NatureServe Explorer logo.An Online Encyclopedia of Life
Search
Ecological Association Comprehensive Report: Record 1 of 1 selected.
See All Search Results    View Glossary
<< Previous | Next >>

Acer rubrum / Rhododendron viscosum - Clethra alnifolia Swamp Forest
Translated Name: Red Maple / Swamp Azalea - Coastal Sweet-pepperbush Swamp Forest
Common Name: Lower New England Red Maple Swamp Forest
Unique Identifier: CEGL006156
Classification Approach: International Vegetation Classification (IVC)
Summary: This red maple swamp occurs in poorly drained depressions containing acidic, tannic water without substantial nutrient input from overland flow. The core of distribution is the North Atlantic Coast and adjacent Lower New England / Northern Piedmont ecoregions. Soils are organic and hummock-hollow microtopography is evident. Acer rubrum dominates the canopy often with abundant Nyssa sylvatica. The subcanopy varies from sparse to fairly well-developed and may feature Ulmus americana or occasionally Quercus bicolor, along with additional Acer rubrum. The shrub layer is characterized by Vaccinium corymbosum, Clethra alnifolia, Ilex verticillata, Rhododendron viscosum, Leucothoe racemosa, and on the Atlantic Coastal Plain Ilex glabra may also be present. The herbaceous layer is not particularly diverse, characterized by Osmunda cinnamomea, Symplocarpus foetidus, Carex intumescens, Osmunda regalis, Arisaema triphyllum, and Onoclea sensibilis. Sphagnum mosses make up the bryophyte layer. This community is differentiated from Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Betula alleghaniensis / Sphagnum spp. Swamp Forest (CEGL006014) by the absence or infrequent occurrence of Tsuga canadensis, Betula alleghaniensis, Nemopanthus mucronatus, Carex trisperma, Clintonia borealis, and by the presence of species with more southern affinities such as Clethra alnifolia, Ilex glabra, and Rhododendron viscosum.



Classification

Classification Confidence: Moderate

Vegetation Hierarchy
Class 1 - Forest & Woodland
Subclass 1.B - Temperate & Boreal Forest & Woodland
Formation 1.B.3 - Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Division 1.B.3.Na - Eastern North American-Great Plains Flooded & Swamp Forest
Macrogroup Central Hardwood Swamp Forest
Group Central Appalachian-Northeast Acidic Swamp
Alliance Red Maple - Blackgum Swamp Forest

This is the revised vegetation hierarchy. For more information see Classification Sources and usnvc.org.

Similar Associations
Unique Identifier Name
CEGL006014 Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica - Betula alleghaniensis / Sphagnum spp. Swamp Forest
CEGL006119 Acer rubrum / Carex stricta - Onoclea sensibilis Wet Woodland
CEGL006220 Acer rubrum / Ilex mucronata - Vaccinium corymbosum Swamp Forest
CEGL006395 Acer rubrum / Alnus incana - Ilex verticillata / Osmunda regalis Woodland
CEGL006406 Acer rubrum - Fraxinus (pennsylvanica, americana) / Lindera benzoin / Symplocarpus foetidus Swamp Forest



Related Concepts from Other Classifications

Related Subnational Community Units
These data are subject to substantial ongoing revision and may be out of date for some states.
In the U.S., contact the state Heritage Program for the most complete and up-to-date information at: http://www.natureserve.org/natureserve-network.
Information from programs in other jurisdictions will be posted when they are made available.
Subnation Concept Name Relationship to Standard Confidence Reference
Connecticut Acer rubrum / Ilex verticillata - Vaccinium corymbosum community Broader   Metzler and Barrett 2001
Massachusetts Red Maple Swamp Broader   Swain and Kearsley 2001
New Hampshire Sweet pepperbush wooded fen Intersects   Sperduto and Nichols 2004
New Jersey Inland red maple swamp Broader   Breden 1989
New York Red maple-blackgum swamp Equivalent   Edinger et al. 2002
Rhode Island Red Maple Swamp Broader   Enser 1999


Other Related Concepts
Related Concept Name: Acer rubrum - Nyssa sylvatica / Clethra alnifolia community
Relationship: = - Equivalent
Reference: Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 1996. Vegetation classification for Connecticut organized into the modified UNESCO hierarchy. Unpublished review draft. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database. Hartford, CT. 48 pp.
Related Concept Name: Red Maple - (Black Gum) Swamp (AN3)
Relationship: F - Finer
Reference: Windisch, A .G. 2014a. Pinelands ecological communities and higher level groups with crosswalk / proposed 2008 revisions to NVC. November 16, 2014 draft. New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Trenton.

