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Dulichium arundinaceum Shore Fen
Translated Name: Threeway Sedge Shore Fen
Unique Identifier: CEGL001831
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This herbaceous vegetation association is known from British Columbia, Canada, the western states of California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and possibly occurs in Wyoming. The community occurs over fibrous peat or mineral soils in areas that are seasonally or permanently flooded with shallow water. In Idaho and Montana stands are typically present in fens and may occur on fixed or floating mats. West of the Cascades it occurs in freshwater marshes as well as in fens. Dulichium arundinaceum may occur as a monoculture, but stands are sometimes moderately species-rich with Carex viridula ssp. viridula, Carex exsiccata, Carex aquatilis, Carex limosa, Carex lasiocarpa, Eleocharis palustris, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis, Lycopus uniflorus, Mentha arvensis, Menyanthes trifoliata, Comarum palustre, Rhynchospora alba, Schoenoplectus subterminalis, and/or Utricularia macrorhiza present.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Low
Classification Comments: This plant association is described based on limited data in Idaho and Montana and is uncommon in these states (Pierce 1986, Bursik and Moseley 1995). It is more common west of the Cascades in Oregon and Washington (Christy 1993, Kunze 1994, Christy et al. 1998, Titus and Christy 1996a). A comparison of data from stands east and west of the Cascades may indicate that two distinct associations should be recognized.

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 2 - Shrub & Herb Vegetation
Subclass 2.C - Shrub & Herb Wetland
Formation 2.C.2 - Temperate to Polar Bog & Fen
Division 2.C.2.Na - North American Bog & Fen
Macrogroup North American Boreal & Subboreal Bog & Acidic Fen
Group Rocky Mountain Acidic Fen
Alliance Acidic Sedge Graminoid Fen

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Idaho Dulichium arundinaceum Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain IDCDC 2005
Montana Dulichium arundinaceum Seasonally Flooded Herbaceous Vegetation Equivalent Certain MTNHP 2002
Wyoming Dulichium arundinaceum Herbaceous Vegetation [Provisional] Equivalent Certain WNDD unpubl. data


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Dulichium arundinaceum
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.
Relationship: ? - Undetermined
Reference: Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2009. A manual of California vegetation. Second edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento CA. 1300 pp.
Related Concept Name: Dulichium arundinaceum Association
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]
Related Concept Name: Dulichium arundinaceum community type
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.
Related Concept Name: Threeway Sedge Herbaceous Vegetation (Dulichium arundinaceum)
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Christy, J. A., J. S. Kagan, and A. M. Wiedemann. 1998. Plant associations of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area - Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-09-98. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES105.124 Western North American Boreal Wet Meadow
CES200.877 Temperate Pacific Freshwater Emergent Marsh
CES204.063 North Pacific Bog and Fen
CES306.831 Rocky Mountain Subalpine-Montane Fen


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: G3 (20Oct2000)
Rounded Global Status: G3 - Vulnerable
Reasons: This plant association is known from the western United States and British Columbia, Canada. Stands are uncommon on the eastern side of the Cascades and more common west of the Cascades. Stands range from small patches in fens to larger occurrences in freshwater marshes. Stands are usually too wet for most uses, but alteration of hydrology and water quality may change species composition. Drought years may make stands accessible to both domestic and wild grazing animals causing rutted and hummocky soils on margins of stands. In addition, loss of waterfowl habitat may concentrate foraging and bedding in stands. Homes and cabins are frequently located along shores of lakes supporting stands. In some locations boat docks are cut into shoreline vegetation, and access across unstable substrates is provided by primitive boardwalks (created with palettes or wood scraps). In addition, nutrients from faulty sewage systems and sediment from activities (roads and logging) within the watershed may impact water chemistry and hydrology. The global rank has been changed from G4?.

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: AKpotentially occurs, CA, ID, MT, OR, WA, WY
Canadian Province Distribution: BC
Global Distribution: Canada, United States
Global Range: This association is a minor type in the western United States of Montana, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, California and possibly Wyoming. It is also reported from British Columbia, Canada, and Alaska (Christy 2004).

