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Carex stricta - Carex vesicaria Wet Meadow
Translated Name: Upright Sedge - Blister Sedge Wet Meadow
Common Name: Eastern Upright Sedge Wet Meadow
Unique Identifier: CEGL006412
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: These tussock sedge meadows are distributed across the northeastern United States. They occur in seasonally flooded basins or on stream or lake margins. The substrate is peat or muck of variable depth overlying mineral soil. Standing water may be present only at the beginning of, or through much of, the growing season depending on the site and the year's precipitation; even when the water drops, the soils remain saturated. Microtopography is characterized by large tussocks, particularly when the hydroperiod is extended. The physiognomy is strongly herbaceous or, in some cases, herbs mixed with shrubs (up to 25% shrub cover); trees are absent. Bryophyte cover is usually sparse but may occasionally reach over 50%. Carex stricta, in its tussock form, is the usual dominant. Carex vesicaria, Carex utriculata, and Calamagrostis canadensis may also be locally abundant. Associated graminoids include Carex atlantica, Carex canescens, Carex comosa, Carex folliculata, Carex scoparia, Carex stipata, Carex vulpinoidea, Glyceria canadensis, Dulichium arundinaceum, Juncus effusus, Leersia oryzoides, and Scirpus cyperinus; forbs and ferns include Asclepias incarnata, Thelypteris palustris, Eutrochium maculatum, Campanula aparinoides, Osmunda regalis, Comarum palustre, Lysimachia terrestris, Angelica atropurpurea, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Lycopus americanus, Polygonum hydropiperoides, Galium obtusum, Polygonum sagittatum, Galium tinctorium, and others. Lythrum salicaria may be invasive in some settings. Shrub associates vary with geography. In the northern part of the range, Alnus incana, Myrica gale, Ilex verticillata, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Spiraea alba are often present. Bryophytes, where present, include Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum girgensohnii, Sphagnum palustre, Drepanocladus aduncus, and others. This association is differentiated from other wet meadows by the strong dominance of Carex stricta.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.4 - Temperate to Polar Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Division 2.C.4.Nd - Eastern North American Temperate & Boreal Freshwater Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Macrogroup Eastern North American Marsh, Wet Meadow & Shrubland
Group Appalachian-Northeast Wet Meadow & Shrub Swamp
Alliance Appalachian-Northeast Graminoid Wet Meadow

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL002258 Carex stricta - Carex spp. Wet Meadow
CEGL006519 Calamagrostis canadensis - Scirpus spp. - Dulichium arundinaceum Wet Meadow



