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Liquidambar styraciflua - Quercus (alba, falcata) Ruderal Forest
Translated Name: Sweetgum - (White Oak, Southern Red Oak) Ruderal Forest
Common Name: Ruderal Interior Sweetgum - Oak Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL007217
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: Stands of this successional forest association are dominated by Liquidambar styraciflua but also support additional species in the overstory such as Quercus alba, Liriodendron tulipifera, and/or Quercus falcata. This forest is somewhat later successional and/or more diverse than pure Liquidambar styraciflua forests [see Liquidambar styraciflua Ruderal Forest (CEGL007216)]. This type may arise following disturbance of mixed Quercus - Carya forests. This vegetation type would be more prevalent or more likely to be encountered to the north of the range of Quercus nigra, i.e., in the interior and Piedmont rather than in the Coastal Plain.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This community is composed of at least 40% Liquidambar styraciflua in the canopy, but it differs from earlier successional Liquidambar styraciflua in that it has a minor or major component of oaks and hickories and other later-successional trees in the subcanopy and canopy. However, unlike less-disturbed, more natural Liquidambar styraciflua types, it is not located in a floodplain and it has a very low-diversity herbaceous layer.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.1 - Warm Temperate Forest & Woodland
Division 1.B.1.Na - Southeastern North American Forest & Woodland
Macrogroup Southeastern North American Ruderal Forest
Group Southeastern Native Ruderal Forest
Alliance Ruderal Sweetgum - Sugarberry - Water Oak Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL004122 Liquidambar styraciflua - Carya illinoinensis - Quercus nigra Loess Bluff Forest
CEGL007216 Liquidambar styraciflua Ruderal Forest
CEGL007726 Liquidambar styraciflua - Quercus nigra - Pinus taeda / Vaccinium elliottii - Morella cerifera Ruderal Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications


Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.708 Ozark-Ouachita Dry-Mesic Oak Forest
CES202.898 Southern Interior Low Plateau Dry-Mesic Oak Forest
CES203.482 East Gulf Coastal Plain Northern Loess Plain Oak-Hickory Upland


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNA (08Aug2000)
Rounded Global Status: GNA - Not Applicable
Reasons: This forest represents successional vegetation. Consequently it is not of conservation concern and does not receive a conservation status rank.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AL, AR, GA, MS, SC, TN
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: This early-successional sweetgum forest has been defined from the Interior Highlands of the central United States and from the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, and is also reported for the Southern Ridge and Valley, but is likely much more widespread.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Continental) Province
Province Code: 222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ozark Highlands Section
Section Code: 222A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Upper Gulf Coastal Plain Section
Section Code: 222C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Interior Low Plateau, Highland Rim Section
Section Code: 222E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Division
Province Name: Southeastern Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Coastal Plain Middle Section
Section Code: 231B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Southern Cumberland Plateau Section
Section Code: 231C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Ozark Broadleaf Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M222 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Boston Mountains Section
Section Code: M222A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Subtropical Regime Mountains
Province Name: Ouachita Mixed Forest - Meadow Province
Province Code: M231 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Ouachita Mountains Section
Section Code: M231A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: The overstory of stands of this association are usually dominated by Liquidambar styraciflua, but may also support other species such as Quercus alba, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus falcata. Other woody species encountered in plots attributed to this type include Fraxinus americana, Cornus florida, Diospyros virginiana, Quercus velutina, Quercus rubra, and Carya spp. (NatureServe Ecology unpubl. data).

