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Quercus prinus - (Quercus rubra) - Carya spp. / Oxydendrum arboreum - Cornus florida Forest
Translated Name: Chestnut Oak - (Northern Red Oak) - Hickory species / Sourwood - Flowering Dogwood Forest
Common Name: Appalachian Montane Oak - Hickory Forest (Chestnut Oak Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL007267
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This community is known from low to intermediate elevations of the Southern Blue Ridge escarpment, the Great Smoky Mountains, Piedmont transition areas, into the Southern Ridge and Valley, and in the Cumberlands in southern West Virginia. It occurs on relatively exposed landforms below 1000 m (3280 feet) elevation (220-1000 m [700-3280 feet]), on nearly level to steep, convex, middle to upper slopes, ridges, and plateaus, with mostly northwestern to southeastern aspects. These are forests characterized by canopies dominated by Quercus and Carya species that do not have a well-developed heath shrub layer. Acer rubrum and Liriodendron tulipifera may have significant coverage, apparently related to logging history. The predominant oaks and hickories in the canopy are Quercus prinus, Carya glabra, Carya alba, Carya ovata, Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina, Quercus alba, and Quercus rubra. Additional canopy and subcanopy species can include Nyssa sylvatica, Magnolia fraseri, Halesia tetraptera var. monticola, Fagus grandifolia, Ilex opaca, and Oxydendrum arboreum. In addition, Cornus florida is characteristic and may be dominant in the subcanopy and tall-shrub layers; other tall-shrub species include Magnolia fraseri, Hamamelis virginiana, and Sassafras albidum. Kalmia latifolia or Rhododendron maximum may be present but only at very low cover. The short-shrub stratum is sparse (up to 20% cover), with no clear dominant. Some typical shrub species include Vaccinium pallidum, Viburnum acerifolium, and (in the central and southern portions of the type's range) Gaylussacia ursina, Hydrangea arborescens, and Hydrangea radiata. Common vines are Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Toxicodendron radicans, Vitis aestivalis, Vitis rotundifolia, and Vitis vulpina. Herb cover is sparse to moderate; diversity and species composition vary among occurrences. Some of the more typical herb species include Eurybia divaricata, Dioscorea quaternata, Maianthemum racemosum, Polystichum acrostichoides, Solidago caesia, Uvularia perfoliata, and Uvularia puberula.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: This forest lacks the dense ericaceous shrub layer typical of other Quercus prinus-dominated forests in the Blue Ridge escarpment region and commonly has diverse herbaceous composition. It is distinguished from similar forests in the Ridge and Valley by lacking Acer saccharum and from Piedmont forests by the lack of Quercus falcata and Quercus stellata, and by the presence of species more typical of the Southern Appalachians (Magnolia fraseri, Halesia tetraptera, and Castanea dentata). This association was originally defined from the Chattooga Basin Project (S. Simon pers. comm.) and later refined with information from the Great Smoky Mountains. The North Carolina Piedmont examples of this association are only montane transition areas, such as the Sauratown Mountains and Hanging Rock. In West Virginia, this association is floristically intermediate between Quercus prinus - Carya ovata - Quercus rubra / Acer saccharum Forest (CEGL007268) and the more xeric Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest (CEGL006271), and some stands are difficult to distinguish. It lacks the abundance of Acer saccharum of the former and the abundance of ericaceous shrubs of the latter and has higher abundance of Liriodendron tulipifera than either.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.2 - Cool Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.2.Na - Eastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Appalachian-Northeastern Oak - Hardwood - Pine Forest & Woodland
Group Appalachian Oak / Chestnut Forest
Alliance Mesic Chestnut Oak - Northern Red Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004817 Quercus rubra - Quercus prinus - Magnolia (acuminata, fraseri) / Acer pensylvanicum Forest
CEGL006057 Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Hamamelis virginiana Forest
CEGL006271 Quercus (prinus, coccinea) / Kalmia latifolia / (Galax urceolata, Gaultheria procumbens) Forest
CEGL006286 Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra / Rhododendron maximum / Galax urceolata Forest
CEGL007230 Quercus alba - Quercus (rubra, prinus) / Rhododendron calendulaceum - (Gaylussacia ursina) Forest
CEGL007268 Quercus prinus - Carya ovata - Quercus rubra / Acer saccharum Forest
CEGL008558 Acer rubrum var. rubrum - Betula lenta - Magnolia fraseri / (Rhododendron maximum, Kalmia latifolia) Ruderal Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Chestnut Oak Forest (Herb Subtype) Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
South Carolina Oak - hickory forest Broader   Nelson 1986


