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Impatiens (capensis, pallida) - Monarda didyma - Rudbeckia laciniata var. humilis Herbaceous Seep
Translated Name: (Jewelweed, Pale Touch-me-not) - Scarlet Beebalm - Greenhead Coneflower Herbaceous Seep
Common Name: Rich Montane Seep (High-Elevation Type)
Unique Identifier: CEGL004293
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This association covers forb-dominated palustrine vegetation occurring as small wetlands at high elevations (greater than 1200 m [4000 feet]), on upper slopes and ridgetops in the Southern Blue Ridge ecoregion. These areas lack extensive Sphagnum and are typically open, without shading from a forest canopy. Typical dominant species include Impatiens capensis, Impatiens pallida, Monarda didyma, and Rudbeckia laciniata var. humilis. Other characteristic species include Aconitum reclinatum, Cardamine clematitis, Carex leptonervia, Carex debilis var. rudgei (= Carex flexuosa), Carex ruthii, Chelone lyonii, Cicuta maculata, Claytonia caroliniana, Conioselinum chinense, Euonymus obovatus, Geum geniculatum, Helenium autumnale, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Lilium superbum, Lilium grayi, Packera aurea (= Senecio aureus), Solidago patula, Thalictrum clavatum, Trautvetteria caroliniensis, Veratrum viride, Viola cucullata, and Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens. This vegetation is often associated with boulderfield forests or other northern hardwood forests [see Betula alleghaniensis - Aesculus flava Forest Alliance (A0266)].



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate
Classification Comments: Four plots were classified as this association in the Appalachian Trail project (Fleming and Patterson 2009a). Three plots are in the vicinity of Standing Indian (Nantahala Mountains, North Carolina) and one is on the slopes of Whitetop (Jefferson National Forest, Virginia); both sites are above 1220 m (4000 feet) elevation. The plots sampled forested seeps that vary in their physiognomy and composition; most have significant cover by woody species and are likely shaded by the forest canopy. Chelone glabra and Tiarella cordifolia are present in all plots. Species with 75% constancy include Aesculus flava, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Betula alleghaniensis, Eurybia chlorolepis, Fraxinus americana, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Monarda didyma, Packera aurea, Veratrum viride, and Viola cucullata.

Diphylleia cymosa - Saxifraga micranthidifolia - Laportea canadensis Forested Herbaceous Seep (CEGL004296), another high-elevation herbaceous seep association known from the Southern Appalachians, typically occurs at lower elevations and is associated with cove forests.


Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Cool Temperate Seep
Group Central & Southern Appalachian Seep
Alliance Southern Appalachian Herbaceous Seep

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004296 Diphylleia cymosa - Saxifraga micranthidifolia - Laportea canadensis Forested Herbaceous Seep
CEGL007697 Carex gynandra - Platanthera clavellata - Drosera rotundifolia - Carex ruthii / Sphagnum spp. Herbaceous Seep



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
North Carolina Rich Montane Seep Equivalent Certain Schafale 2012
South Carolina High elevation seep Broader   Nelson 1986
Tennessee Impatiens (capensis, pallida) - Monarda didyma - Rudbeckia laciniata var. humilis Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain TDNH unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: High Elevation Seep
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Wichmann, B. 2009. Vegetation of geographically isolated montane non-alluvial wetlands of the Southern Blue Ridge of North Carolina. Masters thesis, North Carolina State, Raleigh. [http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/theses/available/etd-05152009-120239/unrestricted/etd.pdf]
Related Concept Name: High-elevation Seepage Wetland
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Wichmann, B., R. K. Peet, and T. R. Wentworth. 2007. Natural vegetation of the Carolinas: Classification and description of montane non-alluvial wetlands of the Southern Appalachian region. A report prepared for the Ecosystem Enhancement Program, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources in partial fulfillments of contract D07042. Carolina Vegetation Survey, Curriculum in Ecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Related Concept Name: IID3a. Herbaceous High Elevation Seepage Slope
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.
Related Concept Name: Jewelweed-beebalm-coneflower seep
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Related Concept Name: Montane Woodland Seep
Relationship: B - Broader
Reference: Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]
Related Concept Name: Rich Montane Seep (Cove Subtype)
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Schafale, M. 2002. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain communities. November 2002 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Related Concept Name: Rich Montane Seep (High Elevation Subtype)
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Schafale, M. 2002. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain communities. November 2002 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.317 Southern Appalachian Seepage Wetland
CES202.373 Southern and Central Appalachian Cove Forest


