to chestnut blight.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Eastern Ecology Group, mod S. Neid and G.P. Fleming
Element Description Edition Date: 22Feb2010
Element Description Author(s): S. Neid, G.P. Fleming, E. Largay and S.C. Gawler
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 29Jan2004
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): S.L. Neid

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, H. A., and E. C. Leonard. 1943. The vegetation and floristics of Bull Run Mountain, Virginia. Castanea 8:1-64.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002a. Ecological communities of the Bull Run Mountains, Virginia: Baseline vegetation and floristic data for conservation planning and natural area stewardship. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-12. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 274 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2002b. Preliminary classification of Piedmont & Inner Coastal Plain vegetation types in Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 29 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P. 2007. Ecological communities of the Potomac Gorge in Virginia: Composition, floristics, and environmental dynamics. Natural Heritage Technical Report 07-12. Unpublished report submitted to the National Park Service. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 341 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2003. Preliminary vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. Taverna. 2006. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, western region. Regional (VA-WVA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2006. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 1996. Ecological land units of the Laurel Fork Area, Highland County, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 114 pp. plus appendices.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2003. Vegetation types in the National Capital Region Parks. Draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. March 2003. 140 pp.

  • Lea, C. 2004. Draft vegetation types in National Capital Region Parks. Edited by S.C. Gawler and J. Teague. Working draft for review by NatureServe, Virginia Natural Heritage, West Virginia Natural Heritage, Maryland Natural Heritage, and National Park Service. July 2004. 157 pp.

  • Rawinski, T. J., G. P. Fleming, and F. V. Judge. 1994. Forest vegetation of the Ramsey's Draft and Little Laurel Run Research Natural Areas, Virginia: Baseline ecological monitoring and classification. Natural Heritage Technical Report 94-14. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 45 pp. plus appendices.

  • Rawinski, T. J., K. N. Hickman, J. Waller-Eling, G. P. Fleming, C. S. Austin, S. D. Helmick, C. Huber, G. Kappesser, F. C. Huber, Jr., T. Bailey, and T. K. Collins. 1996. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Glenwood Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 96-20. Richmond. 65 pp. plus appendices.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001a. Plant community classification and mapping of the Camp Dawson Collective Training Area, Preston County, West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 101 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J., and B. P. Streets. 2006. Vegetation classification and mapping of Camp Dawson Army Training Site, West Virginia: Second approximation. Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins. 83 pp.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, P. Townsend, and J. Foster. 2006. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients. Final Report (v.1.1). Research technical report prepared for USDI, National Park Service. USGS/NPS Vegetation Mapping Program. 92 pp. plus appendices.

  • Young, J., G. Fleming, W. Cass, and C. Lea. 2009. Vegetation of Shenandoah National Park in relation to environmental gradients, Version 2.0. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2009/142. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 389 pp.


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