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Quercus montana - (Quercus rubra) - Carya spp. / Oxydendrum arboreum - Cornus florida Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Carya (alba / glabra) - Acer rubrum / Cornus florida Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Patterson, K. D. 1994. Classification of vegetation in Ellicott Rock Wilderness, Southeastern Blue Ridge Escarpment. M.S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 91 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus prinus - Quercus rubra - (Quercus alba) - Liriodendron tulipifera - Acer rubrum / Parthenocissus quinquefolia forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.
Related Concept Name: Quercus velutina - Quercus montana / Cornus florida Forest
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak Forest (Herb Subtype)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Chestnut Oak: 44
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.
Related Concept Name: IA6h. Montane Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Montane Mixed Oak / Oak - Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.
Related Concept Name: Oak - Chestnut - Hickory Forest
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.886 Southern Appalachian Oak Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (15Aug1997)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, KY, NC, SC, TN, VA, WV
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs in the Southern Blue Ridge, the Great Smoky Mountains, and Piedmont transition areas of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, northwestern South Carolina, and northeastern Georgia, extending north into the Cumberlands in southern West Virginia and the border area between Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. It also extends north in the Virginia Ridge and Valley and Blue Ridge to Allegheny, Botetourt, and Bedford counties.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Cumberland Mountains Section
Section Code: M221C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: These are forests dominated by species of Quercus and Carya and without a well-developed heath shrub layer. Acer rubrum and Liriodendron tulipifera may have significant coverage, apparently related to logging history. The predominant oaks and hickories in the canopy are Quercus prinus, Carya glabra, Carya alba, Carya ovata, Quercus coccinea, Quercus velutina, Quercus alba, and Quercus rubra. Additional canopy and subcanopy species can include Nyssa sylvatica, Magnolia fraseri, Halesia tetraptera var. monticola, Fagus grandifolia, Ilex opaca, and Oxydendrum arboreum. In addition, Cornus florida is characteristic and may be dominant in the subcanopy and tall-shrub layers; other tall-shrub species include Magnolia fraseri, Hamamelis virginiana, and Sassafras albidum. Kalmia latifolia or Rhododendron maximum may be present but only at very low cover. The short-shrub stratum is sparse (up to 20% cover), with no clear dominant. Some typical shrub species include Vaccinium pallidum, Viburnum acerifolium, and (in the central and southern portions of the type's range) Gaylussacia ursina, Hydrangea arborescens, and Hydrangea radiata. Common vines are Smilax rotundifolia, Smilax glauca, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Toxicodendron radicans, Vitis aestivalis, Vitis rotundifolia, and Vitis vulpina. Herb cover is sparse to moderate; diversity and species composition vary among occurrences. Some of the more typical species include Ageratina altissima, Eurybia divaricata (= Aster divaricatus), Carex communis var. communis, Carex digitalis var. digitalis, Chimaphila maculata, Desmodium nudiflorum, Dichanthelium spp. (e.g., Dichanthelium boscii, Dichanthelium commutatum, Dichanthelium dichotomum), Dioscorea quaternata, Galium circaezans, Galium latifolium, Goodyera pubescens, Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum, Medeola virginiana, Houstonia purpurea, Lysimachia quadrifolia, Maianthemum racemosum ssp. racemosum, Polystichum acrostichoides, Prenanthes spp., Solidago caesia, Thalictrum thalictroides, Thelypteris noveboracensis, Uvularia perfoliata, Uvularia puberula, Uvularia sessilifolia, and Viola spp. (e.g., Viola blanda, Viola hastata, Viola x palmata, Viola tripartita). Common mosses from West Virginia plots include Thuidium delicatulum, Leucobryum glaucum, Hypnum imponens, Polytrichum ohioense, Leucobryum albidum, and Dicranum fulvum.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)
 
 
Carya alba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Carya glabra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Carya ovata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Liriodendron tulipifera G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Quercus alba G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Quercus velutina G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree (canopy & subcanopy)  
 
 
Quercus prinus G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy
 
 
Quercus rubra G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Tsuga caroliniana G4 Needle-leaved tree Tree canopy      
 
 
Acer pensylvanicum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Castanea dentata G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Cornus florida G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy
 
 
Nyssa sylvatica G4 Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Vaccinium hirsutum G4 Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Ageratina altissima G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Dioscorea quaternata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Eurybia divaricata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Galium circaezans G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Goodyera pubescens G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Isotria medeoloides G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Maianthemum racemosum G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Medeola virginiana G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Monotropsis odorata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Solidago caesia G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Solidago glomerata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Uvularia perfoliata G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Uvularia puberula G4 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Polystichum acrostichoides G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)  
 
 
Thelypteris noveboracensis G4 Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex lucorum var. austrolucorum G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Parthenocissus quinquefolia G4 Liana Herb (field)    
 