Ecological Systems Placement

Ecological Systems Placement
Ecological System Unique ID Ecological System Name
CES202.604 North-Central Appalachian Acidic Swamp
CES203.302 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Maritime Forest
CES203.522 Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain Basin Peat Swamp


NatureServe Conservation Status
Global Status: GNR (01Dec1997)
Rounded Global Status: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Distribution
Color legend for Distribution Map
United States Distribution: CT, MA, NH, NJ, NY, RI
Global Distribution: United States
Global Range: The core of distribution of this association is the North Atlantic Coast and adjacent Lower New England / Northern Piedmont ecoregions. It ranges from New Hampshire south to New Jersey.

U.S. Forest Service Ecoregions
Domain Name: Humid Temperate Domain
Division Name: Warm Continental Division
Province Name: Laurentian Mixed Forest Province
Province Code: 212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Section
Section Code: 212F Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Hot Continental Division
Province Name: Eastern Broadleaf Forest (Oceanic) Province
Province Code: 221 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Lower New England Section
Section Code: 221A Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Hudson Valley Section
Section Code: 221B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Northern Appalachian Piedmont Section
Section Code: 221D Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Division Name: Warm Continental Regime Mountains
Province Name: Adirondack-New England Mixed Forest - Coniferous Forest - Alpine Meadow Province
Province Code: M212 Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Vermont-New Hampshire Upland Section
Section Code: M212B Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Green, Taconic, Berkshire Mountain Section
Section Code: M212C Occurrence Status: Confident or certain
Section Name: Catskill Mountain Section
Section Code: M212E Occurrence Status: Confident or certain


Vegetation

Vegetation Summary: This type includes red maple basin swamp of Lower New England and adjacent areas. These swamps occur in poorly drained depressions characterized by acidic, tannic water that does not receive substantial nutrient input from overland flow or groundwater seepage. Acer rubrum dominates the canopy. Other common species that generally occur in low abundance include Betula alleghaniensis, Fraxinus spp., Ulmus americana, Nyssa sylvatica, Tsuga canadensis, or Pinus strobus. The shrub layer is well-developed and often dense. Vaccinium corymbosum and Ilex verticillata are common and abundant. Clethra alnifolia, Alnus incana, Lindera benzoin, Viburnum dentatum, Viburnum nudum var. cassinoides (= Viburnum cassinoides), Spiraea alba var. latifolia (= Spiraea latifolia), Rosa palustris, Nemopanthus mucronatus, and Rhododendron viscosum are frequent but less abundant, and on the Atlantic Coastal Plain Ilex glabra, Rhododendron maximum, and Leucothoe racemosa may also be present. The herbaceous layer has scattered herbs and commonly includes Osmunda cinnamomea, Symplocarpus foetidus, Veratrum viride, Thelypteris palustris, Dryopteris cristata, Lycopus uniflorus, Impatiens capensis, Calla palustris, Carex folliculata, Carex stricta, Carex intumescens, Osmunda regalis, and Onoclea sensibilis. Hummock-and-hollow microtopography is evident, and tree seedlings and upland species occur on the hummocks, such as Coptis trifolia, Aralia nudicaulis, Trientalis borealis, and Gaultheria procumbens. Sphagnum mosses are dominant or abundant in hollows and at the bases of hummocks.

Vegetation Composition (incomplete)
Species Name Rounded Global Status Growth Form Stratum Charact-
eristic
Dominant Constant
Cover Class %
Con-
stancy
%
Acer rubrum GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree canopy  
 
 
Betula alleghaniensis GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Quercus bicolor GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Ulmus americana GNR Broad-leaved deciduous tree Tree subcanopy    
 
 
Ilex verticillata GNR Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Vaccinium corymbosum GNR Broad-leaved deciduous shrub Shrub/sapling (tall & short)  
 
 
Symplocarpus foetidus GNR Flowering forb Herb (field)    
 
 
Osmunda cinnamomea GNR Fern (Spore-bearing forb) Herb (field)    
 
 


Environmental Setting

Wetland Indicator: Y
Environmental Summary: These are poorly drained basins with acidic, nutrient-poor, peat soils. There is little overland flow or groundwater contribution to the water budget.


Dynamic Processes


Plot Sampling & Classification Analysis

Plots stored in VegBank


Authors/Contributors
Concept Author(s): K. Metzler and J. Barrett (1996)
Element Description Edition Date: 08Dec2005
Element Description Author(s): S.L. Neid and L.A. Sneddon

Ecological data developed by NatureServe and its network of natural heritage programs (see Local Programs) and other contributors and cooperators (see Sources).


