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Alnus serrulata - Salix nigra / Pilea (fontana, pumila) Tidal Shrub Swamp
Translated Name: Hazel Alder - Black Willow / (Lesser Clearweed, Canadian Clearweed) Tidal Shrub Swamp
Common Name: Alder - Black Willow Tidal Shrub Swamp
Unique Identifier: CEGL006843
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This tidal alder - black willow shrubland of the Maryland and Virginia Coastal Plain occurs on the upper reaches of freshwater tidal rivers, forming a zone between adjacent freshwater tidal marshes and uplands. Microtopography is variable, ranging from pronounced hummocks and hollows to flat. The substrate is partially decomposed peat with sand or silt admixed. The shrub canopy is relatively open and dominated by Salix nigra, or mixed with other shrubs such as Cephalanthus occidentalis, Acer rubrum, Acer negundo, Alnus serrulata, Cornus amomum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Corylus americana, Ilex verticillata, Lindera benzoin, Rosa palustris, and Viburnum dentatum. Vines include Mikania scandens, Apios americana, and Toxicodendron radicans. The herbaceous layer is relatively diverse and is composed of Symphyotrichum novi-belgii, Boehmeria cylindrica, Galium obtusum, Hibiscus moscheutos, Impatiens capensis, Geum canadense, Cinna arundinacea, Leersia oryzoides, Peltandra virginica, Pilea pumila, Pilea fontana, Polygonum arifolium, Polygonum punctatum, Polygonum sagittatum, and Thalictrum pubescens (= Thalictrum polygamum).



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Eastern North American Shrub Swamp
Alliance Alluvial & Tidal Alder - Dogwood Shrub Swamp

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006337 Alnus (incana ssp. rugosa, serrulata) - Cornus amomum Tidal Shrub Swamp



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Maryland Alnus serrulata - Salix nigra / Pilea (fontana, pumila) Tidal Shrubland Equivalent Certain Harrison 2011


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Alnus serrulata - Salix nigra / Pilea fontana Tidal Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.
Related Concept Name: Alnus serrulata - Salix nigra / Pilea fontana Tidally Flooded Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCoy, K. M., and G. P. Fleming. 2000. Ecological communities of U.S. Army Garrison, Fort Belvoir, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Army. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 156 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Salix nigra Tidal Shrubland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Freshwater Shrubland
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tidal Shrub Swamp
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES203.516 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Fresh and Oligohaline Tidal Marsh


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (01Jun2004)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: MD, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This vegetation occurs on the Coastal Plain of Virginia and Maryland.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plains and Flatwoods, Lower Section
Section Code: 232B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The shrub canopy is relatively open and dominated by Salix nigra, or mixed with other shrubs such as Cephalanthus occidentalis, Acer rubrum, Acer negundo, Alnus serrulata, Cornus amomum, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Corylus americana, Ilex verticillata, Lindera benzoin, Rosa palustris, and Viburnum dentatum. Vines include Mikania scandens, Apios americana, and Toxicodendron radicans. The herbaceous layer is relatively diverse and is composed of Symphyotrichum novi-belgii, Boehmeria cylindrica, Galium obtusum, Hibiscus moscheutos, Impatiens capensis, Geum canadense, Cinna arundinacea, Leersia oryzoides, Peltandra virginica, Pilea pumila, Pilea fontana, Polygonum arifolium, Polygonum punctatum, Polygonum sagittatum, and Thalictrum pubescens (= Thalictrum polygamum).

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Salix nigra GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tall shrub/sapling  
 
 
Alnus serrulata GNR Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Tall shrub/sapling    
 
 
Pilea fontana GNR Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Pilea pumila GNR Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: This tidal alder - black willow shrubland of the Maryland and Virginia Coastal Plain occurs on the upper reaches of freshwater tidal rivers, forming a zone between adjacent freshwater tidal marshes and uplands. Microtopography is variable, ranging from pronounced hummocks and hollows to flat. The substrate is partially decomposed peat with sand or silt admixed.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): J. Harrison and P. Coulling
Element Description Edition Date: 01Jun2007
Element Description Author(s): L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Coulling, P. P. 2002. A preliminary classification of tidal marsh, shrub swamp, and hardwood swamp vegetation and assorted non-tidal, chiefly non-maritime, herbaceous wetland communities of the Virginia Coastal Plain. October 2002. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. Natural Heritage Technical Report 02-18. 30 pp.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P., K. Taverna, and P. P. Coulling. 2007b. Vegetation classification for the National Capitol Region parks, eastern region. Regional (VA-MD-DC) analysis prepared for NatureServe and USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, March 2007. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., and P. Stango, III. 2003. Shrubland tidal wetland communities of Maryland's Eastern Shore: Identification, assessment and monitoring. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 118 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • McCoy, K. M., and G. P. Fleming. 2000. Ecological communities of U.S. Army Garrison, Fort Belvoir, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Unpublished report submitted to the U.S. Army. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-08. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 156 pp. plus appendices.

  • VDNH [Virginia Division of Natural Heritage]. 2003. The natural communities of Virginia: Hierarchical classification of community types. Unpublished document, working list of November 2003. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Ecology Group, Richmond.


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