At Shiloh National Military Park, this vegetation is documented from a plot (SHIL.4) which was disturbed by a tornado in 1971 or 1972 (D. Turnbo pers. comm. 2003). There are stumps and tip-up mounds from the tornado and the salvage logging which followed. The dominant tree is Liquidambar styraciflua with Acer rubrum canopy subdominant. Carya alba and Quercus alba are also important, with Quercus falcata, Prunus serotina, Nyssa sylvatica, and Carya glabra. Cornus florida, Carya pallida, and Quercus rubra are important primarily in the subcanopy and tall-shrub strata. Vaccinium stamineum and Ilex decidua are tall shrubs; most of the Quercus spp. and Carya spp. also occur as tall shrubs. Short shrubs include Quercus phellos, Ulmus alata, Rosa carolina, Vitis rotundifolia, Lonicera japonica, Mimosa microphylla, Hypericum hypericoides, Juniperus virginiana, Ligustrum sinense, Vaccinium stamineum, Diospyros virginiana, Nyssa sylvatica, Smilax glauca, Carya glabra, Vaccinium arboreum, and Rubus argutus. The herbaceous stratum has 30% cover, but there are no dominant species. The most abundant herbaceous species are Dichanthelium boscii and Botrychium biternatum. Other herbaceous species are Scutellaria elliptica, Houstonia purpurea, Elephantopus tomentosus, Asplenium platyneuron, Polystichum acrostichoides, Dichanthelium laxiflorum, Viola x palmata, Galium circaezans, Sanicula canadensis, Athyrium filix-femina ssp. asplenioides, Conoclinium coelestinum, Lobelia puberula, Cirsium horridulum, Lycopodium digitatum (= Diphasiastrum digitatum), Chasmanthium laxum, Lespedeza repens, Ruellia strepens, and Pycnanthemum verticillatum var. pilosum (= Pycnanthemum pilosum).


Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Liquidambar styraciflua GNA Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy
 
 
Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis GNA Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)      
 
 
Matelea baldwyniana GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Saxifraga palmeri GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 
Trillium viridescens GNA Flowering forb Herb (field)      
 
 


At-Risk Species Reported for this Association
Scientific Name
  (Common Name)
NatureServe Global Status U.S. Endangered Species Act Status
Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis
  (Ozark Chinquapin)
G5T3  
Matelea baldwyniana
  (Baldwin's Milkvine)
G3  
Saxifraga palmeri
  (Palmer's Saxifrage)
G3Q  
Trillium viridescens
  (Arkansas Trillium)
G2G4Q  


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: N
Environmental Summary: This type may arise following disturbance of mixed Quercus - Carya forests. This vegetation type would be more prevalent or more likely to be encountered to the north of the range of Quercus nigra, i.e., in the interior and Piedmont rather than in the Coastal Plain.


Dynamic Processes

Dynamics: This forest is successional to mixed Quercus - Carya forests, and develops following disturbance such as clearcut logging and agriculture.


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M. Andreu and M. Tukman
Element Description Edition Date: 10Jan2005
Element Description Author(s): R.E. Evans and C.W. Nordman
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 08Aug2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): K.D. Patterson

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Gallyoun, M., G. Meyer, A. Andreu, and W. Slocumb. 1996. Mapping vegetation communities with The Nature Conservancy's vegetation classification system on five small national parks in the southeastern USA. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Southeast Regional Office, Conservation Science Department, Chapel Hill, NC.

  • NatureServe Ecology - Southeastern United States. No date. Unpublished data. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • Nordman, C., M. Russo, and L. Smart. 2011. Vegetation types of the Natchez Trace Parkway, based on the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. NatureServe Central Databases (International Ecological Classification Standard: Terrestrial Ecological Classifications). Arlington, VA. Data current as of 11 April 2011. 548 pp.

  • Pyne, M., E. Lunsford Jones, and R. White. 2010. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Mammoth Cave National Park. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 334 pp.

  • Schotz, Al. Personal communication. Community Ecologist. Alabama Natural Heritage Program. Huntingdon College, Massey Hall, 1500 East Fairview Avenue, Montgomery, AL 36106-2148.

  • Southeastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Durham, NC.

  • TDNH [Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage]. No date. Unpublished data. Tennessee Division of Natural Heritage, Nashville, TN.

  • Turnbo, Dennis. Personal communication. Retired. National Park Service, Shiloh National Military Park, Shiloh, TN.

  • White, Jr., R. D. 2005. Vascular plant inventory and plant community classification for Fort Donelson National Battlefield. NatureServe, Durham, NC. 135 pp.


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