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Delaware Eastern Tussock Sedge Meadow Equivalent Certain Coxe 2009
Maine Tussock sedge meadow Equivalent   Gawler 2002
Massachusetts Shallow Emergent Marsh Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
Massachusetts Wet Meadow Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Tall graminoid meadow marsh Broader   Sperduto 2000
New Jersey (Myrica gale) / Carex stricta Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain Breden et al. 2001
New Jersey Coastal plain intermittent pond Broader   Breden et al. 2001
New York Sedge meadow Equivalent   Edinger et al. 2002
Pennsylvania Tussock sedge marsh Intersects   Fike 1999
Vermont Sedge Meadow Broader   Thompson and Sorenson 2000
West Virginia Carex stricta Wet Meadow Equivalent Certain WVNHP unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Carex (stricta - atlantica) Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Hall, M. E. 2005a. Classification and gradient analysis of plant communities at Short Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Hampshire County, West Virginia. M.S. thesis, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC. 108 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex (stricta - folliculata) - (C. atlantica) Herbaceous Vegetation
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Hall, M. E. 2005a. Classification and gradient analysis of plant communities at Short Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Hampshire County, West Virginia. M.S. thesis, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC. 108 pp.
Related Concept Name: Carex stricta Wet Meadow
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Byers, E. A., J. P. Vanderhorst, and B. P. Streets. 2007. Classification and conservation assessment of high elevation wetland communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.
Related Concept Name: Carex stricta herbaceous community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Walbridge, M. R., and G. E. Lang. 1982. Major plant communities and patterns of community distribution in four wetlands of the unglaciated Appalachian region. In: R. B. MacDonald, editor. Proceedings of the Symposium on Wetlands of the Unglaciated Appalachian Region. West Virginia University, Morgantown.
Related Concept Name: Carex stricta meadow
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Walbridge, M. R. 1982. Vegetation patterning and community distribution in four high-elevation headwater wetlands in West Virginia. M.S. thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown.
Related Concept Name: Carex stricta temporarily flooded grasslands
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.
Related Concept Name: Carex stricta wet meadow
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Bartgis, R. L. 1983. Vegetation ecology of marl wetlands in eastern West Virginia. M.S. thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown.
Related Concept Name: Sedge (Carex stricta / Carex emoryi) wet meadow
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Putnam, N. 1995. Plant communities of the Meadow River wetlands. Final report submitted to the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins, WV.
Related Concept Name: Southern New England nutrient-poor streamside/lakeside marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Southern New England nutrient-rich streamside/lakeside marsh
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.
Related Concept Name: Tussock sedge meadow
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: NAP [Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Working Group]. 1998. Northern Appalachian-Boreal Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES201.582 Laurentian-Acadian Wet Meadow-Shrub Swamp
CES202.069 High Allegheny Wetland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G4G5 (31Jan2007)
Rounded Global Status: G4 - Apparently Secure
Reasons: This association is widely distributed throughout New England and northern New York in its small-patch setting and extends sporadically southward.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, DEpotentially occurs, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT, WV
Canadian Province Distribution: QCpotentially occurs
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This tussock sedge meadow is found in New England, the Adirondack Mountains, and parts of the Appalachians (over an estimated 356,000 square km based on acreage of subsections).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Maine-New Brunswick Foothills and Lowlands Section
Section Code: 212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Fundy Coastal and Interior Section
Section Code: 212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Central Maine Coastal and Embayment Section
Section Code: 212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Outer Coastal Plain Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 232 Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 232A Occurrence Status: Possible
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: White Mountain Section
Section Code: M212A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Predicted or probable
Section Name: Adirondack Mountain Section
Section Code: M212D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Central Appalachian Broadleaf Forest - Coniferous Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Ridge and Valley Section
Section Code: M221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Allegheny Mountains Section
Section Code: M221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The physiognomy is strongly herbaceous, or in some cases herbs mixed with shrubs (up to 25% shrub cover); trees are absent. Bryophyte cover is usually sparse but may occasionally reach over 50%. Carex stricta, in its tussock form, is the usual dominant. Carex vesicaria, Carex utriculata, and Calamagrostis canadensis may also be locally abundant. Associated graminoids include Carex atlantica, Carex canescens, Carex comosa, Carex folliculata, Carex scoparia, Carex stipata, Carex vulpinoidea, Glyceria canadensis, Dulichium arundinaceum, Juncus effusus, Leersia oryzoides, and Scirpus cyperinus; forbs and ferns include Asclepias incarnata, Thelypteris palustris, Eutrochium maculatum (= Eupatorium maculatum), Campanula aparinoides, Osmunda regalis, Comarum palustre (= Potentilla palustris), Lysimachia terrestris, Angelica atropurpurea, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Lycopus americanus, Galium obtusum, Polygonum sagittatum, Galium tinctorium, and others. Lythrum salicaria may be invasive in some settings. Shrub associates vary with geography. In the northern part of the range, Alnus incana, Myrica gale, Ilex verticillata, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Spiraea alba are often present. Bryophytes, where present, include Sphagnum magellanicum, Sphagnum girgensohnii, Sphagnum palustre, Sphagnum affine, Drepanocladus aduncus, and others.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Calamagrostis canadensis G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex stricta G4 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 
Carex utriculata G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Carex vesicaria G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Leersia oryzoides G4 Graminoid Herb (field)    
 
 
Scirpus ancistrochaetus G4 Graminoid Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Scirpus ancistrochaetus
  (Northeastern Bulrush)
G3 LE: Listed endangered


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These tussock sedge meadows are distributed across the northeastern United States. They occur in seasonally flooded basins or on stream or lake margins. The substrate is peat or muck of variable depth overlying mineral soil. Standing water may be present only at the beginning of, or through much of, the growing season depending on the site and the year's precipitation; even when the water drops, the soils remain saturated. Microtopography is characterized by large tussocks, particularly when the hydroperiod is extended.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: Some of these sedge meadows may be associated with beaver impoundments.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): Northern Appalachian Planning Team
Element Description Edition Date: 11May2007
Element Description Author(s): S.C. Gawler and E.A. Byers
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 31Jan2007
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): S.C. Gawler, mod. L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
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  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Byers, E. A., J. P. Vanderhorst, and B. P. Streets. 2007. Classification and conservation assessment of high elevation wetland communities in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, West Virginia Division of Natural Resources, Elkins.

  • CAP [Central Appalachian Forest Working Group]. 1998. Central Appalachian Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • CDPNQ [Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec]. No date. Unpublished data. Centre de données sur le patrimoine naturel du Québec, Québec.