 
Toxicodendron radicans G4 Liana Herb (field)    
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Ageratina altissima var. roanensis
  (Appalachian White Snakeroot)
G5T3T4  
Carex lucorum var. austrolucorum
  (Blue Ridge Sedge)
G5T3T4  
Isotria medeoloides
  (Small Whorled Pogonia)
G2? LT: Listed threatened
Monotropsis odorata
  (Sweet Pinesap)
G3  
Solidago glomerata
  (Skunk Goldenrod)
G3  
Tsuga caroliniana
  (Carolina Hemlock)
G3  
Vaccinium hirsutum
  (Hairy Blueberry)
G3  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This community is known from plateaus, ridges, and gorge slopes at low to intermediate elevations, on relatively exposed landforms from 220 to 1000 m (700-3250 feet) elevation. Slopes are moderately steep to steep where it occurs on convex, middle to upper slopes, grading to gentle on ridges and plateaus; aspects are mostly northern to southwestern. Unvegetated ground cover is dominated by litter and rock. In Virginia, the type occurs on sites underlain by colluvial and alluvial fan material, sandstone, quartzite, and rocks of the Northern Blue Ridge granitic complex. Farther south, soils are weathered from sandstones and, less commonly, shales and are strongly acidic, relatively nutrient-poor and sandy to loamy in texture. Soils in West Virginia plots are well- to rapidly-drained, dry to somewhat moist sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy silt loam, silt loam, and clay loam, and test slightly to extremely acidic (mean pH = 4.59). Soil chemistry data from 25 plot samples from throughout the range indicate that mean conditions are extremely acidic, with low levels of calcium, magnesium, and total base saturation, along with moderately high iron and aluminum (Fleming and Patterson 2009a).


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Evidence of past fires is abundant in this type, but its natural fire regime is not known. Most stands have been logged, and in West Virginia, many areas likely formerly covered by this forest type have been strip-mined. Evidence of disturbance recorded in Virginia plots includes fire scars on older trees, charcoal in duff, much rotting Castanea dentata wood, damage to Cornus florida from dogwood anthracnose (Discula destructiva), and minor wind/ice damage to tree crowns. Large areas of this community type were impacted by logging and/or the loss of codominant Castanea dentata. Based on the abundance of Castanea wood debris and live sprouts, as well as the presence of numerous intact logs in older stands, Castanea dentata may have reached near optimal importance on sites of this community type prior to the arrival of the blight. At Peters Mountain in Allegheny County, Virginia, the current canopy dominants in these areas typically range from about 35-69 cm (14-27 inches) dbh, with maximum ages of 90 to 140 years. Some patches of old-growth forest remain at Peters Mountain, especially on the steeper dip slopes and landslide benches (Fleming and Moorhead 2000).


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): K.D. Patterson
Element Description Edition Date: 01Apr2010
Element Description Author(s): K.D. Patterson, T. Govus, R. White, S.C. Gawler, G.P. Fleming
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 15Aug1997

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • Ambrose, J. 1990a. Georgia's natural communities--A preliminary list. Unpublished document. Georgia Natural Heritage Inventory. 5 pp.

  • Eyre, F. H., editor. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DC. 148 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009b. Classification of selected Virginia montane wetland groups. In-house analysis, December 2009. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and P. P. Coulling. 2001. Ecological communities of the George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Preliminary classification and description of vegetation types. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 317 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., and W. H. Moorhead, III. 2000. Plant communities and ecological land units of the Peter's Mountain area, James River Ranger District, George Washington and Jefferson national forests, Virginia. Natural Heritage Technical Report 00-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. Unpublished report submitted to the USDA Forest Service. 195 pp. plus appendices.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Patterson, K. D. 1994. Classification of vegetation in Ellicott Rock Wilderness, Southeastern Blue Ridge Escarpment. M.S. thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh. 91 pp.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Simon, Steve. Personal communication. Ecologist. USDA Forest Service, National Forests in North Carolina, Asheville, NC.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Vanderhorst, J. 2001b. Plant communities of the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia: Northern and southern thirds. Non-game Wildlife and Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. Elkins. 146 pp.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., B. P. Streets, Z. Arcaro, and S. C. Gawler. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Gauley River National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/148. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Vanderhorst, J. P., J. Jeuck, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Vegetation classification and mapping of New River Gorge National River, West Virginia. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2007/092. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 396 pp.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2003. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Carl Sandburg Home National Historic Site. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 160 pp.

  • White, R. D., Jr. 2006. Vascular plant inventory and ecological community classification for Cumberland Gap National Historical Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 246 pp.


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