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Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis Riparian Forest
Translated Name: Red Alder / Salmonberry Riparian Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL000639
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community type is found throughout the northern Puget Trough lowlands of Washington, although there are few remaining undisturbed examples. It typically occurs along the upland margin of wetlands and on the floodplains of streams and rivers. Soils range from alluvium to veneers of muck and peat. It may be seasonally flooded and soils are usually saturated year-round. Alnus rubra forms a nearly closed canopy. Rubus spectabilis can be the only species in the understory. Additional species include Athyrium filix-femina, Equisetum hyemale, Galium trifidum, Lonicera involucrata, Lysichiton americanus, Frangula purshiana, Ribes sp., Rubus ursinus, Sambucus racemosa, Thuja plicata, Tiarella trifoliata, Tolmiea menziesii, and Tsuga heterophylla.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: Hebda and Biggs (1981) described this community type on alluvium in previously logged areas. Douglas (1971) briefly described an Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis community on low-elevation wet valley floors in the North Cascades of Washington. He also described an Alnus rubra / Acer circinatum - Rubus spectabilis / Athyrium filix-femina community which appears to fit this community type and is moving towards a Thuja plicata wet forest community type. Christy (1993) referenced Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis communities in Oregon within the Thuja plicata / Lysichiton americanus community.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Ng - Vancouverian Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Vancouverian Flooded & Swamp Forest
Group North-Central Pacific Lowland Riparian Forest
Alliance Bigleaf Maple - Red Alder Riparian Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Oregon Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis Equivalent Certain Kagan et al. 2004


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis / Oxalis spp. community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Diaz, N. M., and T. K. Mellen. 1996. Riparian ecological types, Gifford Pinchot and Mt. Hood national forests, and Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. Technical Report R6-NR-TP-10-96. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 203 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis / Tolmiea menziesii community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Diaz, N. M., and T. K. Mellen. 1996. Riparian ecological types, Gifford Pinchot and Mt. Hood national forests, and Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. Technical Report R6-NR-TP-10-96. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 203 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Murray, M. P. 2000. Wetland plant associations of the western hemlock zone in the central coastal and westslope Cascade Mountains. Unpublished report, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland, OR. 82 pp. [http://www.natureserve.org/nhp/us/or/nw_or_wetlands.pdf]
Related Concept Name: Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Copass, C., and T. Ramm-Granberg. 2016a. Ebey?s Landing National Historical Reserve vegetation inventory and mapping project. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR--2016/1127. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 194 pp.
Related Concept Name: Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis Forest Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Rocchio, F. J., R. C. Crawford, and C. C. Thompson. 2012. San Juan Island National Historical Park vegetation classification and mapping project. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR--2012/603. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 188 pp.
Related Concept Name: Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis community type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.
Related Concept Name: Alnus rubra-Populus trichocarpa/Rubus spectabilis community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Agee, J. K. 1987. The forest of San Juan Island National Historic Park. Unpublished report prepared by the University of Washington for the USDA National Park Service. Report CPSU/UW 88-1. 83 pp.
Related Concept Name: Alnus rubra/Rubus spectabilis Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crawford, R. C., C. B. Chappell, C. C. Thompson, and F. J. Rocchio. 2009. Vegetation classification of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic national parks. Plant association descriptions and identification keys: Appendices A-G. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR--2009/D-586. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 586 pp.
Related Concept Name: Alnus rubra/Rubus spectabilis
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Chappell, C. B., and R. C. Crawford. 2005. Progress report: Vegetation classifications for Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic national parks. USDI National Park Service, Port Angeles, WA. 3 pp. plus 3 appendices.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES204.869 North Pacific Lowland Riparian Forest and Shrubland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (26Apr2000)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CA, OR, WA
Canadian Province Distribution: BCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canadapotentially occurs, United States

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Division
Province Name: Pacific Lowland Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Willamette Valley and Puget Trough Section
Section Code: 242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Oregon and Washington Coast Ranges Section
Section Code: M242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Western Cascades Section
Section Code: M242B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Alnus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Rubus spectabilis G4 Liana Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Western Ecology Group
Element Description Edition Date: 04Jan2016
Element Description Author(s): L.M. Kunze (1994)

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Agee, J. K. 1987. The forest of San Juan Island National Historic Park. Unpublished report prepared by the University of Washington for the USDA National Park Service. Report CPSU/UW 88-1. 83 pp.

  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Chappell, C. B., and R. C. Crawford. 2005. Progress report: Vegetation classifications for Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic national parks. USDI National Park Service, Port Angeles, WA. 3 pp. plus 3 appendices.

  • Christy, J. A. 1993. Classification and catalog of native wetland plant communities in Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 63 pp.

  • Copass, C., and T. Ramm-Granberg. 2016a. Ebey?s Landing National Historical Reserve vegetation inventory and mapping project. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR--2016/1127. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 194 pp.

  • Crawford, R. C., C. B. Chappell, C. C. Thompson, and F. J. Rocchio. 2009. Vegetation classification of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic national parks. Plant association descriptions and identification keys: Appendices A-G. Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR--2009/D-586. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 586 pp.

  • Diaz, N. M., and T. K. Mellen. 1996. Riparian ecological types, Gifford Pinchot and Mt. Hood national forests, and Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. Technical Report R6-NR-TP-10-96. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 203 pp. plus appendices.

  • Douglas, G. W. 1971. An ecological survey of potential natural areas in the North Cascades National Park complex. Unpublished report prepared for Intercampus Education and Science Preserves Commission, State of Washington. 137 pp.

  • Franklin, J. F., W. H. Moir, M. A. Hemstrom, S. E. Greene, and B. G. Smith. 1988. The forest communities of Mount Rainier National Park. USDI National Park Service. Scientific Monograph Series 19. Washington, DC. 194 pp.

  • Franklin, J. F., W. H. Moir, M. A. Hemstrom, and S. Greene. 1979. Forest ecosystems of Mount Rainier National Park. Unpublished report prepared for the USDI National Park Service.

  • Hebda, R. J., and W. G. Biggs. 1981. The vegetation of Burns Bog, Fraser Delta, southwestern British Columbia. Syesis 14:1-20.

  • Henderson, J. A. 1970. Biomass and composition of the understory vegetation in some Alnus rubra stands in western Oregon. Unpublished thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. 64 pp.

  • Henderson, J. A. 1978. Plant succession on the Alnus rubra / Rubus spectabilis habitat type in western Oregon. Northwest Science 52:(3):156-167.

  • Kagan, J. S., E. M. Nielsen, M. D. Noone, J. C. van Warmerdam, L. K. Wise, G. Kittel, and C. Copass. 2012. Lewis and Clark National Historic Park vegetation classification and mapping project report. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR--2012/597. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.

  • Murray, M. P. 2000. Wetland plant associations of the western hemlock zone in the central coastal and westslope Cascade Mountains. Unpublished report, Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland, OR. 82 pp. [http://www.natureserve.org/nhp/us/or/nw_or_wetlands.pdf]

  • Rocchio, F. J., R. C. Crawford, and C. C. Thompson. 2012. San Juan Island National Historical Park vegetation classification and mapping project. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR--2012/603. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO. 188 pp.

  • Titus, J. H., J. A. Christy, D. Vander Schaaf, J. S. Kagan, and E. R. Alverson. 1996. Native wetland, riparian, and upland plant communities and their biota in the Willamette Valley, Oregon. Report to the Environmental Protection Agency, Region X, Seattle, WA. Willamette Basin Geographic Initiative. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, The Nature Conservancy, Portland, OR.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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