References
  • Breden, T. F. 1989. A preliminary natural community classification for New Jersey. Pages 157-191 in: E. F. Karlin, editor. New Jersey's rare and endangered plants and animals. Institute for Environmental Studies, Ramapo College, Mahwah, NJ. 280 pp.

  • Breden, T. F., Y. R. Alger, K. S. Walz, and A. G. Windisch. 2001. Classification of vegetation communities of New Jersey: Second iteration. Association for Biodiversity Information and New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Office of Natural Lands Management, Division of Parks and Forestry, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton.

  • Dowhan, J. J., and R. Rozsa. 1989. Flora of Fire Island, Suffolk Country, New York. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 116:265-282.

  • Eastern Ecology Working Group of NatureServe. No date. International Ecological Classification Standard: International Vegetation Classification. Terrestrial Vegetation. NatureServe, Boston, MA.

  • Edinger, G. J., D. J. Evans, S. Gebauer, T. G. Howard, D. M. Hunt, and A. M. Olivero, editors. 2014a. Ecological communities of New York state. Second edition. A revised and expanded edition of Carol Reschke's ecological communities of New York state. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

  • Enser, R. W., and J. A. Lundgren. 2006. Natural communities of Rhode Island. A joint project of the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management Natural Heritage Program and The Nature Conservancy of Rhode Island. Rhode Island Natural History Survey, Kingston. 40 pp. [www.rinhs.org]

  • Gawler, S. C., R. E. Zaremba, and Cogan Technology, Inc. 2017. Vegetation mapping inventory project: Minute Man National Historical Park, Massachusetts. Natural Resource Report NPS/MIMA/NRR--2017/1450. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Golet, F. C., A. J. K. Calhoun, W. R. DeRagon, D. J. Lowry, and A. J. Gold. 1993. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated Northeast: A community profile. USDI Fish & Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 151 pp.

  • Hopping, R. 2000. Property Profile (World's End). The Trustees of Reservations. Beverly, MA.

  • Klopfer, S. D., A. Olivero, L. Sneddon, and J. Lundgren. 2002. Final report of the NPS Vegetation Mapping Project at Fire Island National Seashore. Conservation Management Institute, GIS & Remote Sensing Division, College of Natural Resources, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA. 193 pp.

  • Largay, E. F., and L. A. Sneddon. 2017. Vegetation mapping and classification of Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2017/1529. National Park Service, Fort Collins, CO.

  • Metzler, K. J., J. P. Barrett, T. E. Nosal, W. A. Millinor, and L. A. Sneddon. 2009. Vegetation classification and mapping at Weir Farm National Historic Site, Connecticut. Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2008/130. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 128 pp.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 1996. Vegetation classification for Connecticut organized into the modified UNESCO hierarchy. Unpublished review draft. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database. Hartford, CT. 48 pp.

  • Metzler, K., and J. Barrett. 2006. The vegetation of Connecticut: A preliminary classification. State Geological and Natural History Survey, Report of Investigations No. 12. Connecticut Natural Diversity Database, Hartford, CT.

  • Reschke, C. 1990. Ecological communities of New York State. New York Natural Heritage Program, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Latham, NY. 96 pp.

  • Sneddon, L. A., Zaremba, R. E., and M. Adams. 2010. Vegetation classification and mapping at Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. Natural Resources Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2010/147. National Park Service, Philadelphia, PA. 481 pp. [http://biology.usgs.gov/npsveg/caco/cacorpt.pdf]

  • Sperduto, D. D., and W. F. Nichols. 2004. Natural communities of New Hampshire: A guide and classification. New Hampshire Natural Heritage Bureau, DRED Division of Forests and Lands, Concord. 242 pp.

  • Swain, P. C., and J. B. Kearsley. 2014. Classification of the natural communities of Massachusetts. Version 2.0. Natural Heritage & Endangered Species Program, Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife. Westborough, MA. [http://www.mass.gov/nhesp/http://www.mass.gov/eea/agencies/dfg/dfw/natural-heritage/natural-communities/classification-of-natural-communities.html]

  • Thompson, E., and J. Jenkins. 1992. Summary of field data from Minuteman National Park plant communities study. A report prepared under a contract with the Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program for the National Park Service. 39 pp.

  • Windisch, A .G. 2014a. Pinelands ecological communities and higher level groups with crosswalk / proposed 2008 revisions to NVC. November 16, 2014 draft. New Jersey Natural Heritage Program, Trenton.


Use Guidelines and Citation

The Small Print: Trademark, Copyright, Citation Guidelines, Restrictions on Use, and Information Disclaimer.