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Marine Division
Province Name: Pacific Lowland Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 242 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Willamette Valley and Puget Trough Section
Section Code: 242A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Marine Regime Mountains
Province Name: Cascade Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M242 Occurrence Status: Possible
Section Name: Oregon and Washington Coast Ranges Section
Section Code: M242A Occurrence Status: Possible
Domain Name: Dry Domain
Division Name: Temperate Steppe Regime Mountains
Province Name: Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe - Open Woodland - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M331 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Yellowstone Highlands Section
Section Code: M331A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Province Name: Northern Rocky Mountain Forest - Steppe - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M333 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Okanogan Highlands Section
Section Code: M333A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Flathead Valley Section
Section Code: M333B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Rockies Section
Section Code: M333C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: Dulichium arundinaceum may occur as a monoculture, but stands are sometimes moderately species-rich with Carex viridula ssp. viridula (= Carex oederi), Carex exsiccata, Carex aquatilis, Carex limosa, Carex lasiocarpa, Eleocharis palustris, Juncus arcticus ssp. littoralis (= Juncus balticus), Lycopus uniflorus, Mentha arvensis, Menyanthes trifoliata, Comarum palustre (= Potentilla palustris), Rhynchospora alba, Schoenoplectus subterminalis (= Scirpus subterminalis), and/or Utricularia macrorhiza (= Utricularia vulgaris) present.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Dulichium arundinaceum G3 Graminoid Herb (field)  
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: The community occurs over fibrous peat or mineral soils in areas that are seasonally or permanently flooded with shallow water. In Idaho and Montana stands are typically present in fens and may occur on fixed or floating mats. West of the Cascades it occurs in freshwater marshes as well as in fens.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): M. Jankovsky-Jones
Element Description Edition Date: 26Nov1997
Element Description Author(s): M. Jankovsky-Jones
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Edition Date: 20Oct2000
NatureServe Conservation Status Factors Author(s): M. Jankovsky-Jones

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Bourgeron, P. S., and L. D. Engelking, editors. 1994. A preliminary vegetation classification of the western United States. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Western Heritage Task Force, Boulder, CO. 175 pp. plus appendix.

  • Bursik, R. J., and R. K. Moseley. 1995. Ecosystem conservation strategy for Idaho Panhandle peatlands. Cooperative project between Idaho Panhandle National Forests and Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Conservation Data Center, Boise. 28 pp. plus appendix.

  • Christy, J. A. 1993. Classification and catalog of native wetland plant communities in Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 63 pp.

  • Christy, J. A. 2001a. Low-elevation Sphagnum wetlands in western Oregon. Report to Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, Portland. 90 pp.

  • Christy, J. A. 2004. Native freshwater wetland plant associations of northwestern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Oregon State University, Portland, OR.

  • Christy, J. A., J. S. Kagan, and A. M. Wiedemann. 1998. Plant associations of the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area - Siuslaw National Forest, Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-09-98. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland, OR. 196 pp.

  • Crowe, E. A., B. L. Kovalchik, and M. J. Kerr. 2004. Riparian and wetland vegetation of central and eastern Oregon. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Institute for Natural Resources, Oregon State University, Portland. 473 pp. [http://oregonstate.edu/ornhic/ publications.html]

  • Hop, K., M. Reid, J. Dieck, S. Lubinski, and S. Cooper. 2007. U.S. Geological Survey-National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Program: Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, La Crosse, WI. 131 pp. plus Appendices A-L.

  • IDCDC [Idaho Conservation Data Center]. 2005. Wetland and riparian plant associations in Idaho. Idaho Conservation Data Center, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise. [http://fishandgame.idaho.gov/tech/CDC/ecology/wetland_riparian_assoc.cfm] (accessed 14 June 2005).

  • Jankovsky-Jones, M., S. K. Rust, and R. K. Moseley. 1999. Riparian reference areas in Idaho: A catalog of plant associations and conservation sites. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-20. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT. 141 pp.

  • Kagan, J. S., J. A. Christy, M. P. Murray, and J. A. Titus. 2004. Classification of native vegetation of Oregon. January 2004. Oregon Natural Heritage Information Center, Portland. 52 pp.

  • Kunze, L. M. 1994. Preliminary classification of native, low elevation, freshwater wetland vegetation in western Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Natural Heritage Program. 120 pp.

  • MTNHP [Montana Natural Heritage Program]. 2002b. List of ecological communities for Montana. Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, Helena, MT.

  • McCain, C., and J. A. Christy. 2005. Field guide to riparian plant communities in northwestern Oregon. Technical Paper R6-NR-ECOL-TP-01-05. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region, Portland. 357 pp.

  • Pierce, J. R. 1986. Wetland community types of west-central Montana. Unpublished draft report prepared for the USDA Forest Service, Region One, Missoula, MT. 57 pp.

  • Reid, M. S., S. V. Cooper, and G. Kittel. 2004. Vegetation classification of Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. Final report for USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping Program, International Peace Park Mapping Project. NatureServe, Arlington VA.

  • Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. Evens. 2009. A manual of California vegetation. Second edition. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento CA. 1300 pp.

  • Titus, J. H., and J. A. Christy. 1996a. Vegetation of Big Marsh, Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. Report to Deschutes National Forest. Oregon Natural Heritage Program, The Nature Conservancy, Portland.

  • WNDD [Wyoming Natural Diversity Database]. No date. Unpublished data on file. Wyoming Natural Diversity Database, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY.

  • WNHP [Washington Natural Heritage Program]. 2018. Unpublished data files. Washington Natural Heritage Program, Department of Natural Resources, Olympia, WA.

  • Western Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boulder, CO.


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