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (14Dec1998)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This community occurs at moderate to high elevations of the southern Blue Ridge Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, northern Georgia, and probably northwestern South Carolina. It occurs as a small patch community, embedded in a variety of regional forest types. While restricted in range and of small size, the community is relatively frequent within its range, many examples are protected, and threats are relatively few and minor.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: GA, NC, SC, TN, VA
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This community occurs at moderate to high elevations in the southern Blue Ridge Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, northern Georgia, and northwestern South Carolina. It is not found in West Virginia (E. Byers pers. comm.).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Blue Ridge Mountains Section
Section Code: M221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Typical dominant species include Impatiens capensis, Impatiens pallida, Monarda didyma, and Rudbeckia laciniata var. humilis. Other characteristic species include Aconitum reclinatum, Cardamine clematitis, Carex leptonervia, Carex debilis var. rudgei (= Carex flexuosa), Carex ruthii, Chelone lyonii, Cicuta maculata, Claytonia caroliniana, Conioselinum chinense, Euonymus obovatus, Geum geniculatum, Helenium autumnale, Houstonia serpyllifolia, Lilium superbum, Lilium grayi, Packera aurea (= Senecio aureus), Solidago patula, Thalictrum clavatum, Trautvetteria caroliniensis, Veratrum viride, Viola cucullata, and Viola macloskeyi ssp. pallens. These stands lack extensive cover by Sphagnum spp., and are typically open, without shading from a forest canopy.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Aconitum reclinatum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Cardamine clematitis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Geum geniculatum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Hypericum mitchellianum G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Impatiens capensis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Impatiens pallida G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Lilium grayi G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Monarda didyma G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Rudbeckia laciniata var. humilis G3 Flowering forb Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex bromoides ssp. montana G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Carex ruthii G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 
Glyceria nubigena G3 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Aconitum reclinatum
  (White Monkshood)
G3  
Cardamine clematitis
  (Small Mountain Bittercress)
G3  
Carex bromoides ssp. montana
  (Brome-like Sedge)
G5T3?  
Carex ruthii
  (Ruth's Sedge)
G3  
Geum geniculatum
  (Bent Avens)
G2  
Glyceria nubigena
  (Smoky Mountains Mannagrass)
G2G3  
Hypericum mitchellianum
  (Blue Ridge St. John's-wort)
G3  
Lilium grayi
  (Gray's Lily)
G3  
Rudbeckia laciniata var. humilis
  (Appalachian Black-eyed-Susan)
G5T3?  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: Stands of this association are forb-dominated palustrine vegetation occurring as small wetlands at high elevations (greater than 1200 m [4000 feet]), on upper slopes and ridgetops in the Southern Blue Ridge ecoregion. These areas lack extensive Sphagnum and are typically open, without shading from a forest canopy. This vegetation is often associated with boulderfield forests or other northern hardwood forests.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): A.S. Weakley
Element Description Edition Date: 01Aug1994
Element Description Author(s): A.S. Weakley
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 14Dec1998
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): A.S. Weakley

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Allard, D. J. 1990. Southeastern United States ecological community classification. Interim report, Version 1.2. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Chapel Hill, NC. 96 pp.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, D. P. Walton, K. M. McCoy, and M. R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. 76 pp.

  • Fleming, G. P., P. P. Coulling, K. D. Patterson, and K. Taverna. 2006. The natural communities of Virginia: Classification of ecological community groups. Second approximation. Version 2.2. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. [http://www.dcr.virginia.gov/natural_heritage/ncTIV.shtml]

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2009a. A vegetation classification for the Appalachian Trail: Virginia south to Georgia. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage. In-house analysis, March 2009.

  • Fleming, G. P., and K. D. Patterson. 2011a. Natural communities of Virginia: Ecological groups and community types. Natural Heritage Technical Report 11-07. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond. 34 pp.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nelson, J. B. 1986. The natural communities of South Carolina: Initial classification and description. South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department, Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries, Columbia, SC. 55 pp.

  • Peet, R. K., T. R. Wentworth, M. P. Schafale, and A.S. Weakley. No date. Unpublished data of the North Carolina Vegetation Survey. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

  • Schafale, M. 1998b. Fourth approximation guide. High mountain communities. March 1998 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. 2002. Fourth approximation guide. Mountain communities. November 2002 draft. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P. 2012. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina, 4th Approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh.

  • Schafale, M. P., and A. S. Weakley. 1990. Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina. Third approximation. North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program, Raleigh. 325 pp.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Wichmann, B. 2009. Vegetation of geographically isolated montane non-alluvial wetlands of the Southern Blue Ridge of North Carolina. Masters thesis, North Carolina State, Raleigh. [http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/theses/available/etd-05152009-120239/unrestricted/etd.pdf]

  • Wichmann, B., R. K. Peet, and T. R. Wentworth. 2007. Natural vegetation of the Carolinas: Classification and description of montane non-alluvial wetlands of the Southern Appalachian region. A report prepared for the Ecosystem Enhancement Program, North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources in partial fulfillments of contract D07042. Carolina Vegetation Survey, Curriculum in Ecology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.


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