Note: All species and ecological community data presented in NatureServe Explorer at http://explorer.natureserve.org were updated to be current with NatureServe's central databases as of March 2019.
Note: This report was printed on

Trademark Notice: "NatureServe", NatureServe Explorer, The NatureServe logo, and all other names of NatureServe programs referenced herein are trademarks of NatureServe. Any other product or company names mentioned herein are the trademarks of their respective owners.

Copyright Notice: Copyright © 2019 NatureServe, 2511 Richmond (Jefferson Davis) Highway, Suite 930, Arlington, VA 22202, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. Each document delivered from this server or web site may contain other proprietary notices and copyright information relating to that document. The following citation should be used in any published materials which reference the web site.

Citation for data on website including State Distribution, Watershed, and Reptile Range maps:
NatureServe. 2019. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed:

Citation for Bird Range Maps of North America:
Ridgely, R.S., T.F. Allnutt, T. Brooks, D.K. McNicol, D.W. Mehlman, B.E. Young, and J.R. Zook. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Bird Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Robert Ridgely, James Zook, The Nature Conservancy - Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International - CABS, World Wildlife Fund - US, and Environment Canada - WILDSPACE."

Citation for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
Patterson, B.D., G. Ceballos, W. Sechrest, M.F. Tognelli, T. Brooks, L. Luna, P. Ortega, I. Salazar, and B.E. Young. 2003. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere, version 1.0. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Mammal Range Maps of North America:
"Data provided by NatureServe in collaboration with Bruce Patterson, Wes Sechrest, Marcelo Tognelli, Gerardo Ceballos, The Nature Conservancy-Migratory Bird Program, Conservation International-CABS, World Wildlife Fund-US, and Environment Canada-WILDSPACE."

Citation for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2004. Global Amphibian Assessment. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, Washington, DC and Arlington, Virginia, USA.

Acknowledgement Statement for Amphibian Range Maps of the Western Hemisphere:
"Data developed as part of the Global Amphibian Assessment and provided by IUCN-World Conservation Union, Conservation International and NatureServe."

NOTE: Full metadata for the Bird Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/birdDistributionmapsmetadatav1.pdf.

Full metadata for the Mammal Range Maps of North America is available at:
http://www.natureserve.org/library/mammalsDistributionmetadatav1.pdf.

Restrictions on Use: Permission to use, copy and distribute documents delivered from this server is hereby granted under the following conditions:
  1. The above copyright notice must appear in all copies;
  2. Any use of the documents available from this server must be for informational purposes only and in no instance for commercial purposes;
  3. Some data may be downloaded to files and altered in format for analytical purposes, however the data should still be referenced using the citation above;
  4. No graphics available from this server can be used, copied or distributed separate from the accompanying text. Any rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by NatureServe. Nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring by implication, estoppel, or otherwise any license or right under any trademark of NatureServe. No trademark owned by NatureServe may be used in advertising or promotion pertaining to the distribution of documents delivered from this server without specific advance permission from NatureServe. Except as expressly provided above, nothing contained herein shall be construed as conferring any license or right under any NatureServe copyright.
Information Warranty Disclaimer: All documents and related graphics provided by this server and any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server are provided "as is" without warranty as to the currentness, completeness, or accuracy of any specific data. NatureServe hereby disclaims all warranties and conditions with regard to any documents provided by this server or any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, including but not limited to all implied warranties and conditions of merchantibility, fitness for a particular purpose, and non-infringement. NatureServe makes no representations about the suitability of the information delivered from this server or any other documents that are referenced to or linked to this server. In no event shall NatureServe be liable for any special, indirect, incidental, consequential damages, or for damages of any kind arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information contained in any documents provided by this server or in any other documents which are referenced by or linked to this server, under any theory of liability used. NatureServe may update or make changes to the documents provided by this server at any time without notice; however, NatureServe makes no commitment to update the information contained herein. Since the data in the central databases are continually being updated, it is advisable to refresh data retrieved at least once a year after its receipt. The data provided is for planning, assessment, and informational purposes. Site specific projects or activities should be reviewed for potential environmental impacts with appropriate regulatory agencies. If ground-disturbing activities are proposed on a site, the appropriate state natural heritage program(s) or conservation data center can be contacted for a site-specific review of the project area (see Visit Local Programs).

Feedback Request: NatureServe encourages users to let us know of any errors or significant omissions that you find in the data through (see Contact Us). Your comments will be very valuable in improving the overall quality of our databases for the benefit of all users.

Copyright 2019
NatureServe
Version 7.1 (2 February 2009)
Data last updated: March 2019