  • Coxe, R. 2009. Guide to Delaware vegetation communities. Spring 2009 edition. State of Delaware, Division of Fish and Wildlife, Delaware Natural Heritage Program, Smyrna.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Eichelberger, B. 2011l. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program. Tussock Sedge Marsh Factsheet. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Community.aspx?=16015] (accessed February 10, 2012)

  • Fike, J. 1999. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Diversity Inventory. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bureau of Forestry, Harrisburg, PA. 86 pp.

  • Gawler, S. C. 2002. Natural landscapes of Maine: A guide to vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta, ME.

  • Gawler, S. C., R. E. Zaremba, and Cogan Technology, Inc. 2017. Vegetation mapping inventory project: Minute Man National Historical Park, Massachusetts. Natural Resource Report NPS/MIMA/NRR--2017/1450. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Gawler, S. C., and A. Cutko. 2010. Natural landscapes of Maine: A classification of vegetated natural communities and ecosystems. Maine Natural Areas Program, Department of Conservation, Augusta.

  • Hall, M. E. 2005a. Classification and gradient analysis of plant communities at Short Mountain Wildlife Management Area, Hampshire County, West Virginia. M.S. thesis, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC. 108 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W. 2011. The natural communities of Maryland: 2011 working list of ecological community groups and community types. Unpublished report. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife and Heritage Service, Natural Heritage Program, Annapolis. 33 pp.

  • Harrison, J. W., compiler. 2004. Classification of vegetation communities of Maryland: First iteration. A subset of the International Classification of Ecological Communities: Terrestrial Vegetation of the United States, NatureServe. Maryland Natural Heritage Program, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis. 243 pp.

  • Lubinski, S., K. Hop, and S. Gawler. 2003. Vegetation Mapping Program: Acadia National Park, Maine. Report produced by U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, and Maine Natural Areas Program in conjunction with M. Story (NPS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator) NPS, Natural Resources Information Division, Inventory and Monitoring Program, and K. Brown (USGS Vegetation Mapping Coordinator), USGS, Center for Biological Informatics and NatureServe. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/ftp/vegmapping/acad/reports/acadrpt.pdf]

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • NAP [Northern Appalachian-Boreal Forest Working Group]. 1998. Northern Appalachian-Boreal Working group discussions. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA.

  • Northern Appalachian Ecology Working Group. 2000. Northern Appalachian / Boreal Ecoregion community classification (Review Draft). The Nature Conservancy, Eastern Conservation Science Center, Boston, MA. 117 pp. plus appendices.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. A. Zimmerman, W. A. Millinor, L. A. Sneddon. 2006a. Vegetation classification and mapping at Fort Necessity National Battlefield. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2006/038. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA.

  • Perles, S. J., G. S. Podniesinski, E. Eastman, L. A. Sneddon, and S. C. Gawler. 2007. Classification and mapping of vegetation and fire fuel models at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/076. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 2 volumes.

  • Putnam, N. 1995. Plant communities of the Meadow River wetlands. Final report submitted to the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins, WV.

  • Rawinski, T. 1984a. Natural community description abstract - southern New England calcareous seepage swamp. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Boston, MA. 6 pp.

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • Thompson, E. H., and E. R. Sorenson. 2005. Wetland, woodland, wildland: A guide to the natural communities of Vermont. The Nature Conservancy and the Vermont Department of Fish and Wildlife. University Press of New England, Hanover, NH. 456 pp.

  • Thompson, E., and J. Jenkins. 1992. Summary of field data from Minuteman National Park plant communities study. A report prepared under a contract with the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program for the National Park Service. 39 pp.

  • WVNHP [West Virginia Natural Heritage Program]. No date. Unpublished data. West Virginia Natural Heritage Program, Elkins.

  • Walbridge, M. R. 1982. Vegetation patterning and community distribution in four high-elevation headwater wetlands in West Virginia. M.S. thesis, West Virginia University, Morgantown.

  • Walbridge, M. R., and G. E. Lang. 1982. Major plant communities and patterns of community distribution in four wetlands of the unglaciated Appalachian region. In: R. B. MacDonald, editor. Proceedings of the Symposium on Wetlands of the Unglaciated Appalachian Region. West Virginia University, Morgantown.

  • Zimmerman, E. A., T. Davis, M. A. Furedi, B. Eichelberger, J. McPherson, S. Seymour, G. Podniesinski, N. Dewar, and J. Wagner, editors. 2012. Terrestrial and palustrine plant communities of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Harrisburg. [http://www.naturalheritage.state.pa.us/Communities.aspx]


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